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in matter or in mind, it is still a mind of confined views, the other miracle. Yet man, inheriting such a possessing a powerful intellect which nature, by the first act of disobedi- commands a wide extent of prospect ence, incurs infinite guilt, and falls into the past and future, it would under the sentence of condemnation be universally felt and acknowledged, to infinite misery. It may be re- that the guilt of the one as much explied, that, because the inability is ceeds that of the other, as his mind a moral inability, the sentence is not is more powerful, and his view unjust; and if the moral impotence more comprehensive than his comwere acquired there would be reason panion's. This feeling put in the in the reply, but it is hereditary and terms of a general proposition, may not acquired ; and we must subvert be thus expressed; the action being our notions of justice altogether be the same the degrees of guilt in the fore we can acknowledge responsi- agents are in the direct ratio of their bility to be the same in both cases. powers of mind; if greater, greater ; Still I am told that the sentence is and if less, less; if finite, finite; and just, because I have lost the pure if infinite, infinite. But since there nature which I received from my exists but one infinite mind, and every Maker: but this is an assertion con. crcated mind is finite, the highest trary to fact; I cannot have lost what degree of guilt which can be incurred I never possessed. Adam may have by the highest intellect must fall possessed a different nature before short, and infinitely short, of infinite his fall; but because it was his nature guilt. Infinite punishment, therefore, it is not therefore mine, unless we are or punishment infinitely prolonged, identical, especially as it ceased to be cannot be just, unless it be no inhis before he became my progenitor. justice to make the measure of punishMy nature is that constitution of ment to exceed infinitely that of the mind and body which I received guilt. The Calvinistic system of from my Maker, and which gives the doctrines is built upon the supposition sole measure of my responsibility: of infinite guilt, whence it inters the
Sdly. It is essential to punitive justice of eternal punishment, and the justice that the measure of punish- necessity of an infinite satisfaction. ment be in proportion to the degree To me therefore it appears that the of guilt. No considerations whether foundation is sand, and that the system of philosophy or policy can sophisti- which stands upon it, though it has cate our moral feelings into a per- stood for centuries, must fall at last; suasion, that it is just to punish all of- a ruin which shall be contemplated fences equally by making the punish- in distant ages with fear and wonder. ment of every otl'ence extreme. The
J. M. laws of Draco were written in blood, Partington, near Warrington, 14 Dee. but they have never been cited as a Sie,
1814. model of justice. It is right that T UNDERSTAND you are in the there be a gradation in punishment Whabit of inserting in your Repository as well as in guilt. The only mode every increase to the cause of Unitari. in which a creature can be made to anism. I think you should be as suffer infinitely is by protracting lis particular in relating every loss whicla suffering without end; and the only the Unitarians experience. But from case in which this can be just is that your known impartiality I conceive in which iufiuite guilt has beeu con- the fault is not in you, but in your tracted; and if this can be shewn to over zealous Unitarian Correspond. be an impossible case, it will follow ents who wishing to make their cause that intinite punishment can never be appcar more flourihing than it really just. It is admitted, that there is a is, send you an account of the gains degree of mental imbecility, which only and not of the losses of their sinks below moral responsibility; that party. the same criminal action incurs dife In your last month's Repository (ix. ferent degrees of guilt before and after 719-720.) you mention a new Unitarian the maturity of mental powers; and chapel, being opened at Altringham, that suppose two men, accomplices on Thursday, September 8. It appears in a crime, with an indentity of all that soon after this event a great and circumstances, the difference of men- blessed change must have been tal power forming the only difference wrought in the minds of some of the between them, one having a feeble principal persons concerned in the
erection of the chapel at Altringham. ing; on such a day Mr. Such-a-one For on the 6th of November follow- was condemned to pay to the King ing, the persons above alluded to, being a fine of two hundred pounds and to trustees to the chapel in this place be imprisoned in Newgate for the lately occupied by an Unitarian space of two years for writing a minister, and having a legal right to book called “Ecce Homo". appoint to the situation, chose an
You must have seen too, I suppose, erangefical minister, of the Calvinistic the speeches of Mr. Whitbread and persuasion, in opposition to a young others about the Spanis! Inquisition, man proposed by the Unitarian trus- and have noticed the universal silence tees of Warrington, and therefore about the English one. flspected of being tinctured with the I can hardly tell which of these Unitarian heresy. But this, Sir, is circumstances appears to me most not the only triumph which the shocking, nor am I going to express to friends of orthodoxy expect from the you my deep detestation and horror happy and glorious change produced at such proceedings, for that is imon the persons above alluded to. They possible. Also, I do not wish to give are some of the leading persons in the occasion for refusing the insertion of Altringham and Hale congregations, this. and the leading trustees at Cross But what I wish you to notice is, Street Chapel in this neighbourhood, the cruelty and baseness, the detestand we may therefore anticipate that able cowardice, while things are in when these places become vacant, this situation, of writing defences of gospel ininisters will be introduced the Christian Religion, of challenging into all the three situations. I trust its adversaries, provoking them to the to your impartiality for the insertion combat, when it is known the more of this letter, and am,
strong and unanswerable their arguSir, Your obedient servani, ments may be, the more certain will A Friend to the real Gospel of Jesus be their personal ruin. Christ.
The only reply that I can think of,
and I hope and believe that Unitarians Sir,
Bristol, Dec. 1814. generally are able to make it, is, that DERHAPS you have heard the they are not more approvers than finding ani unarmed enemy, present- this will not be sufficient, since, (not ed him with one of his pistols, saying, to mention that they make no exer* Now let us fight fair"!
tions to remedy this case, por to Nor can you be ignorant, if you notice Mr. Smith's declaration, that would, nor insensible of the contrary as Christians, they have no further nature of the Christian's address to toleration to wish for,) the charge of his supposed enemy, the infidel; he cowardice cannot be got over whilst first binds his hands behind his back, they continue to provoke their fetter'd threatens him with fine, tortures, antagonists. imprisonment and perhaps death if I am sure that any man of a free he utters a syllable, thrusts a great gag and generous spirit must scorn such in his mouth, and then exclaims conduct when seen
in this light, " now let as hear what you have to which I'till better informed, shall say"!
continue to think the true one. And don't tell us that this conduct
Sir, Your obedient servant, is contrary to the precepts and spirit
THOMAS. of Christianity: what? my Lord Ellenborough, Lord Erskine, Sir Natural Arguments for a Future Vicary Gibbs, and Sir William Gar
State. row, are undoubtedly christians ! you Fwe admit the beliefof an infinitely cannot deny it, or if you should, you will not be behieved, for we know presiding over the universe and superthem by their fruits.
intending the affairs of his creatures, CHION. we must, I think, see reason to supi
pose that this life is not intended as the Trowbridge, Dec. 9, 1814. termination of our existence, Inde YOU
such an account as the follow. hats been pleased to bestow on inanVOL. X.
Pray of the English shifor, wthe parties in such transactions out even
kind, in which we are assured in the itself in its most horrid forms, rather most express terms of the resurrection than commit the smallest deviation of the dead, and of a future state of from what they beliered to be the retribution; independently I say of will of their creator. In the case of this revelation, there are many ap- Jesus Christ, of the Apostles and pedrances in the present system which primitive Christians, as well as of inseem strongly to countenance the hope numerable others of the best and wis. of futurity.
est of men in all ages since, we see If we consider the powers of the hu- such examples of disinterested piety, man mind, and the situation and cir- virtue and benevolence, and such cumstances of man, we must clearly fcarless sacrifices in the cause of truth perceive that his present limited sphere and integrity, as it seems impossible of existence can never afford sufficient to suppose can be intended to go withexercise for those noble faculties of out an appropriate and distinguished mind which give him such a distin- reward. And as we have seen in fact guished superiority over the lower or that their portion here consisted of ders of creatures. Is it not then highly little more than a life of suffering, terreasonable to suppose that those powers minated in a violent and a painful death, have been conferred on him in order it seems perfectly agreeable to all our to qualify him for a much higher ideas of the wisdom, justice and goodsphere of action than is at present al- ness of the Creator to suppose that at lotted to bim? Of all the various some future period, they will not only tribes of beings wlrich inhabit this be restored to existence, but will be lower world, man alone seems capa- placed in circumstances suited to their ble of becoming a subject of moral distinguished excellence and merit. discipline, and of being made ac. For can we for a moment suppose quainted with the attributes, will that the worthiest, the most amiable, and perfections of his Creator ; and and the most truly valuable of human does not this peculiar trait, this cha- characters were formed, only that they racteristic feature of the human mind, might pass through this life, in a state strongly indicatesome striking peculia. of the most extreme suffering, and rity in our ultimate destination ? All then to be for ever buried in obother beings appear to answer the end livion, and no further notice taken of for which they were created; they attain those highest instances of virtue their utmost perfection in a short space which would have reflected honour of time. Man alone is in a state of on superior beings? The desire of continual progression, without ever immortality has been evidently imbeing able to arrive at the summit. planted in the human breast by the Is it not then highly reasonable to Creator of all things; is it not then suppose that in some future period of the highest reflection both on his “his existence, his faculties also shall wisdom and goodness to imagine that have room to expand themselves, and he should have afforded such hopes that a degree of light and knowledge to the wisest and best of men only shall be poured in upon him, suitable in order to deceive them into acts of to his exalted capacity?
il virtue so exceedingly painful to themThis argument will acquire a much selves, and which in this case do not greater degree of force, if we consider appear to be of the least utility to the the case of those exalted characters world? who, from a principle of love to their That Almighty Being who at first
Creator, and of the purest benevo- called us into existence, who has 1. 'fence and good-will to their fellow- given us bodies fearfully and wonder
crcatures, have devoted their time, fully made ; and who has adapted their talents and their property to every part of our frame with the most the promotion of those objects which consummate wisdom and the most they conceived to be the mostremi- exquisite skill to the purposes for nently subservient to the welfare and which they were designed, who has improvement of the whole human bestowed on us powers of mind whererace: and this, not only without the by we are made capable of admiring Jerst prospect of any remuneration in and imitating his divine perfections; the present state, but often at the haars this same almighty power, we cannot zard of every thing dear to them in doubt to be equally competent to rei fe, and have even encountered death store the existence, he at first be
stowed, at any time, and in any way, winter's cold, if not a direct argument, which to his infinite wisdom shall is surely caleulated to suggest a hope seem fittest and best ;' and surely it that such may be the case with respect is much more agreeable to all our to ourselvesdi The warmth of the natural ideas of the divine benignity, spring no sooner returns, than wę as well as wisdon, to suppose that behold myriads of living creatures he will do so, than to imagine that starting into activity and enjoyment, after baring trained up his rational which before lay motionless without offspring in habits of piety and vir- any appearance of life or sensation. tue, by the hopes of immortality The trees which of late had the apwhich he has implanted in them, he pearance of dry sticks of wood, now should afterwards leave them to pe. put forth their leaves,' are adorned rish in the grave, and their memory with blossoms and loaded with fruit. to be blotted out from the creation. Plants and vegetables are everywhere The higher we advance in intellec- springing up, of which perhaps a tual and moral attainments, the short time before we could hardly stronger in general is our desire of a have discovered the least traces. Can future existence beyond the grave; we then behold these glorious inand this alone seems a very consider stuces of the divine wisdom and beable argument in favour of its reality. nignity so strikingly displayed in the All the other propensities of our na- renovation of the lower orders of nature have objects suited to their gra- ture, and not be tempted to exclaim tification; we cannot then suppose in the beautiful and emphatic lanthat “the noblest want which na- guage of an elegant poet, ture knows to raise," the most ex. Shall I be left abandoned in the dust, alted and animating hope that can
When fate relenting lets the flowers reenter into the mind of man, that hope vive ? which is the main spring of every Shall nature's voice to man alone unjust, thing great, good and amiable in Bid him, though doomed to perish, hope the human character, and without to live? which we should be hut little supe- Is it for this fair virtue oft must strive rior to the brute creation; we
With disappointment, penury and pain?-not, I say, form the supposition that No; Heaven's immortal spring shall yet
arrive, this hope alone should have been destined by the Creator of all things Bright throʻ th' eternal year of love's tri
And man's majestic beauty bloom again, to perish in eternal oblivion.
umphant reign. The many pleasing analogies of a future state which are furnished by the contemplation of nature cannot
1 Neroport, Isle of Wight. but be highly gratifying to the serious In the memoirs of the generous and contemplative mind." The won- and independent Mr. Hollis, it is rederful changes which many of the lated that during his visit to Nainsect tribe" are destined to undergo; ples in 1751, having received infor from the state of a crawling, grove- mation from his steward, that one of ling reptile, intent upon nothing but the livings in his gift was likely to gratifying the sensual appetites," it become vacant, he took occasion to exgradually decays, sickens, and spins press his opinion respecting the quaitself a tomb, in which it wraps itselflifications which every clergynan of up, and remains without the least ap- the Establishment should possess, in pearance of motion or animation; but order properly to discharge the duafter a while it bursts the enclosure, ties required of him in the pastoral and breaks forth with new life and office. These qualifications appearing beauty, with powers of action and to me no less reasobable than necesenjoyment unknown before; and from sary, I am induced to submit to you a crawling reptile on the earth be an extract from one of Mr. 'Hollis's comes a winged inhabitant of the air. ] tters. What a beautiful and striking emblem « First, that his morals be irredoes this afford of our owri revival at proachable ; secondly, that he be of some future period! The revivifying efna mild and tractable disposition ; bect of spring both on the animal and thirdly, that he be moderately learned; vegetable creation, after the torpor and fourthly, that he be uydoubtedly á dexth-like inactivity bocasioned by the Whig in its mostextensive sense, that is,
an advocate for the civil and religious natural rights of mankind, and pro-
that the living of .
is of con“ You know the living of .... siderable value, and may be deemed
...a year; this income, to a very fair and ample provision for my idea, is a sufficient, nay, a hand- any one clergy man, without any adsome and ample provision for a cler- ditional preferment; and also that gyman, and may, if I may so say, the parish there, being of large excommand a good one.
tent, may well demand all the care This being the case, 1 sball expect and application of any one man; upon of the person, whom I shall present, these considerations I do think it my the following things: First, that he duty, and it is my sincere resolution, resigns all other livings that he may that if you shall vouchsafe tu present have, and content himself with this me thereto, immediately to quit the alone ; secondly, that he shall reside living of ...... which I now enupou the living, and constantly serve joy, and that part of the cure of . it himself, except in case of sickness; in which I am now engaged; thirdly, that he shall promise before and to apply myself wholly and solely his being presented, verbally upon to the care of the parish of . bis honour, in the presence of some and if at any time hereafter I should people of character, and in writing think fit to accept of any other prebv a letter to me, that if at any time ferment that may offer, then upon the hereafter he shall choose to accept same considerations immediately to any other living, sinecure, or church resign the living of ... so that preferment, in that case he will di- another person may be presented to it. rectly resign back the living of—-". It is, Sir, my further resolution,
I will venture to give you one other and I think it my duty, upon the moextract from a letter written to Mr. tives aforesaid, if ever it shall happen Hollis by one offering himself as a that I am settled in so large and excandidate for the living before men- tensive a cure as that of
....... to tioned; the sentiments it contains are keep a constant residence upon it, alike honourable to the patron and the and personally to attend the service writer, and deserve a more general of the church therein as long as it diffusion.
shall please God to enable me so to July Sist, 1754. do. And that I might be niore fully “ As I am sensible, Sir, it would be at liberty to attend so great a charge, the highest presumption in any one I would engage myself in no other to offer himself to you on such an oc offices or employments whatever, casion, whose principles and notions whether ecclesiastical or civil; uor in were such as you could not approve any school whether in my house or of, I would beg leave, therefore, here elsewhere; nor in receiving any sort to declare, that as to my political sen- of persons into my family as boarders, timents, I am an entire friend to the
or in any other way which might be liberties of my country, upon the thought in the least inconsistent with, principles of the last happy Revolu- or an hinderance to the duties of my tion; and do believe, that the exer- function to which I should think it cise of arbitrary and tyrannical power my duty entirely to devote myself." in a state is an infringement of the I will only udd, that on the death