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ment, or deed the character, kind, grade, quality, quantity, size, pack, weight, condition, degree of maturity, or State or country of origin of any perishable agricultural commodity received, shipped, sold, or offered to be sold in interstate or foreign commerce.

(6) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker, for a fraudulent purpose, to remove, alter, or tamper with any card, stencil

, stamp, tag, or other notice placed upon any container or railroad car containing any perishable agricultural commodity, if such card, stencil, stamp, tag, or other notice contains a certificate or statement under authority of any Federal or State inspector or in compliance with any Federal or State law or regulation as to the grade or quality of the commodity contained in such container or railroad car or the State or country in which such commodity was produced.

(7) For any commission merchant, dealer, or broker, without the consent of an inspector, to make, cause, or permit to be made any change by way of substitution or otherwise in the contents of a load or lot of any perishable agricultural commodity after it has been officially inspected for grading and certification, but this shall not prohibit re-sorting and discarding inferior produce. (June 10, 1930, sec. 2, 46 Stat. 532; April 13, 1934, secs. 2, 3, 48 Stat. 585; June 19, 1936, sec. 1, 49 Stat. 1533; Aug. 20, 1937, secs. 2, 3, 4, 50 Stat. 725, 726; June 29, 1940, secs. 3, 4, 54 Stat. 696; 7 U.S.C., sec. 499b.)

575. Licenses; by whom required; penalty for failure to obtain.-(a) After the expiration of six months after the approval of this Act no person shall at any time carry on the business of a commission merchant, dealer, or broker without a license valid and effective at such time. Any person who violates any provision of this subdivision shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $500 for each such offense and not more than $25 for each day it continues, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil suit brought by the United States. Any person violating this provision may, upon a showing satisfactory to the Secretary of Agriculture, or his authorized representative, that such violation was not willful but was due to inadvertence, be permitted by the Secretary, or such representative, to settle his liability in the matter by the payment of the fees due for the period covered by such violation and an additional sum, not in excess of $25, to be fixed by the Secretary of Agriculture or his authorized representative. Such payment shall be deposited in the Treasury of the United States in the same manner as regular license fees.

Application; to whom made; fee. (b) Any person desiring any such license shall make application to the Secretary. The Secretary may by regulation prescribe the information to be contained in such application. Upon the filing of the application, and annually thereafter, the applicant shall pay a fee of $10. (June 10, 1930, sec. 3, 46 Stat. 533; Aug. 20, 1937, sec. 5, 50 Stat. 726, 7 U. S.C., sec. 499c.)

576. Issuance of license; authority exercised thereunder; termination.(a) Whenever an applicant has paid the prescribed fee the Secretary, except as provided elsewhere in this Act, shall issue to such applicant a license, which shall entitle the licensee to do business as a commission merchant and/or dealer and/or broker unless and until it is suspended or revoked by the Secretary in accordance with the pro

visions of this Act, or is automatically suspended under section 7 (d) of this Act, but said license shall automatically terminate on any anniversary date thereof unless the annual fee has been paid : Provided, That notice of the necessity of paying the annual fee shall be mailed at least thirty days before the anniversary date: Provided further, That if the annual fee is not paid by the anniversary date the licensee may obtain a renewal of that license at any time within thirty days by paying a fee of $15;

Refusal of license; grounds; effect of giving bond. (b) The Secretary shall refuse to issue a license to an applicant (1) if he finds that the applicant has previously been responsible in whole or in part for any violation of the provisions of the Act for which a license of the applicant, or the license of any partnership, association, or corporation in which the applicant held any office or, in the case of a partnership, had any share or interest, was revoked under the provisions of section 8; or (2) if at any time within two years he has found after notice

( and hearing that said applicant was responsible in whole or in part for any flagrant or repeated violation of the provisions of section 2; or (3) if he finds, in case the applicant is a partnership, association, or corporation, that any individual holding office or, in the case of a partnership, having any interest or share in the applicant, has previously been responsible in whole or in part for any violation of the provisions of the Act for which the license of such individual, or of any partnership, association, or corporation in which such person held any office, or, in the case of a partnership, had any share or interest, was revoked under the provisions of section 8; or (4) if at any time within two years he has found after notice and hearing, in case the applicant is a partnership, association, or corporation, that any individual holding any office or, in the case of a partnership, having any interest or share in the applicant was responsible in whole or in part for any flagrant or repeated violation of the provisions of section 2; or (5) if he finds that the applicant, subject to his right of appeal under section 7 (c), has failed, except in case of bankruptcy, to pay within the time limit provided therein any reparation order which has been issued, within two years, against him as an individual, or against a partnership of which he was a member, or an association or corporation in which he held any office, or, in case the applicant is a partnership, association, or corporation, that any individual holding any office or, in the case of a partnership, having any interest or share in the applicant, subject to his right of appeal under section 7 (c), has failed, except in the case of bankruptcy, to pay within the time limit provided therein any reparation order which has been issued, within two years, against him as an individual or against a partnership of which he was a member, or an association or corporation in which he held any office. Notwithstanding all of the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, the Secretary, in the case of such applicant, may issue a license if the applicant furnishes a bond or other satisfactory assurance that his business will be conducted in accordance with the provisions of the Act and that he will pay all reparation orders which may previously have been issued against him for violations, or which may be issued against him within two years following the date of the license, subject to his right of appeal under section 7 (c), but such license shall not be issued before the expira

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tion of one year from the date of revocation of license or from the date of the Secretary's finding that the applicant has been responsible, in whole or in part, for any flagrant or repeated violation of section 2. Such bond shall be in an amount sufficient in the judgment of the Secretary of Agriculture to insure payment of such reparation orders;

Refusal, if applicant found guilty of violating Produce Agency Act. (c) The Secretary shall refuse to issue a license to an applicant if he finds after notice and hearing that at any time within two years said applicant has been found guilty in a Federal court of having violated the provisions of the Act known as the Produce Agency Act (7 U. S. C., secs. 491-497), or of having violated section 14 (b) of this Act, or, in case the applicant is a partnership, that any member of the partnership was found guilty within two years of having violated the Produce Agency Act, or section 14 (b) of this Act, or, if the applicant is an association or corporation, that any officer or any person holding a responsible position therein has been found within two years to have been guilty of violating the Produce Agency Act or section 14 (b) of this Act;

Withholding for investigation. (d) The Secretary may withhold the issuance of a license to an applicant, for a period not to exceed thirty days pending an investigation, for the purpose of determining (a) whether the applicant is unfit to engage in the business of a commission merchant, dealer, or broker by reason of having prior to the date of the application engaged in any practice of the character prohibited by this Act, or (b) whether the application contains any materially false or misleading statement or involves any misrepresentation, concealment, or withholding of facts respecting any violation of the Act by any officer, agent, or employee of the applicant. If after investigation the Secretary believes that the applicant should be refused a license, the applicant shall be given an opportunity for hearing within sixty days from the date of the application to show cause why the license should not be refused. If after the hearing the Secretary finds that the applicant is unfit to engage in the business of a commission merchant, dealer, or broker by reason of having prior to the date of the application engaged in any practice of the character prohibited by this Act, or because the application contains a materially false or misleading statement made by the applicant or by its representative on its behalf, or involves a misrepresentation, concealment, or withholding of facts respecting any violation of the Act by any officer, agent, or employee, the Secretary shall refuse to issue a license to the applicant. (June 10, 1930, sec. 4, 46 Stat. 533; April 13, 1934, secs. 4, 5, 6, 7, 48 Stat. 585, 586; June 19, 1936, sec. 2, 49 Stat. 1533; Aug. 20, 1937, sec. 6, 50 Stat. 726; 7 U.S. C., sec. 499d.)

577. Liability to person damaged; amount of damages.—(a) If any commission merchant, dealer, or broker violates any provision of section 2 he shall be liable to the person or persons injured thereby for the full amount of damages sustained in consequence of such violation.

(b) Such liability may be enforced either (1) by complaint to the Secretary as hereinafter provided, or (2) by suit in any court of competent jurisdiction; but this section shall not in any way abridge or alter the remedies now existing at common law or by statute, and the provisions of this Act are in addition to such remedies. (June 10, 1930, sec. 5, 46 Stat. 534; Aug. 20, 1937, sec. 7, 50 Stat. 728; 7'U. S. C., sec. 499e.)

578. Complaint and investigation; petition to Secretary of Agriculture; time of making; contents; services; answer.-(a) Any person complaining of any violation of any provision of section 2 by any commission merchant, dealer, or broker may, at any time within nine months after the cause of action accrues, apply to the Secretary by petition, which shall briefly state the facts, whereupon, if, in the opinion of the Secretary, the facts therein contained warrant such action, a copy of the complaint thus made shall be forwarded by the Secretary to the commission merchant, dealer, or broker, who shall be called upon to satisfy the complaint, or to answer it in writing, within a reasonable time to be prescribed by the Secretary.

Complaint to Secretary requesting investigation; by whom made. (b) Any officer or agency of any State or Territory having jurisdiction over commission merchants, dealers, or brokers in such State or Territory and any employee of the United States Department of Agriculture or any interested person may file, in accordance with rules and regulations of the Secretary, a complaint of any violation of any provision of this Act by any commission merchant, dealer, or broker and may request an investigation of such complaint by the Secretary.

Same; action thereon; claims not exceeding $500. (c) If there appear to be, in the opinion of the Secretary, any reasonable grounds for investigating any complaint made under this section, the Secretary shall investigate such complaint and may, if in his opinion the facts warrant such action, have said complaint served by registered mail or otherwise on the person concerned and afford such person an opportunity for a hearing thereon before a duly authorized examiner of the Secretary in any place in which the said person is engaged in business: Provided, That in complaints wherein the amount claimed as damages does not exceed the sum of $500 a hearing need not be held and proof in support of the complaint and in support of respondent's answer may be supplied in the form of depositions or verified statements of fact;

Hearing and determination. (d) After opportunity for hearing on complaints where the damages claimed exceed the sum of $500 has been provided or waived and on complaints where damages claimed do not exceed the sum of $500 not requiring hearing as provided herein, the Secretary shall determine whether or not the commission merchant, dealer, or broker has violated any provision of section 2;

Nonresident, bond required. (e) In case a complaint is made by a nonresident of the United States, the complainant shall be required, before any formal action is taken on his complaint, to furnish a bond in double the amount of the claim conditioned upon the payment of costs, including a reasonable attorney's fee for the respondent if the respondent shall prevail, and any reparation award that may be issued by the Secretary of Agriculture against the complainant on any counter claim by respondent: Provided, That the Secretary shall have authority to waive the furnishing of a bond by a complainant who is a resident of a country which permits the filing of a complaint by a resident of the United States without the furnishing of a bond. (June 10, 1930, sec. 6, 46 Stat. 534; April 13, 1934, secs. 8, 9, 10, 48 Stat. 586, 587; Aug. 20, 1937, secs. 8, 9, 50 Stat. 728; 7 U. S. C., sec. 499f.)

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579. Reparation order; determination by Secretary of Agriculture of amount of damages; order for payment.-(a) If after a hearing on a complaint made by any person under section 6, or without hearing as provided in section 6, paragraphs (c) and (d), or upon failure of the party complained against to answer a complaint duly served within the time prescribed, or to appear at a hearing after being duly notified, the Secretary determines that the commission merchant, dealer, or broker has violated any provision of section 2, he shall, unless the offender has already made reparation to the person complaining, determine the amount of damage, if any, to which such person is entitled as a result of such violation and shall make an order directing the offender to pay to such person complaining such amount on or before the date fixed in the order. If, after the respondent has filed his answer to the complaint, it appears therein that the respondent has admitted liability for a portion of the amount claimed in the complaint as damages, the Secretary under such rules and regulations as he shall prescribe, unless the respondent has already made reparation to the person complaining, may issue an order directing the respondent to pay to the complainant the undisputed amount on or before the date fixed in the order, leaving the respondent's liability for the disputed amount for subsequent determination. The remaining disputed amount shall be determined in the same manner and under the same procedure as it would have been determined if no order had been issued by the Secretary with respect to the undisputed sum;

Suit in court by complaint; order prima facie evidence. (b) If any commission merchant, dealer, or broker does not pay the reparation award within the time specified in the Secretary's order, the complainant, or any person for whose benefit such order was made, may within three years of the date of the order file in the district court of the United States for the district in which he resides or in which is located the principal place of business of the commission merchant, dealer, or broker, or in any State court having general jurisdiction of the parties, a petition setting forth briefly the causes for which he claims damages and the order of the Secretary in the premises. The orders, writs, and processes of the district courts may in these cases run, be served, and be returnable anywhere in the United States. Such suit in the district court shall proceed in all respects like other civil suits for damages, except that the findings and orders of the Secretary shall be prima-facie evidence of the facts therein stated, and the petitioner shall not be liable for costs m the district court, nor for costs at any subsequent state of the proceedings, unless they accrue upon his appeal. "If the petitioner finally prevails, he shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee, to be taxed and collected as a part of the costs of the suit;

Appeal to court by either party; trial de novo; order prima facie evi. dence; costs; attorney's fee." (c) Either party adversely affected by the entry of a reparation order by the Secretary may, within thirty days from and after the date of such order, appeal therefrom to the district court of the United States for the district in which said hearing was held: Provided, That in cases handled without a hearing in accordance with paragraphs (c) and (d) of section 6 or in which a hearing has been waived by agreement of the parties, appeal shall

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