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It is finished. All that depended upon die, for us: a living man made the bim was finished before he died, and satisfaction, and, for aught that apsome time before he died he enjoyed pears, he might have continued to live calmness of mind: the wrath of God and his work been complete. And it was not therefore poured out upon behoves the popular teachers to deterhim on the cross, nor was the atone- mine what was the nature of Christ's mentor satisfaction made by his sufferings in the garden? Was he opdeath.

pressed by the consciousness of imWe may look at this matter in ano- puted guilt: then with what prother point of view. On the popular priety can it be said that he knew no scheme, all the efficacy of Christ's sin, since the propriety and efficacy death depends upon his divinity; but of his punishment must have consisted upon the same scheme, it was impos. in his knowledge or consciousness of sible that he should suffer : the Deity sin? Was he overwhelmed with the is unchangeable and impassible; and wrath of God: then God was angry even if a God could have suffered, all with him; and who was it at the suffering must have been light to him; same time that sent an angel to omnipotence is equal to itself and strengthen him. Consider the sufferer could easily have borne what omnipo- in the garden as God as well as man, tence could inflict. But in whatever and what a scene of contradiction strains the pseudo-orthodox may sing rises up to view! A divine person of a bleeding and dying God, they will praying, trembling, sinking! Opnot soberly reason in favour of so Pa. pressed by God, imploring the sym. gan a notion; and therefore, according pathy of the apostles, comforted by an to them it was only the man Christ angel ! Jesus that suffered and died, and if The writer to the Hebrews supthat death and those sufferings made poses that Christ's sufferings consisted the atonement and gave the satisfac- in the fear of death : * let those who tion, the whole work was accom- defend the common scheme of atoneplished by the much-vilified human ment explain how this fear was posnature. It is pleaded, I am aware, sible to one who was conscious of all that the union of the divinity with the strength of deity, and also how the the humanity, stamped an infinite shrinking from death is consistent value upon the sufferings of the latter; with the benevolence of Christ, if he but how idle to talk of an union be- knew both that no suffering could extween two natures, of which one was ceed or equal his infinite power, and agonized and torn in pieces, and the at the same time that upon his sufferother was at its ease and absolutely ing and death depended the salvation incapable of a painful sensation! of the human race, or a great part of

The popular preachers and poets them, from everlasting torments ? sometimes talk and write as if it were If the atonement were made neither the blood of Christ (physically so) hy his death nor his agony singly, it which satisfied and appeased the wrath would be difficult to prove that it was of God. There is no arguing against made by them both together; espemetaphors considered in any other cially since there is no necessary conlight than a metaphor, however, this nexion between them, but on the may be pronounced a foul and abomi- contrary they form two distinct scenes nable supposition.

in our Lord's history, marked by obFrom the actual death of Christ, viously different states of mind. the advocates of the doctrine of satis- Taking atonenient in the sense of faction will probably flee to the agony reconciliation, the true scriptural sense, in the garden; for we have seen that the idea of redemption or salvation is Christ did not die under the wruth of clear. Mankind were alienated from God, and that before he died all that God by wicked works, Jesus Christ depended upon him was finished: but if brought them back to their heavenly the atonement were made in the gar- Father by his example and commandden, it was made without death and ment of all righteousness. Vice and without blood.* On this supposition, iniquity wrought in reflecting minds Christ might suffer, but he did not a sense of guilt and fear, Jesus Christ

banished despair and inspired hope by * Luke's language [ch. xxii. 44, ) is “his sweat was as it were great drops of blood.”

Heb, v. 7.

point. To this may be added the &c. that have occasion to watch and
structure of the darkened cell, in way-lay their prey both by day and
which these curious humours lie, and night, and to look upwards and dowii-
into which the glories of the heavens wards in the act of climbing after
and the earth are brought and ex- their food or to avoid danger.
quisitely pictured, which cell is per- With respect to the means adapted
fectly adapted, by means of its tex- to the protection of this curious organ
ture, aperture and colour to guard off we may quote the words of Cicero
from without, all useless and noxious De naturá Deorum. “ The eyelids,"
rays, and within it is extremely well says this philosopher, “which are the
coated with a dark tegument, that it coverings of the eyes, are soft to the
may not reflect, dissipate, or any way touch that they may not hurt the
confuse or disturb the beneficial rays. sight, and are fitted both for veiling
According to Descartes, this black, and opening the pupils with the great-
ness is intended to obscure the rays est celerity. They are defended by
which are reflected from the bottom the eye-lashes, as by a palisade which
of the eye to its fore-part, and which prevents any thing from falling into
would otherwise be thrown back again them while the eyes are open; and
upon the bottom, and thus occasion closing together in sleep, the eye is
a confused vision. Another reason at rest under their covering. They
has been assigned for this colour, viz. are likewise most admirably placed
that the superfluous rays which pro- under shelter, and are guarded on all
ceed from lateral objects may be ab- sides by more prominent parts. The
sorbed. Hence illuminated objects are upper eye-lids covered by the eye-
best seen from a dark station, because brows are screened from the perspi-
the rays proceeding from them are ration falling down from the forehead;
not obliterated by circumambjent the under eye-lids are defended by the
light.

Cheek-bones which rise higher than
It has been observed by the honour their surface. It is remarkable also,
able Mr. Boyle and by others who that the hairs of the eye-lashes grow
have discoursed on the wisdom and only to a certain length, and never
goodness of the Almighty from the stand in need of cutting like the hair
structure of the human frame, that as on the head : again, their points stand
we are under the necessity of using completely out of the way: those in
optic glasses, so nature, meaning by the upper lid bend upwards, while
the term, the God of nature, has made those in the lower lid 'decline down.
a far more complete provision in the wards. From these circumstances,
eyes of animals, to shut out too much, we may learn how critically exact
and to admit sufficient light, by the the great Author of Nature has been
dilatation and contraction of the pupil; in even the least and most trivial cou-
and it may be farther noted that these veniences belongiog to every part of
pupils are in different animals of dif- the animal frame. Did our plan ad-
ferent forms according to their pecu. mit of figures we would farther shew
liar occasions. In some, particularly the curious structure and lodgment of
in man, it is round, that being the the muscle which is used in opening
most proper figure for the position of the eye-lids, and of another, or circu-
our eyes, and the uses we make of cular one, used in closing them, and
them on all occasions. In some ani. we would gladly point out the nice
mals it is oblong, and large, as in the apparatus of glands that keep the eye
cow, sheep, borse, &c. which is an moist, and serve for tears, and other
admirable provision for such creatures circumstances which anatomists have
to see the better laterally, and thereby noticed with wonder and delight.
avoid those things that might offend
them. In other animals the figure of Some Account of Cheynell's
the pupil is erect, and also capable of
opening wide and shutting up close.

Growth and Danger of Socinian. The latter of which serves to exclude

isme." the brighter light of day, and the for

(Continued from p. 83.) mer to take in the more faint rays Chapter 1. of this curious pamthinly scattered about in the night, phlet is entitled, “Of the Rise of $owhich is an admirable provision for cinianisme." Cheynell attributes this those anim:ls, as the cat, suirrel, malignant heresy to “ the spirit of an.

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and has no connexion of itself with At the same time that the sense of the opposite extremities, where the feeling instructs the eye with regard body which is the object of vision is to the images of objects, it exercises situated. Philosophers have hence it also in the art of estimating their been led to suspect that there existed position in space, their size, and their some intermediate agent, serving to distance; and when this distance exconnect the impressions produced by reeds that to which the motion of the the rays which bodies send to the eve, hand extends, we supply the defect with the modifications of those bodies by another exercise, which consists themselves. They imagine that touch, in approaching towards the object till or the sense of feeling is in some way we touch it, and then receding from or other instrumental in instructing it again; and by the extent of these the eye and enabling us to correct the contrary movements we ascertain its errors into which we should be led distance with a degree of accuracy hy this organ when left to itself. This quite sufficient for all common purhas been explained after the following poses. When the object exceeds the manner, by M. Condillac, in his compass of our ordinary movements, “ Traité des Sensations."

the proportions we are accustomed to Our first lessons are derived from remark serve as rules by which to the various motions which the hand apply to more remote objects the im. makes that has its own image in the pressions that are made upon us; but bottom of the eye. Wbile in turris it as the distance increases, circumstances approaches nearer to or withdraws become less favourable to such applifarther from this organ, it teaches us cations, and beyond a certain limit to refer to a greater or less distance objects present themselves more or less to one place than to another, the im- under a deceitful appearance, and we pression that is produced on the retina, are led into that kind of errors called from the knowledge we have of the optical delusions. position of the hand, and of the direc- Having given this brief account of tion and extent of every movement the manner, or supposed manner of which it makes. While one hand vision, we shall proceed to observe, passes over the other, it conveys, in that we cannot contemplate the struca manner, over its surface, the colour lure and uses of this organ without of which the impression is in the eye; admiration of the power, the wisdom, it circumscribes this colour within its and the goodness of the Creator, eslimits, and excites in the mind the pecially when we consider the prodirepresent:tion of a body shaped in gious exactness, and exquisite skill such a manner. Afterwards when employed in every part, adminisiering we touch different objects the hand to this noble and necessary organ, To directs the eye over the several parts pass over the arteries and veins, and of each of them, and renders the ar- other parts that are common to the rangement and respective positions rest of the body, let us reflect on its rensible to it. It acts incessantly with several muscles, which are placed, so regard to the eye, by means of the as to be adapted not only to every rays of light, as if it held one extrem- possible motion of the eye, but cach is ity of a stick, of which the other end endowed with such an exact degree of tonched the bottom of the eye, and strength, as to cause the most perfect guided this stick in succession over equilibration, by which all contorevery part of the object. It seems tions of the eye are prevented, and it even to inform the eye that the point can with the utmost readiness apply it touches is the extremity of the ray itself to every object. Again, the tu which strikes that organ ; and thus nies or coats are so admirably seated, while it runs over the surface of the and of so firm a texture, as to fit every object, it seems to pronounce its true place, to answer every occasion, and form. When once the eyes are in- to be proof against all common inconstructed, the experience they have veniences and annoyances, In the huarquired enables them to do without mours also, we find all the requisite the help of touch, and the resence clearness and transparency, for an alone of objects occasions the return casy admission of the rays of light, of the same sensatious when the rays well placed for refracting them, and proceeding from those objects make formed, by the nicest laws of oplice, similar impressions on the organ,

to collect the wandering rays into a

VOL. X.

point. To this may be added the &c. that have occasion to watch and structure of the darkened cell, in way-lay their prey both by day and which these curious humours lie, and night, and to look upwards and downinto which the glories of the heavens wards in the act of climbing after and the earth are brought and ex- their food or to avoid danger. quisitely pictured, which cell is per- With respect to the means adapted fectly adapted, by means of its tex- to the protection of this curious organ ture, aperture and colour to guard off we may quote the words of Cicero from without, all useless and noxious De naturá Deorum.“ The eyelids," rays, and within it is extremely well says this philosopher, “which are the coated with a dark tegument, that it coverings of the eyes, are soft to the may not reflect, dissipate, or any way touch that they may not hurt the confuse or disturb the beneficial rays. sight, and are fitted both for veiling Accordiug to Descartes, this black, and opening the pupils with the greatness is intended to obscure the rays est celerity. They are defended by which are reflected from the bottom the eye-lashes, as by a palisade which of the eye to its fore-part, and which prevents any thing from falling into would otherwise be thrown back again them while the eyes are open; and upon the bottom, and thus occasion closing together in sleep, the eye is a confused vision. Another reason at rest under their covering. They has been assigned for this colour, viz. are likewise most admirably placed that the superfluous rays which pro- under shelter, and are guarded on all ceed from lateral objects may be ab- sides by more prominent parts. The sorbed. Hence illuminated objects are upper eye-lids covered by the eyebest seen from a dark station, because brows are screened from the perspithe rays proceeding from them are ration falling down from the forehead; not obliterated by circumambjent the under eye-lids are defended by the light.

cheek-bones which rise higher than It has been observed by the honour- their surface." It is remarkable also, able Mr. Boyle and by others who that the hairs of the eye-lashes grow fiave discoursed on the wisdom and only to a certain length, and never goodness of the Almighty from the stand in need of cutting like the hair structure of the human frame, that as on the head : again, their points stand we are under the necessity of using completely out of the way: those in optic glasses, so nature, meaning by the upper lid bend upwards, while the term, the God of nature, has made those in the lower lid 'decline downa far more complete provision in the wards. From there circumstances, eyes of animals, to shut out too much, we may learn how critically exact and to admit sufficient light, by the the great Author of Nature has been dilatation and contraction of the pupil; in even the least and most trivial conand it may be farther noted that these veniences belongiog to every part of pupils are in different animals of dif- the animal frame. Did our plan ad. ferent forms according to their pecu. mit of figures we would farther shew liar occasions. In some, particularly the curious structure and lodgment of in man, it is round, that being the the muscle which is used in opening most proper figure for the position of the eye-lids, and of another, or circu. our eyes, and the uses we make of cular one, used in closing them, and them on all occasions. In some ani. we would gladly point out the nice mals it is oblong, and large, as in the apparatus of glands that keep the eye cow, sheep, borse, &c. which is an moist, and serve for tears, and other admirable provision for such creatures circumstances which anatomists hase to see the better laterally, and thereby noticed with wonder and delight. avoid those things that might offend them. In other animals the figure of Some Account of Cheynell's Rise, the pupil is erect, and also capable of opening wide and shutting up close.

Growth and Danger of Socinian. The latter of which serves to exclude

isme." the brighter light of day, and the for

(Continued from p. 83.) mer to take in the more faint rays Chapter 1. of this curious pamthinly scattered about in the night, phlet is entitled, “Of the Rise of Sowhich is an admirable provision forcinianisme." Cheynell attributes this those anim:als, as the cat, squirrel, malignant heresy to “tbe spirit of an. tichrist," which even in the apostles' notice of him ;" and "as for Servetus.'' time led “ Cerinthius and Ebion to he adds, “ I will not staine my paper blaspheme Christ." The divine, who with his blasphemies.” “It is much as one of the famous Assembly was questioned,” he allows,“ whether the empowered to determine the standard Senate of Geneva did not deale too of orthodoxy for nations and ages, was severely with him," but he quotes so little versed in ecclesiastical history Beza to shew that considering his heas to believe that the founder of the resy, his admonitions by Calvin and Ebionites was a teacher of the name others, and his obstinacy, he was put of Ebion. Ostorodus, whom he quotes to death most justly. Such was the in the following sentence, might have spirit of this member of the Assembly set him right, if he had been capable of divines who had a chief hand in of learning either truth or history, in settling the creed of our self-named what relates to “ Socinianisme :"- orthodox brethren of the present day! * Ostorodus would not have the name “ The Senate of Geneva," he further of Ebionites imposed upon the Socin. says, were in good hope by this exians, quia vox Ebon Hebraicè egenum emplary punishment upon Servetus significat. Præf. lust. pag. 10, 11; to crush this cockatrice's egg and kill it secmes they would not be counted the viper ; but for all this some under mean-conditioned men : and there are hand and others more boldly and im-. some indeed, and those no beggers pudently did seduce the people." (unlesse it be at court) who are too In the true temper of a persecutor, much addicted to Socinian fancies: Cheynell expatiates with savage joy and yet if that be true which Osto- on the melancholy history of Valenrodus cites out of Eusebius, that the tinus Gentilis, who was burnt for heEbionites were so called because they resy at Berne, in 1566 : 1 he even bad a mean and beggarly opinion of abuses the Papists because they had. Christ, sure the Socinians might be before this event forgiven and released well called Ebionites, for none have Gentilis, when he was in their power. baser and cheaper thoughts of Christ, He next pursues the two Socinuses than they.".

through several pages. Having quoted After specifying and stigmatizing a passage from the works of Faustias Arians, Photinians, Samosatenians, Socinus concerning his uncle Lælius, Eutychians, &c. down to “Sadducees, he says," I am at this great paines of Papists, Anabaptists, Schwenckefel- transcribing, because Socinian books dians, Antinomians," with all of whom are so deur, every man will not pay a the Socinians are represented as agree- groat a sheete, the price that I am ing in their worst heresies, Cheynell forced to, onely that I may declare the adds, “ But I must not in my haste truth,” Amongst “ the tricks and forget Abelairdus, or as Platina calls devices" of Faustus Socinus, he reckhim, Baliardus, as Bernard, Abai. ons this, that he “pretended, just as our. lardus, his name in our English translator here" (alluding to Mr. Webtongue may be Balard; he flourished berly) to be a Reformer of the Reabout the year 1140; he had a very formers, nay, of the Reformation itready discoursing wit, and is by some selfo." He describes a book of Socivoiced to be the first founder of nus's, which he confesses he never schoole-diviuity; whether he main- saw, as a pestilent one,“ in which he tained all those heresies which Ber- hath most cunningly vented his poinard layes to his charge I shall not son,” viz, De S. Scripturæ Authorinow stand to dispute, there is some tate, which, Cheynell goes on to say, cause of doubt; Abeilard lived to ~ Calovius tels us is one of his most make his apology, and if it was but subtile pieces, and seemes to be one an honest recantation, he hath made of his first Essayes : Dominicus Lopez some amends.".

a Jesuit, was so taken or mistaken Cheynell next takes notice of Pos- with it, as to print it in the yeare, tellus, though he says, he “ shall not 1588.” Dominicus Lopez is not the doe him so much honour as to take only Trinitarian who has been taken,

For an account of Abelard, see the * See an account of this murder, M. extract, p. 136, &c. from Turner's History Repos. iii. 309–312, in an article fure of England.

nished by the late Rev. S. Paliner.

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