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settled in or near the old courties,e,'. ihey could devote themselves to the cul. vijon of the soil and to the maintenance of their many peculiarities of life and faith, content to take little part in politics, though inclined to uphold the Quakers in their quarrels with the proprietors. Both the ScotchIrish and the Germans moved onward as opportunity offered, journeying southwest through the uplands of Maryland and Virginia, west into the Juniata region, and northwest along the west branch of the Susquehanna, taking up lands and laying out farms. In this forward movement the Scotch-Irish were usually in advance, since their less developed instinct for thrift and permanence often led them to sell their holdings to the oncoming Germans and to trek to the edge and over the edge of the western frontier. The life of these Germans — Moravians, Mennonites, Schwenkfelders, Dunkards, and others — was marked by simplicity, docility, mystical faith, and rigid economy; that of the Scotch-Irish by adventure, conflict, and suffering. Before the land seekers of the southern tidewater had reached the back country, the Scotch-Irish and the Germans had entered the mountain valleys of Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, and had developed a separate agricultant s jadvştrial life of their own, independent t ació sawijater but in close communication with the regions in the North whence they had come.

Beyond the southern boundary of Pennsylvania - famous later as Mason and Dixon's Line — lay two groups of colonies in a semitropical zone occupying the tidewater lowlands about the Chesapeake and the great rivers and sounds of the southern coast. These lowlands extended as far back as the "fall line," the head of river navigation, which curved from the present city of Washington through Fredericksburg, Richmond, and Fayetteville to Augusta. Within this area lay five colonies: Maryland, Virginia, the two Carolinas, and Georgia.

In 1760 the white population of the Southern Colonies was as follows: Maryland, 107,000; Virginia, 200,000; North Carolina, 135,000; South Carolina, 40,000; and Georgia, 6000. Of these colonies the last two had a proportion of blacks to whites vastly greater than the others. Although the Southern Colonies received at one time or another an accession of population from nearly every country of central and western Europe, they were in the main free from any large admixture of foreign stocks. Until after 1730 Maryland had

few foreigners. At that time a few Germans crept down from Pennsylvania and others came in by way of the Virginia Capes, some of whom found lodgment in Baltimore and in 1758 erected a German church there. Virginia had at the beginning a few foreign artisans; later a number of Dutch and Germans, probably from New Amsterdam, occupied lands on the Eastern Shore; and at odd times Portuguese Jews from Brazil found refuge under its protection. But the only groups of foreigners in the colony were the Palatine Germans at Germanna, the French Huguenots at Manakintown, and a small body of poor but industrious Swiss at Mattapony. The dominant stock was English. On Albemarle Sound, in North Carolina, there were no foreigners, 'so far as can be ascertained. But after 1700 many Swiss and Palatine Germans toiled wearily overland from Virginia and founded New Bern; Huguenots settled on the Pamlico, German Moravians and Scotch-Irish poured into the back country; and Celtic Highlanders came up the Cape Fear and settled at Cross Creek (Fayetteville) and eventually became influential citizens of the colony.

South Carolina had a population which was a composite of English, Huguenots, and Germans.

WESTOVER, ON THE JAMES RIVER, VIRGINIA

A fine example of the Colonial architecture of the South. Built by William Byrd in 1749. Photograph by H. P. Cook, Richmond, Va.

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