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year was elected scholar. In 1774, vate letter, to the writer of this short
he was admitted to his degree of memoir.-" I shall never again (said
B. A. which he obtained with credit le) be able to read through an octavo
to his College and himself, and was volume; and I have several times the
elected Fellow in 1775, and proceed- last winter seriously thought my
ed M. A. IN 1777. In 1793, he was death was not far distant. Perhaps,
elected colleuse-preacher, and, in No- if the ensuing summer be a favoura-
vember, 1797, was advanced into the ble one, I may rally a little; if not,
Seniority. He was ordained deacon, I shall despair, and expect to depart,
March 3d, 1776, in Park-strect Cha- without either feeling or occasioning
pel, Westminster, by Dr Philip a prodigious quantity of regret." For
Young, then Bishop of Norwich; some short time he had complained
and afterwards entered on the cura- of an asthina, and on the Saturday
cies of Nowton and Great Welna preceding his death, was attack-
tham, in the neighbourhood of Bu- ed with an inflammation on the
ry. On June 15th, 1777, he was lungs and breast. He continued till
ordained priest in Trinity College the morning of the following Thurg-
Chapel, by Dr. Hinchliffe, then day, June 24th, 1802, when he de-
Bishop of Peterborough and Master parted this life, in the 50th year of
of the College. But in the course of his age; and was buried in the chan-
his studying the scriptures, he was cel of Nowton Church, on Tuesday
led to distinguish between the re- the 29th, with all the privacy con-
vealed word of God, and the accu- sistent with customary decency,
mulated and heterogeneous doctrines which he enjoined his executors to
and commandments of men. He se- observe.
riously considered and weighed the Mr. Garnham was well qualified,
respect which was severally due to from his store of general learning,
divine and human authority; and the and from his excellent judgment, to
unqualified assent which every offi- have shone in the most distinguished
cial repetition of the public service society; but his natural temper dis-
of the church not only implied, but posed him to retirement from the bu-
was understood to express. It was sy hum of men. He was, therefore,
not, however, till after the coolest generally reserved in mixed and nu-
deliberation, and most entire con- merous companies ; but he greatly
viction, that he determined never to enjoyed the social intercourse of ra-
repeat his subscription to the thirty. tional and liberal minds. With his
nine articles for any preferment which select and confidential friends, he was
he might become entitled to from the unrestrained in his communications;
college patronage, or which might nor was he less confidential in any
be offered to him from any other trust reposed in him, than he was
quarter. Agreeably to and consis- devoted to support every profession
tently with this state of mind, he re- of friendship. His attainments, taste,
sigued, at Midsummer, 1789, the and success in biblical criticism, and
curacies in which he was then en- generally in classical literature, as
gaged, and resolved thenceforward also his acumen in theological con-
to decline officiating in the ministry, troversy, may be satisfactorily ascer-
Mr. Garnham's health was never ro- tained by a reference to his writings.
bust, and during the last five or six These were, indeed, anonymous ;
years of his life he suffered much but the means of access to them will
from sickness, which prevented his be made easy by the subjoined ca.
residing at Cambridge, after the death talogue: and, if an ardour for truth,
of his father, in 1798, and indisposed acuteness of discernment, soundness
and disqualified him from pursuing of juilgment, and clearness of reason-
his former application to his studies. ing,-if freedom of inquiry, conducted
His indisposition and infirmities con- with a happy mixture of wit and
tinued to increase, and, in the sum- argument, where the subject or oc-
mer of 1801, be evidently appeared. casion admitted, can

recommend to be much broken. He was long theological literature, his writings sensible of his generally declining will be read and respected wherever health ; and so lately as the 4th of they are known. His private corresMay, a few weeks before his death, pondence was peculiarly marked by he expressed this sentiment, in a pris accurate observations on the signs of

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the times, and happy delineations of by him to the Clergy of his diocese ; characters which have variously fi- comprehendling also a vindication of gured in his day, and whose move the late Bishop Hordly, 1790. ments came within his own know. 4. Review of Dr. Hay's Serinon, ledge, or were of unquestioned pub- intitled “ Thoughts on the Athanalic notoriety.

sian Creed,” preached April 19th, His benevolence was best known 1790, at the visitation of the Archto his more intimate friends, and deacon of Bucks, 1790. nothing but his death releases the 5. Outline of a Commentary on hand which writes this short memoir Revelations xi. 1---14. 1794. from the restriction of private confi. 6. A Sermon preached in the chadence on this particular subject. It pel of Trinity College, Cambridge, was in the course of our unreserved on Thursday, Dec. 19th, 1793, the correspondence, immediately after day appointed for the commemoration the failure of a bank, at Bury, in of the benefactors to that society, 1794. 1799, which involved his father and himself in no inconsiderable loss, that ESSAYS," SIGNED SYNERGUS. he wrote, in reply to what I had 1. Vol. I. 1786. Art. V. p. 94--proposed to him on that occasion. .. 111. A Paraphrase and Notes on

“But it will not be in my Romans v. 8---18. 2. Art. XI, p. power to accept the very friendly 467---509. Observations on part of invitation, till after the next dividend. the 8th, 11th, and 12th chapters of Upon the bankruptcy taking place, Daniel. I determined, if possible, not to fail 3. Vol. II. 1801. Art. XIII. p. l--in any one of the little douceurs 1 8. An Illustration of i Cor. x. 14--was in the habit of bestowing in the 24. 4. Art. XIX. p. 123---252. A Sumeleemosynary way, to a few persons mary View of the Prophecies relating with whose necessities I am acquaint- to Antichrist, contained in the wried; and as it is impossible to lose tings of Daniel, Paul, Peter, Jude, the best part of a year's income, with and John. 5. Art. XX. p. 253--267. out making retrenchments somewhere, On the Forensic Metaphors adopted I was prompt in deciding that the in the New Testament. 6. Art. XXI. abridgment should be in personal p. 268--- 278. On the terms Redemp. gratifications; of which the greatest tion, Rausom, Purchase, &c, adopted I certainly esteem that of presenting in the New Testament. 7. Art. XXII. myself before my London friends." P. 279---311., On the Sacrificial -See Monthly Magazine, Vol. xiv. Plırases adopted in the New TestaPp. 89, 199.

ment. CATALOGUE OF HIS WRITINGS. No. 1. Examination of Mr. liar

POSITORY." rison's Sermon, preached in the ca- 1. Vol. V. 1786, p. 39---56, signed thedral church of St. Paul, London, Ereunites. Observations on Isaiah before the Lord Mayor, on May 25th, vii. 10---23. viii. 5---19," 2, . 973--1788---1789.

988. Observations on various Texts 2. Letter to the Right Rev. the of Scripture, signed Ereineter. Bishop of Norwich, (Dr. Bagot) re- 3. Vol. VI. 1788, p. 60---78. signed questing him to name the Prelate to Breunetes. On the Oblation of Isaac, whom he referred as contending as figurative of the Death of Christ. strenuously for the general excel- 1. p. 133---174, signed Illinta. On bence of our present authoriseri trans- the Elijah scretold bv Malachi, 5. lation of the Bible," 1789.

p. 14---081, signed Idiota. An In3. Letter to the Right per the quiry into the Time at which the Bishop of Chester, (Dr. Clever) on Kingdom of Heaven will commence. the subject of two Sermons askeased

J. D.




The Fathers.

be pretty fairly estimated; that, what(From Edinburgh Review, Nov. 1814, ever reverence might still be due to No. 47. Vol. xxiv. pp. 58-68. Review those eininent men, for the sectity of Boyd's Translations.]

of their lives, their laborious lncuE had thought that the merits brations, their zeal and intrepidity in

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solemo and imposing lights, in which tinguished them through the whole their nearness to the rising sun of history of theological controversy :Christianity places them; yet, that the same authors, the same passages the time of their authority over con- have been quoted with equal confiscience and opinion was gone by; dence, by Arians and Athanasians, that they were no longer to be re- Jesuits and Jansenists, Transubstangarded as guides either in faith or in tiators and Typifiers. Nor is it only morals ; and that we should be quite the dull and bigoted who have had within the pale of orthodoxy in say. recourse to these self-refuted authori. ing that, though admirable martyrs ties for their purpose ; we often find and saints, they were, after all, but the same anxiety for their support, indifferent Christians. In point of the same disposition to account them, style, too, we had supposed that cri- as Chillingworth says, “Fathers when ticism was no longer dazzled by their for, and children when against,' in sanctity; that few would now agree quarters where a greater degree of with the learned jésuit, Garasse, that good sense and fairness might be exa chapter of St. Augustine on the Tri- pected. Even Middleton himself, nity is worth all the Odes of Pindar; who makes so light of the opinions of that, in short, they had taken their the fathers, in his learned and manly due rapk among those affected and inquiry into miracles, yet courts their rhetorical writers, who flourished in sanction with much assiduity for his the decline of ancient terature, and favourite system of allegorizing the were now, like many worthy authors Mosaic history of the creation ; a we could mention, very much re- point on which, of all others, their spected and never read.

alliance is most dangerous, as there is We had supposed all this ; but we no subject upon which their Pagan find we were mistaken. An eminent imaginations have rioted more ungodignitary of the Church of England vernably. has lately shewn that in his opinion The errors of the primitive doctors at least, these veterans are hy no of the church; their Christian heameans invalided in the warfare of thenism and heathen Christianity, theology; for he has brought more which led them to look for the Tri. than seventy volumes of them into nity among those shadowy forms the Beld against the Calvinists. And that peopled the twilight groves of the here is Mr. Boyd, a gentleman of academy, and to array the meek, much Greek, who assures us that the self-humbling Christian in the proud Homilies of St. Chrysostom, the Ora- and iron armour of the Portico; their tions of St. Gregory Nazianzen, and bigoted rejection of the most obvious -proh pudor !—the Amours of Daph. truths in natural science; the bewilnis and Chloe are models of elo- dering vibration of their moral docquence, atticism, and fine writing. trines, never resting between the ex

Mr. Boyd has certainly chosen the tremes of laxity and rigour; their safer, as well as pleasanter path, credulity, their inconsistencies of through the neglected field of learn- conduct and opinion, and worst of ing; for, tasteless as the metaphors all, their forgeries and falsehoods, of the fathers are in general, they are have already been so often and so much more innocent and digestible ably exposed by divines of all counthan their arguments; as the learned tries, religions and sects; the Dubishop we have just alluded to may, pins, Mosheims, Middletons, Clarkes, perhaps, by this time acknowledge; Jortins, &c. that it seems superfluous having found, we suspect, that his to add another line upon the subject: seventy folios are, like elephants in though we are not quite sure that, in battle, not only ponderous, but dans the present state of Europe, a dis. gerous auxiliaries, which, when once cussion of the merits of the fathers is let loose, may be at least as formida- not as seasonable and even fashionable ble to friends as to foes. This, indeed, a topic as we could select.. At a has always been a characteristic of time when the Inquisition is re-estathe writings of the fathers. This am- blished by our beloved Ferdinand; bidextrous faculty—this sort of Swiss when the Pope again brandishes thé versatility in fighting equally well on keys of St. Peter with an air worthy both sides of the question, has dis- of a successor of the Hildebrands and

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Perettis; when canonization is about Sylphs and Gnomes, and that, perto be inflicted on another Louis, and haps, at this moment, we might have little silver models of embryo princes wanted Pope's most excellent Poem, are gravely vowed at the shrine of if the Septuagint Version had transthe virgin : in times like these it is not lated the book of Genesis correctly. too much to expect that such enligli- This doctrine, as far as it concerned tened authors as St. Jerome and Ter- angelic natures, was at length indig. tullian may soon become the classics nantly disavowed by St. Chrysostom. of most of the continental courts. We But dæmons were much too useful a shall therefore make no further apo. race to be so easily surrendered to logy, for prefacing our remarks upon reasoning or ridicule; there was no Nr. Boyd's translation with a few getting up a decent miracle without brief and desultory notices of some of them, exorcists would have been out the most distinguished fathers and of employ, and saints at a loss for their works.

temptation :--- Accordingly, the wriSt. Justin, the martyr, is usually tings of these holy doctors abound considered as the well-spring of most with such stories of dæmoniacal posof those strange errors which flowed session, as make us alternately smile so abundantly through the early ages at their weakness, and blush for their of the Church, and spread around dishonesty. Nor are they chargeable them in their course such luxuriance only with the impostures of their own of absurdity. The most amiable, and times; the sanction they gave to this therefore the least contagious of bis petty diabolism has made them re. heterodoxies, was that which led sponsible for whole centuries of jughim to patronize the souls of Socrates gling. Indeed, whoever is anxious to and other Pagans, in consideration of contemplate a picture of human folly those glimmerings of the divine Lo- and human knavery, at the same gos which his fancy discovered through time ludicrous and melancholy, may the dark night of heathenism. The find it in a history of the exploits absurd part of this opinion remained, of dæmons, from the days of the while its tolerant spirit evaporated. Fathers down to modern

times; And while these Pagans were still al- from about the date of that theatrical lowed to have known something of little devil of Tertullian, (su triumthe Trinity, they were yet damned phantly referred to by Jeremy Colfor not knowing more, with most un- lier), who claimed a right to take relentiog orthodoxy.

possession of a woman in the theatre The belief of an intercourse be- 1" because he there found her on his tween angels and women, founded own ground”), to the gallant dæmons upon a false version of a text in Ge commemorated by Bodin and Reminesis

, and of an abundant progeny of gius, and such tragical farces as the demons in consequence, is one of possession of the Nuns of Loudon. those monstrous notions of St. Justin, The same features of craft and duand other fathers, which show how pery are discoverable through the little they had yet purged off the whole from beginning to end ; and grossness of heathen mythology, and when we have read of that miracuin how many respects their heaven was lous persou, Gregory Thaumaturgus, but Olynıpus with other names :--

writing a familiar epistle to Satan, Yet we can hardly be angry with and then turn to the story of the them for this crror, when we recol- young Nun, in Bodin, in whose box lect

, that possibly to their enamoured was found a love-letter • a son cher angels we owe the beautiful world of dæmon,' we need not ask more per

fect specimens of the two wretched

extremes of imposture and credulity, • Still more benevolent was Origen': than these two very different letterderer-to-be-forgiven dissent from the doc- writers afford. trine of eternal damnation. To this ámiable weakness, more than any thing else,

The only class of dæmons whose loss this father seems to have owed the forfeiture we regret, and whose visitations we of his rauk in the Calendar; and in re would gladly have restored to us, are dura for his anxiety to rescue the human those . seducing sprites, who, race from hell, he has been sent thither Theophilus of Antioch tells us, himself by more than one Catholic Theolo- fessed themselves to be the same that

had inspired the heathen poets.' The

as COD

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learned Father has not favoured us aimed at life itself; the strange doce with any particulars of these interest. trine of St. Augustine, that the Saints ing spirits; has said nothing of the are the only lawful proprietors of the ample wings of fire, which, we doubt things of this world, and that the not, the dæmons of Homer and Pindar wicked have no right whatever to spread out, nor described the laugh- their possessions, however human ing eyes of Horace's Familiar, nor even laws may decree to the contrary; the pointed tail of the short devil of the indecencies in which too many of Martial; but we own we should

d like them have indulged in their writings ; to see such cases of possession in our the profane frivolity of Tertullian, in days; and though we Reviewers are making God himself prescribe the a kind of exorcists, employed to cast length and measure of women's veils, out the eivil dæmon of scribbling, and in a special revelation to some ecstatic even pride ourselves upon having per- spinster; and the moral indignation formed some notable cures; from such with which Clemens Alexandrinus demoniacs we would refrain with re- inveighs against white bread, periverence; nay, so anxiously dread the wigs, coloured stuffs and lap-dogs ! escape of the spirit, that, for fear of all these, and many more such puerile accidents, we would not suffer a saint and pernicious absurdities open a wide to come near them.

field of weedy fancies, for ridicule to The belief of a millenium or temporal skim, and good sense to trample upon: reign of Christ, during which the ---But we must content ourselves with faithful were to be iudulged in all sorts referring to the works that have been of sensual gratifications, may be written upon this subject; particureckoned among those gross errors, larly to the treatise de la Morale des for which weither the porch nor the Pères' of Barbeyrac; which, thougha academy are accountable, but which as dull and tiresome as could reasonagrew up in the rank soil of oriental fa- bly be expected from the joint efforts naticism, and were nursed into doc- of the Fathers of the Church and a trines of Christianity by the Fathers. Law professor of Groningen, abun. comes from the East, its very worst these holy men are for the most part superstitions have sprung thence also; unnatural, fanatical and dangerous ; as in the same quarter of the heavens founded upon false interpretations of arises the sun-beam that gives life to holy writ, and the most gross and the flower, and the withering gale that anile ignorance of human nature ; and blasts it. There is scarcely one

of these that a community of Christians, formfantastic opinions of the Fathers that ed upon their plan, is the very Utomay not be traced among the fables pia of monkery, idleness and fanatiof the antient Persians and Arabians. cism. The voluptuous Jerusalem of St. Jus- Luckily, the impracticability of tin and Irenæus may be found in these wretched doctrines was in genethose glorious gardens of Iram, which ral a sufficient antidote to their miswere afterwards converted into the chief: But there were two maxims, Paradise of the Faithful by Mahomet; adopted and enforced by many of the and their enamoured • Sons of God Fathers, which deserve to be branded may be paralleled in the angels Harut with particular reprobation, not only and Marut of Eastern story, who, because they acted upon them contibewildered by the influence of wine rually themselves, to the disgrace of and beauty, forfeited their high ce- the holy cause in which they were lestial rank, and were degraded into engaged, but because they have transteachers of magic upon earth. The mitted their contamination to poste. mischievous absurdity of some of the rity, and left the features of Christianmoral doctrines of the Fathers ; the ity to this day disfigured by their state of apathy to which they would taint. The first of these maxims-we reduce their Gnostic or perfect Chris- give it in the words of Mosheim-was, tian; their condemnation of marriage that it is an act of virtue to deceive and their Monkish fancies about ce- and lie, when by such means the inlibacy; the extreme to which they terests of the church may be promotcarried their notions of patience, even ed.' To this profligate principle the to the prohibition of all resistance to world owes, not only the fables and aggression, though the aggressor furgeries of these primitive times, but

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