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hundreds of Scotch-Irish appeared between 1700 and 1750, some of whom eventually drifted down into Connecticut, where they formed a trifling and inconspicuous part of the population. These Scotch-Irish, who were not Irish at all except that they came from the north of Ireland, had much less influence in New England than in Pennsylvania, or in the back country of the South, where their numbers were five times as large as in the North and where their work as frontier pioneers was far more conspicuous. On the other hand, the Huguenots, fleeing from France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, though never as numerous as the Scotch-Irish, nor ever as prominent as frontiersmen or founders of towns, had the gift of easy adaptation to the life of the older communities and remained in the urban centers, where they soon vied with the English as leaders in political and mercantile life. The names of Bowdoin, Cabot, Faneuil, Bernon, Oliver, and Revere add luster to the history of New England, while others of less note attained local success as artisans and tradesmen. The Jews, though their peers in business, were nowhere their serious rivals except in Newport. In this town, about the middle of the eighteenth century, Jews congregated. They came either directly from Spain or from Portugal by way of Brazil and the West Indies, and gave to that growing Rhode Island seaport a distinctly commercial character. The only other foreigners in New England were a number of Dutch, who were not really “foreigners,” as they came of the original settlers of New Netherland, having moved eastward from the towns and manors along the Hudson. Many negroes and mulattoes served as farm hands and domestic servants, chiefly in or · near the seaports dealing with the South or with the West Indies; and a few thousand Indians, more often on reservations than in the households or on the farms of the white men, survived in ever dwindling remnants of their former tribes.

New York and Pennsylvania, though they were closely akin to New England in climate and staple products, bore little resemblance to that Puritan world in the racial factors of their population or the topographical features of their land. New England had a single dominant stock in a land of many small communities and independent seaports. New York and Pennsylvania, on the other hand, with their satellite neighbors, the Jerseys and Delaware, contained a kaleidoscopic collection of people of different bloods and religions. Their life was

also less diversified and scattered, for it was closely associated with the marts of New York and Philadelphia. Each of these cities was situated on a superb body of water. The Hudson and the Delaware, like the Nile in Egypt, shaped to no inconsiderable extent the prosperity of the regions through which they flowed. But between these two cities there were noteworthy differences. New York was backward in colonial times, while Philadelphia, though less favorably situated, because the Delaware was a difficult stream for sailing vessels to navigate, leaped into commercial prominence within a decade of its foundation.

The differences between the provinces in which these cities lay is no less striking. Though possessing magnificent water facilities, the province of New York had as yet a very restricted territorial area, much of which was mountainous. Its broad interior, drained by the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, was of boundless promise for the future but of little immediate usefulness except as a source of furs and peltry, while the whole lay bottled up, as it were, and inaccessible to harbor and ocean, except through a narrow neck of land of which the island of Manhattan was the terminus. The people of the province - English, Dutch, and French, with

a sprinkling of other nationalities — were much given to factional quarreling, and their political development was slow, for until 1691 they had no permanent popular assembly. Furthermore, the situation of the territory along the chief waterway from Canada of necessity exposed the province to constant French attack from the north and added to the distractions of politics the heavy burden of defense and the responsibility for peace with the Six Nations, whose alliance was so essential to English success. The population of the province nevertheless increased. In 1730 it was only 50,000; thirty years later it was more

than 100,000; and, at the outbreak of the Revo- lution, 190,000. But in colonial times it always

lacked cohesion and unity, owing to racial divisions and social distinctions and to its strangely shaped territory. .

Philadelphia was the center of the far more compact colony of Pennsylvania and the seat of a more united, powerful, and dominant political party. The Quakers on principle avoided war and cultivated as far as possible the arts and advantages of peace. Though there was quarreling enough in the Legislature and a great deal of jockeying and rowdiness at elections, the stability and prosperity of the province were but little impaired. The city lay along the bank of a great river, in the midst of a wide, fertile agricultural country which included West Jersey and Delaware and which was inhabited by people of many races and many creeds, all tilling the soil and contributing to the prosperity of the merchant class. These merchants, with their dingy countinghouses and stores near the water-front had their correspondents all over the world, their ships in every available market. One of them, Robert Morris, boasted that he "owned more ships than any other man in America.” Many of these merchants were possessed of large wealth and were the owners of fine country houses, as beautiful as any in the North, adorned with the best that the world could offer. The colonial mayors of Philadelphia, like those of London, were taken as a rule from the mercantile class.

The population of Pennsylvania increased from 50,000 in 1730 to more than 200,000 in 1763 — due in largest part to the thousands of Scotch-Irish and Germans who, from 1718 to 1750, poured into the colony. The bulk of the Scotch-Irish, urged westward by the proprietary government, which wanted to get rid of them, pushed rapidly into the region of the Susquehanna. The Germans usually

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