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rents, are brought into existence with mankind. Their condition is the same a nature totally corrupt, and that, under the best of beings as it would with the exception of a chosen few, have been under the worst ! who without any claim to such a dis Much has been said respecting vintinction will be rendered eternally dictive justice as demanding the eterhappy, they will suffer the pains of nal punishment of sin. It would be hell for ever.

Unless, then, reason easy to prove that the expression vinwas given me in vain, I can confident. dictive justice is egregiously incorrect. ly conclude that either the divine Punishment when inflicted for some character is misrepresented or that object of utility is not vindictive, and this doctrine must be false. And the when it goes beyond this object it is justice of this conclusion will be easily uuiversally denominated cruelty. But established by the following mode of waving this, if any case can be imareasoning. God is infinitely powerful, gined which excludes the exercise of therefore he can do whatever is the vindictive justice, it is that of Adam's object of power.

God is infinitely helpless offspring. Born with a nawise, thererefore he will choose the ture totally depraved, they are no best ends, and pursue them by the more the proper subjects of vindictive best means.

God is infinitely good, punishment than those brute animals therefore he must have a satisfaction in whose natural propensities are savage the happiness of his creatures, and his and ferocious. measures must be calculated to pro My last observation respects the inmote it. Thus far our deductions are finite satisfaction which Jesus Christ clear and certain. But let us proceed. is supposed to have made to vindicGod is infinitely just, therefore he has tive justice for the sins of the elect. created a race of depraved beings, and To say nothing of the other absurdiwill punish them eternally for that, ties with which this notion abounds, which it was out of their power to if sin is an infinite evil in the case of avoid. God is infinitely holy, there- the individual, it might be objected fore he has decreed that his offspring that the death of Christ could only do should be unholy, that their eternal away the guilt of one sinner, and the sufferings may bear testimony to his rest must be pardoned gratuitously. holiness. Were ever premises and con. Should it on the other hand be said clusion so at variance!. Should it still that the combined guilt of a multibe said that we know not what jus- tude cannot add to that which is altice and holiness may demand in an ready infinite, it unquestionably follows infinite Being, not to reply that the that the death of Christ was, in itself infinity of an attribute cannot change considered, an equivalent for the sins its nature, this would only be saying of the whole world. Why,

then, is that holiness and justice when pre- it not accepted as such? The debt dicated of God may mean something is discharged, and yet the debtor different from what they mean in the not set free. What pameless attribute common use of language, in other of the Divine Nature is it which rewords, that God may have been im- mains thus inexorable, or how comes properly denominated just and holy. it to pass that a man should do more Upon the same principle, goodness in mischief than a God could repair ? God may mean something very dif I remain, Sir, your's, &c. ferent from the usual import of the

E. COGAN. term, and for any thing that we know to the contrary, it may be the very

SIR,

York, Feb. 1, 1S15. benevolence of his nature which has doomed the majority of his human the inquiry of V. M. in your Maga. offspring to eternal misery!

zine for Nov. last, (ix. 674.) respecting Before I dismiss the subject from my what may be my intention of extendpen, perhaps for ever, with your per- ing the plan pursued in “ The Life of mission I should be glad to make one Christ," through the Acts of the or two observations more.

A postles. The possession of many inGod is allowed to be infinitely good. valuable notes of my late busband's, But according to the system which I (for so I esteem them) on this as on am opposing no ray or trace of good- many other parts of the sacred wri. ness appears in the issue of his dis- tings, suggested the wish ; but it has pensations towards the majority of since been laid aside, partly from the

I

pressure of what appeared more im- writers. During the first century, the mediate duties, and partly from an propagation of our religion was entrustapprehension induced by the slow cir- ed to a higher agency than human abiculation of the former work, and the lities ; when Providence ceased to in. little notice it seems to have excited, terest itself so directly in its behalf, that the time was not yet come when the Christian scholar cultivated with his laborious researches in the exten- no ordinary success the powers of reasive field of scripture criticism, would son and the gifts of learning. The be justly appreciated.

second and third centuries are distinYour respectable correspondent will guished by a crowd of eminent wri-probably be glad to hear that another ters; never were dialectics more skilyolume of Mr. Cappe's sermons is fully employed, nor philosophy presspreparing for the press, which it is ed into a better service, nor eloquence my intention to dedicate to the young used with a more brilliant effect. Termen educated in the York College. tullian, though he camnot be classed The just, extensive and striking views with the best authors of the age of they every where exhibit of the di- the Antonines, possessed a rough, but vine goodness, and of human duty, of flowing eloquence, was well versed the hopes and fears, the important in- ' in the philosophy of the times, and terests and final expectations of ra. a master of its polite literature. In tional and accountable beings, may Minutius Felix he found a formidable operate, it is hoped, as a powerful rival, or a happy imitator. Arnobius stimulus, in aid of the able instruc- does not sink beneath the level of tion they are daily receiving from their their composition, and Cyprian rises excellent tutors, to the attainment of above it by the noblest efforts of clothat exemplary conduct ; that purity quence and learning. of heart and holiness of life, which is But it was in the fourth century, the best and only effectual recommen- when the language was almost lost in dation of more just and enlightened a corrupt and barbarous dialect, that principles.

the Christians proved its last and truest Since the first publication of “ The friends, and took a distiuguished lead Life of Christ,” I have had an Index in literary pursuits and philosophical printed of the passages and phrases of studies. The emperors wisely encouscripture explained or illustrated in raged a spirit of emulation amongst the notes, with reference to the page, them, founded schools, erected librabook, chapter and verse, and will ries, and lavished honours on the most send a few copies to Mr. David Eaton, eminent scholars. That they far exbookseller, High Holborn, request- celled their Pagan opponents has neing him to give a copy to any posses

ver been denied. Hilary of Poitiers sor of the volume as it was first cir- was an able and Auent writer, and culated, who may desire to have it. Lactantius has often been compared By an early insertion of the above, and once preferred to the first name you will much oblige, Sir,

in Latin eloquence. · St. Ambrose Your constant reader,

was a learned and powerful composer. CATHARINE CAPPE. To mention the name of St. Jerome

is to convey the idea of a laborious, The Fathers.

profound, animated, and eloquent au. E lately gave [p. 15–21] the thor. No one will dispute the merits

eloquent paper from the Edinburgh verus, the Christian Sallust, claims Review. Lest the young student equal commendation for the orthodoxy should be lulled into a neglect of these of his doctrine and the latinity of his writers by so peremptory and unfa- style. vourable a sentence, we here present Of these writers it is not too much him with a brief account of the Latin to say, that their labours were emiFathers, from a work of considerable nently serviceable at this period of merit, namely, An Introduction to the their exertion, and they have the meLiterary History of the Fourteenth rit of supporting the cause of learning and Fifteenth Centuries, (8vo. 1798.) to the very last moment that it was pp. 25-27.

tenable. With the civilians, the the. “ Nor was the cause of learning less ologians may claim the honour of conpowerfully supported by the Christian tributing to preserve the existence and

VOL. X.

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introduce the written use of Latin, Justin Martyr lived before the inafter it ceased to be a vernacular vention of the strange and contradice tongue, to the notice of Europe. The tory creeds which are now by the celebration of their ritual in that lan- great majority of believers held to guage was, perhaps, alone sufficient contain the essence of the Christian to keep its embers alive for a splendid faith: he had indeed imbibed those though a late revival.

ideas of Christ which were adopted

by the heathen converts, to raise the SIR

dignity of their suffering Master. The UR brethren who call them- man Christ Jesus was a stumbling

selves orthodox believers, are block to their pride; and accustomed fond of quoting the Fathers, whenever as they and their forefathers had been, they can find a passage in their wri- to “ Gods many and Lords many," tings which affords support to the it is not surprising that they should mysterious doctrines which they so fall into errors of this kind ; but from zealously espouse: but Justin Martyr, the evidence just produced, it is plain one of the earliest of these, would, if that Justin was so far from believing he had lived in our times, have been him to be God equal to, and in the found far indeed below the standard same sense with the Father, (an idea usually required ; and not rising with which at that time had probably never much apparent firmness, above the entered into the mind of man,) that he scantiest creed of the Unitarians. We was very doubtful whether he could are told by Thomas Emlyn, that this bring sufficient proof merely of his preFather“ disputing with a Jew, and existence and miraculous conception; pleading for the honour of Jesus and was anxious to persuade the Jew Christ, whom he calls a God by the whom he sought to convert, that these will of the Father, and one who mi- points had nothing to do with the main nistered to his will before his incar. question, whether Jesus was the Christ. nation : This person attempts to shew Happy would it be, if at least the that Jesus Christ did pre-exist of old, Protestants of the present day, would as a God (in his sense,) and was born lay aside the notion of the infallibility afterwards of the Virgin; but be. of their own creeds, and with the can. cause, as he says, there were some dour and meekness which characterwho confessed him to be Christ, and ize true Christianity, join with those yet denied those points of his pre-exis- who differ from them, in calmly intence and his miraculous birth of a vestigating the questions at issue bevirgin, that Father calmly says to his tween them ; owning that all are to adversary, •If I shall not demonstrate be commended, and not anathemathese things, that he did pre-exist, tized, for obeying the command of &c. and was born of a virgin; yet their Master, to “ search the scripstill the cause is not lost, as to his tures ;" and not take upon trust the being the Christ of God; if I do not dark, mysterious and contradictory prove that he did pre-exist, &c. it is doctrines, which cannot be laid before just to say that I am mistaken in this them in scripture language, and were thing only, and not to deny that he therefore only collected from thence is the Christ; for whosoever he be, by inference. I remain, Sir, it is every way demonstrated that he

Respectfully your's, is the Christ.' And as for those

M. H. Christians who denied the above-mentioned things, and held him to be only a man, boru in the ordinary SIR,

Feb. 10, 1815. way, he only says of them to whom

THILE reading Gibbon's Rome, I accord not.' those who differed from him, nor will iii. 8vo. p. 267, containing lines too dis

was struck with a note, Vol. say that the Christian religion is sub paraging to the first Christian Emperor verted, and Christ an impostor, and to render their insertion at all unaca broken reed to trust on, if he be countable. Their singularity induced not the very Supreme God, (the ranting dialect of our profane age!) po, will suhjoin with the original.

me to attempt a translation, which I but still he is sure that he is the truc Christ, whatever else he might be mis. “ Lors Constantin dit ces propres paroles : taken in.” Emlyn's Tracts.

J'ai renversé le culte des idoles ;

He does not damn WH

the

Sur les debris de leur temples fumans ferred to all the sects this day in Aa Dieu du Ciel J'ai prodigué l'encens Christendom, and which induced his Mais tous mes Soins pour sa grandeur su most serene Higliness, Anthony Ul. preme

ric, Duke of Brunswick and LunenNeurent jamais d'autre objết que moi

burg, to abjure Lutheranism, to which même.

are added Three valuable papers. Les saiuts autels n'etoient à mes regards Qu'un marchepie du trône des Césars.. Antwerp, printed in

year L'ambition, la fureur, les delices

MDCC.XLI.” 18mo. Pp. 108. Etoient mes Dieux, avoient mes sacrifices

The Abbe's copy I perceive is a LonL'or des Chrétiens, leurs intrigues, leur don edition, of 1798. Such a publicasaug

tion could not have been safely avowed, Ont cimenté ma fortune et mon rang." as printed in England, in 1741. Yet Says Constantine, at my imperial nod

as the copy in my possession has no Fall’n is the worship of each Pagan god;

resemblance, in type or arrangement, D'er ruin'd fanes where late their victims to an English book, from a foreign smok’d,

press, I apprehend Antwerp was placed My incense, spread, has heav'n's high ļord in the title page, that it might pass invok'd.

with less observation, and such disYet while his praise seems foremost in my guises were not uncommon. Respectview,

ing the author of the Fifty Reasons, 'Tis self-advancement only I pursue ; I quote the following account from His holy altar form’d a stepping-stone, · Rimius's Memoirs of the House of By which I reach'd the mighty Cæsars' Brunswick.” 4to. 1750.

throne. Ambition, luxury, pride and thirst of gain, ed his brother" as Duke of Brunswick

“ ANTHONY ULRIC, who succeedHold in my breast their undisputed reign. The Christians' blood their gold their dis- tural parts, which he had improved by

in 1704, was a prince of great nacontent, These still my fortune, rank and power ce. study and travelling. Several ingement.

nious works claim him for their auSevere as is the satire contained in thor. That entitled Aramena comthe above, it is to be feared that the prehends a history of such remarkable conduct of few even of the greatest thens about the time of the Patriarchs.

events as happened among the heaprinces, can be traced to much nobler motives than those to which Con. In it the manners and customs of the stantine is made to attribute his most ancients, with the virtues and vices of seeming virtuous" actions. Too cor

the great are represented in a most rect is the sentiment thus elegantly views the world as it were in minia.

lively style; and the reader, who there expressed by a modern poet,

ture, finds himself equally instructed Earth is sick

and delighted. The other work enAnd heav'n is weary of the hollow words

titled Octavia, contains the whole RoWhich states and kingdoms utter when they speak

man History, from the time of the Of truth and justice.

Emperor Claudius to Titus Vespasian,

interspersed, under names borrowed Gibbon wisely conceals the title and from the Romans, with several interauthor of a poem, which he remarks esting events that happened at the " may be read with pleasure, but con- German courts in the author's lifenot be named with decency." With time. much esteem, I am, Sir, your constant “ As he with his two brothers were

conspicuous for their abilities—pecuIGNOTA.

liar titles were bestowed upon them

by the learned world. The eldest Book-Worm. No. XIX. was called a most wise Divine, the SIR,

March 5, 1815. youngest a Profound Philosopher, and He first note to the Abbé Gre- Anthony Ulric, a great Mathemati

goire's interesting biography of cian. Amo, which you have translated p. “ In 1710 he went over to the Ro65, determines me to send you an ac man Catholics, after he had abided by count of the work there mentioned, the Protestant religion till the 76th which is entitled :—“ Fifty Reasons or year of his age. As soon as the thing Motives, why the Roman Catholic, came to be known, be assured his ProA postolic Religion, ought to be pre- testant subjects, by a public proclama

Reader,

THE

tion, that he would, by no means dis- to bear witness of the truth. He thus turb them in the exercise of their reli. piously and pathetically describes his gion, and punctually fulfilled his pro- vain pursuit. mise till the time of his death in 1714, “ Though for many years I had As he had long prepared for his last employed all the study, pains, and hour, so he met it with such an ex. diligence I was able, in ar. inquiry traordinary firmness and intrepidity, after the true religion and sanctifying as has induced authors, by tracts wrote faith, which I was sensible could be on purpose, to transmit the particu- but one, and this upon no other molars to posterity. "Mem. Pp. 352–354. tive than a concern for my eternal

“ The Translator's Preface" begins welfare, and a desire to know the with the just but happily common truth. I was yet in doubt out of so observations “ that neither the con- many religious and confessions, which cerns of this world, nor the principles it was that I ought to embrace. In of education, por a fear of displeasing the mean while, upon this design I vifriends, or of owning ourselves to have sited several universities, I turned over been in the wrong, ought to hinder whole libraries, I read the works of us from embracing truth, wheresoever innumerable authors as well CaGod is pleased, in his mercy to let us tholics, as others, that treated of our know it." After complaining that present controversies; I advised with " too many Christians" are “ biassed a great many doctors touching the by one or more of these unwarrantable diversity of sects and confessions; I motives, in contradiction to the dic- assisted at several public disputes tates both of reason and religion,” the upon these matters; I had private contranslator proceeds to describe it as versations with the heads of all opi“a first principle of the Reformation, nions, sects and confessions; I prothat every Christian is to gather the posed my doubts, not only to Catholics articles of his faith, not from the lips but likewise to their adversaries. In of his pastor, but from Scripture by a word, I tried all ways and means his private judymuent, that is to say, without being able to find out the by the industry of his own inquiries.” only thing I desired." P. v. Thus complimenting Protestantism He adds, “ but that this inquiry with a belief in such a just principle, might be to good effect and carry me he invites its professors to learn “from to the thing I aimed at --I made a this book, a short and casy method of strong resolution, by the grace of proceeding in this recessary search." God, to avoid sin, well kvowing that From such a search he thinks a Pro- wisdom will not enter into a corrupted testant would discover that the doc- soul nor dwell in a body subject to sin. trines of Luther and Calvin “ appear (Wisdom, i. 4.)- I renounced all on some occasions to be rather the manner of prejudice, which inclines suggestions of a seducing spirit, than men more to one religion than to anthe inspiration of the Holy Ghost," other.-In fine, I entered upon this and that “God never sent them to deliberation and this choice, in the reform the established doctrine of his manner I should wish to have done church.”

it, at the hour of my death." P. vii. Anthony Ulrie's sincerity in this The author concludes lois Preface, by change of his religion, is less to be stating “the priuciples agreed upon questioned than that of most princes, by all Christian societies." These he the inotto of whose religious profes- makes in number 13, excluding a sion has been too often the soldier's Trinity and Vicarious Atoneinent and creed, ibi fas ubi marima merces, that thus admitting Unitarians, as few is right which is most profitable. He Protestants would then have done, to begins his Preface by describing how a place among “ Christian Societies." anxiously, even to old age, he had The first consideration shews, that inquired for the true faith,

Anthony Ulric had been more sin. " And found no end, in wandering mazes cere than successful in his resolution lost."

to renounce all prejudice. He had And well might he thus bewilder him- surely satisfied himself with a parself, among Creeds and Catechisms, tial view of ecclesiastical history, when while he sought the true religion in he“ discovered the Roman persuaChristian sects and churches rather sion, such as he found and embraced thau at the Muster's fect, who was born it, all the world over and in all times,"

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