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Secretary as party to proceedings. (b) If such rate, charge, tariff, or practice complained of is one affecting the public interest, upon application by the Secretary, the Commission shall make the Secretary a party to the proceeding. In such case the Secretary shall have the rights of a party before the Commission and the rights of a party to invoke and pursue original and appellate judicial proceedings involving the Commission's determination. The liability of the Secretary in any such case shall extend only to liability for court costs.
Utilization of records, services, etc. of Department of Agriculture. (c) For the purposes of this section, the Interstate Commerce Commission is authorized to avail itself of the cooperation, records, services, and facilities of the Department of Agriculture.
Cooperation with complaining farm associations. (d) The Secretary is authorized to cooperate with and assist cooperative associations of farmers making complaint to the Interstate Commerce Commission with respect to rates, charges, tariffs, and practices relating to the transportation of farm products. (Feb. 16, 1938, Title II, sec. 201, 52 Stat. 36; 7 U. S. C., sec. 1291 (a) to (d).)
630_123. New uses and markets for commodities.
Regional research laboratories, establishment. (a) The Secretary is hereby authorized and directed to establish, equip, and maintain four regional research laboratories, one in each major farm producing area, and, at such laboratories, to conduct researches into and to develop new scientific, chemical, and technical uses and new and extended markets and outlets for farm commodities and products and byproducts thereof, Such research and development shall be devoted primarily to those farm commodities in which there are regular or seasonal surpluses, and their products and byproducts.
Acquisition of land for laboratories; donations. (b) For the purposes of subsection (a), the Secretary is authorized to acquire land and interests therein, and to accept in the name of the United States donations of any property, real or personal, to any laboratory established pursuant to this section, and to utilize voluntary or uncompensated services at such laboratories. Donations to any one of such laboratories shall not be available for use by any other of such laboratories.
Cooperation with governmental agencies, associations, etc. (c) In carrying out the purposes of subsection (a), the Secretary is authorized and directed to cooperate with other departments or agencies of the Federal Government, States, State agricultural experiment stations, and other State agencies and institutions, counties, municipalities, business or other organizations, corporations, associations, universities, scientific societies, and individuals, upon such terms and conditions as he may prescribe.
Appropriation for purposes of subsection (a). (d) To carry out the purposes of subsection (a), the Secretary is authorized to utilize in each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, a sum not to exceed $4,000,000 of the funds appropriated pursuant to section 391 of this Act, or section 15 of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended, for such fiscal year. The Secretary shall allocate one-fourth of such sum annually to each of the four laboratories established pursuant to this section.
Report to Congress. (e) The Secretary shall make a report to Congress at the beginning of each regular session of the activities of, expenditures by, and donations to the laboratories established pursuant to subsection (a).
Appropriation to Secretary of Commerce. (f) There is hereby allocated to the Secretary of Commerce for each fiscal year, beginning with the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, out of funds appropriated for such fiscal year pursuant to section 391 of this Act, or section 15 of the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act, as amended, the sum of $1,000,000 to be expended for the promotion of the sale of farm commodities and products thereof in such manner as he shall direct. Of the sum allocated under this subsection to the Secretary of Commerce for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1938, $100,000 shall be devoted to making a survey and investigation of the cause or causes of the reduction in exports of agricultural commodities from the United States, in order to ascertain methods by which the sales in foreign countries of basic agricultural commodities produced in the United States may be increased.
Duty of Secretary. (g) It shall be the duty of the Secretary to use available funds to stimulate and widen the use of all farm commodities in the United States and to increase in every practical way the flow of such commodities and the products thereof into the markets of the world. (Feb. 16, 1938, Title II, sec. 202, 52 Stat. 37; 7 U. S. C., sec. 1292 (a) to (g).)
630–124. Appropriation to encourage exportation and domestic consumption of agricultural products.-Section 32, as amended, of the Act entitled "An Act to amend the Agricultural Adjustment Act, and for other purposes”, approved August 24, 1935, is amended by striking out“: Provided further, That no part of the funds appropriated by this section shall be used for the payment of benefits in connection with the exportation of unmanufactured cotton”, and is further amended by adding at the end thereof the following: “Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, the amount that may be devoted, during any fiscal year after June 30, 1939, to any one agricultural commodity or the products thereof in such fiscal year, shall not exceed 25 per centum of the funds available under this section for such fiscal year.” (Aug. 24, 1935, sec. 32, 49 Stat. 774 as amended Feb. 29, 1936, sec. 2, 49 Stat. 1151; Feb. 16, 1938, sec. 203, 52 Stat. 38; June 30, 1939, Title I, 53 Stat. 975; 7 U. S. C., sec. 612c.) (See also par. this volume.)
630–125. Annual report of Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation.The Act entitled "An Act to extend the time for purchase and distribution of surplus agricultural commodities for relief purposes and to continue the Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation", approved June 28, 1937 (Public, Numbered 165, Seventy-fifth Congress), is amended by striking out "continued, until June 30, 1939," and inserting in lieu thereof continued, until June 30, 1942,". The Federal
" Surplus Commodities Corporation shall submit to Congress on the first day of each regular session an annual report setting forth a statement of the activities, receipts, and expenditures of the Corporation during the previous fiscal year. (Feb. 16, 1938, Title II, sec. 204, 52
, . Stat. 38; 7 Ù. S. C., sec. 1293.) (See also par. 630-9 this volume.)
General definitions. (a) For the purposes of this title and the declaration of policy
(1) “Parity", as applied to prices for any agricultural commodity, shall be that price for the commodity which will give to the commodity a purchasing power with respect to articles that farmers buy equivalent to the purchasing power of such commodity in the base period; and, in the case of all commodities for which the base period is the period August 1909 to July 1914, which will also reflect current interest payments per acre on farm indebtedness secured by real estate, tax payments per acre on farm real estate, and freight rates, as contrasted with such interest payments, tax payments, and freight rates during the base period. The base period in case of all agricultural commodities except tobacco shall be the period August 1909 to July 1914. In the case of all kinds of tobacco except Burley and flue-cured such base period shall be the period August 1919 to July 1929, and, in the case of Burley and flue-cured tobacco, shall be the period August 1934 to July 1939; except that the August 1919-July 1929 base period shall be used in allocating any funds appropriated prior to September 1, 1940.
(2) “Parity”, as applied to income, shall be that per capita net income of individuals on farms from farming operations that bears to the per capita net income of individuals not on farms the same relation as prevailed during the period from August 1909 to July 1914.
(3) The term “interstate and foreign commerce” means sale, marketing, trade, and traffic between any State or Territory or the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico, and any place outside thereof; or between points within the same State or Territory or within the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico, through any place outside thereof; or within any Territory or within the District of Columbia or Puerto Rico.
(4) The term “affect interstate and foreign commerce” means, among other things, in such commerce, or to burden or obstruct such commerce or the free and orderly flow thereof; or to create or tend to create a surplus of any agricultural commodity which burdens or obstructs such commerce or the free and orderly flow thereof.
(5) The term “United States” means the several States and Territories and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
(6) The term "State” includes a Territory and the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico.
(7) The term “Secretary” means the Secretary of Agriculture, and the term “Department” means the Department of Agriculture.
(8) The term “person" means an individual, partnership, firm, joint-stock company, corporation, association, trust, estate, or any agency of a State.
(9) The term "corn” means field corn. Definitions applicable to one or more commodities. (b) For the purposes of this title
(1) (A) “Actual production" as applied to any acreage of corn means the number of bushels of corn which the local committee determines would be harvested as grain from such acreage if all the corn
on such acreage were so harvested. In case of a disagreement between the farmer and the local committee as to the actual production of the acreage of corn on the farm, or in case the local committee determines that such actual production is substantially below normal, the local committee, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, shall weigh representative samples of ear corn taken from the acreage involved, make proper deductions for moisture content, and determine the actual production of such acreage on the basis of such samples.
(B) “Actual production” of any number of acres of cotton on a farm means the actual average yield for the farm times such number of acres.
(2) “Bushel” means in the case of ear corn that amount of ear corn, including not to exceed 1512 per centum of moisture content, which weighs seventy pounds, and in the case of shelled corn, means that amount of shelled corn including not to exceed 151/2 per centum of moisture content, which weighs fifty-six pounds.
(3) (A) “Carry-over", in the case of corn and rice, for any mar. keting year shall be the quantity of the commodity on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, which was produced in the United States prior to the beginning of the calendar year then current.
(B) “Carry-over” of cotton for any marketing year shall be the quantity of cotton on hand either within or without the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, which was produced in the United States prior to the beginning of the calendar year then current.
(C) "Carry-over” of tobacco for any marketing year shall be the quantity of such tobacco on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, which was produced in the United States prior to the beginning of the calendar year then current, except that it shall not include any amount of such tobacco of the 1939 and 1940 crops which the Secretary determines is stored temporarily in the United States because of war or other unusual conditions delaying the normal exportation thereof, and except that in the case of cigar-filler and cigar-binder tobacco the quantity of type 46 on hand and theretofore produced in the United States during such calendar year shall also be included.
(D) “Carry-over” of wheat, for any marketing year shall be the quantity of wheat on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, not including any wheat which was produced in the United States during the calendar year then current, and not including any wheat held by the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation under Title V.
(4) (A) "Commercial corn-producing area” shall include all counties in which the average production of corn (excluding corn used as silage) during the ten calendar years immediately preceding the calendar year for which such area is determined, after adjustment for abnormal weather conditions, is four hundred and fifty bushels or more per farm and four bushels or more for each acre of farm land in the county.
(B) Whenever prior to February 1 of any calendar year the Secretary has reason to believe that any county which is not included in the commercial corn-producing area determined pursuant to the provisions of subparagraph (A), but which borders upon one of the counties in such area, or that any minor civil division in a county bordering on such area, is producing (excluding corn used for silage) an average of at least four hundred and fifty bushels of corn per farm and an average of at least four bushels for each acre of farm land in the county or in the minor civil division, as the case may be, he shall cause immediate investigation to be made to determine such fact. If, upon the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such county or minor civil division is likely to produce corn in such average amounts during such calendar year, he shall proclaim such determination, and, commencing with such calendar year, such county shall be included in the commercial corn-producing area. In the case of a county included in the commercial corn-producing area pursuant to this subparagraph, whenever prior to February 1 of any calendar year the Secretary has reason to believe that facts justifying the inclusion of such county are not likely to exist in such calendar year, he shall cause an immediate investigation to be made with respect thereto. If, upon the basis of such investigation, the Secretary finds that such facts are not likely to exist in such calendar year, he shall proclaim such determination, and commencing with such calendar year, such county shall be excluded from the commercial corn-producing area.
(5) “Farm consumption” of corn means consumption by the farmer's family, employees, or household, or by his work stock; or consumption by poultry or livestock on his farm if such poultry or livestock, or the products thereof, are consumed or to be consumed by the farmer's family, employees, or household.
(6) (A) Market”, in the case of corn, cotton, rice, tobacco, and wheat, means to dispose of, in raw or processed form, by voluntary or involuntary sale, barter, or exchange, or by gift inter vivos, and, in the case of corn and wheat, by feeding (in any form) to poultry or livestock which, or the products of which, are sold, bartered, or exchanged, or to be so disposed of, but does not include disposing of any of such commodities as premium to the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation under title V.
(B). “Marketed”, “marketing" and "for market” shall have corresponding meanings to the term “market” in the connection in which they are used.
(7) “Marketing year” means, in the case of the following commodities, the period beginning on the first and ending with the second date specified below:
Corn, October 1-September 30; Cotton, August 1-July 31; Rice, August 1-July 31; Tobacco (flue-cured), July 1-June 30; Tobacco (other than flue-cured), October 1-September 30; Wheat, July 1-June 30. (8) “National average yield” as applied to cotton or wheat shall be the national average yield per acre of the commodity during the