vince and government of Paraguay; which runs u. a. w. and enters the river of this name near the Iboig.

TOBATI-MINI, a river of the same province and government as the former, which runs n. and enters the river Grande.

[TOBAYARES, Indians of Brazil, of whom we have already given a full description in the additional matter respecting the history, &c. of this kingdom; which see.]

[TOBY's Creek, an eastern branch of Alleghany river, in Pennsylvania; its s. head water is called Little Toby's Creek. It runs about 65 miles in a zoo. s. w. and to. course, and enters the Alleghany about 18 miles below Fort Franklin. It is deep enough for battcaux for a considerable way up, thence by a short passage to the w. branch of Susquehannah, by which a good communication is formed between Ohio and the e. parts of Pennsylvania.]

TOCA, a settlement of the province and corregimioito of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada: it is of a cold but healthy temperature; situate in a very beautiful llanura, and abounding in barley, maize, papas, and other productions of its climate. It has large breeds of cattle; and of the wools of these they make, besides the commoner manufactures of blankets and rugs, shirts, hats, serges, and baizes. It contains about 100 housekeepers, and as many Indians: in the time of the gentilism of the latter it was a large and rich city, and the court of the Fourth Elector of the Zaque, or King of Tunja; but nothing of its ancient grandeur has remained: two leagues and a half s. from Tunja.

TOCABELA, a settlement of the head settlement of the district Teotalzingo and alcaldia mayor of Villalta in Nueva Espafia. It contains 19 families of Indians, and is 20 leagues from its capital.

TOCACHI, a settlement of the province and kingdom of Quito, in the district of the corregimiento of Las Cinco Leguas de la Capital, to the e. of the settlement of Malchingui, and to the w. of the settlement of Cayambe. It is situate in a pleasant plain, surrounded with fertile hills, but of a somewhat cold temperature. It is watered by a small river of its name, which runs s, and enters the Pisque: in lat. 3' n.

TOCAIMA, or Tocayma, a city of the government of Mariquita in the new kingdom of Granada; founded by Hernando Venegas Carrillo de Manos-albas in 1544, near the river Pati, which is the same which, higher up, is called Bogota, and enters the Magdalena very near

this city. It is of an extremely hot temperature, and situate in the midst of a small mountain covered with brambles, which it is necessary to cut down every six months. It suffers from drought, the river being at some distance, and as the water of a pit 'which is near, is ill tasted and never drank, although it affords advantageous bathing to such as are afflicted with the itch. Besides the inconvenience of the heat, its inhabitants are afflicted with the shingles, which they call carafe, and which produces a very frightful appearance; also with colors, or swellings in the throat, and buboes. It is much infested by venomous creatures, such as spiders, snakes of various kinds, vipers, taiyas, corales, rattlesnakes, and mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects, and above all by the coda, which, although it does not sting, is of so venomous a nature, that "if it be crushed so that its blood touch the skin of any one, it immediately causes death with violent struggles. [This account is, however, known to be fabulous.]

The woods abound in exquisite sorts of timber, cedars, walnuts, pomegranates, tamarinds, buos, and guayacanes of two sorts, which are often found petrified. It produces also much cocoa and tobacco, which is too strong to be smoked; an infinite variety of sugar-canes, of which they make many sweets and sugar; also maize, yucca, plantains, potatoes, yams, and a great quantity of other fruits. It abounds no less in fish in the rivers of Bogota and Fusagasuga, and in these there are likewise many sdligators. Here grow some pine-apples, the seeds of which serve as cathartics and emetics. The inhabitants, who amount to about 700, are very poor and weak, and much addicted to idleness, though they take the trouble of breeding some swine, which they carry for sale, by the river, to Honda, and alive, by land, to Santa Fe. In the district of this city are found mines of the finest copper, which are not worked, and of loadstone; and formerly there were some of gold, so rich, that they say here, that there was a certain inhabitant, called Juan Diaz Xaramillo, who became so wealthy as to measure his riches by the peck, and that he built a palace of such magnificence, that he brought from Spain, at immense cost, the window-frames, the balconies, the tiles for the roof, and all other things necessary for its ornament. But this edifice was destroyed, (in punishment, as they say, of a dreadful blasphemy which its master had uttered,) together with the city, from the river having overflowed its bed in 1673, and at a considerable distance from the spot where the town stood there was found floating upon a plank an image of Jacinthus, which had belonged to the town, and which is now preserved in the convent of the Franciscans, which building was raised upon the ruins of the palace above mentioned; the new city being built upon the top of the mountain, at the skirts of which runs the said river. The city is small, and of little commerce; it has a good parish church. It is in the ancient province of Los Panches; [56 miles s. w. of Santa Fe, and 58 s. of Mariquita, in the high road leading down to Honda, Mariquita, Neiva, and Popayan, in lat. 4° 16'n. and long. 74° 59' n>.]

TOCALON, a settlement of the province and

government of Cartagena in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada ; situate on the shore of the river Grande de la Magdalena.

TOCAMA, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru, of the jurisdiction of the city of Santiago del Estero. It has in its district six chapels annexed to its curacy.

TOCANA, a river of the province and corre' gimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It rises e. of this city, unites with the Cravo, and enters the Meta.

TOCANCIPA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is situate in a llanura, of a mild and healthy temperature, produces plenty of wheat, maize, and palms, and manufactures pitchers, jars, and other articles of earthen-ware, which are carried for sale to Santa Fe and other parts. The number of white inhabitants is so small, as scarcely to amount to 20; but the Indians exceed 200: seven leagues ». of Santa Fe, in the high road leading to Tunja.

TOCANCIPAES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, descendants of the Guatavitas. The country they inhabit is pleasant and fertile: they are warlike, robust, and faithful in their dealings, but are much reduced, and live in settlements of which that mentioned in the former article is one.

TOCANGUAZU, a rugged and mountainous province, now comprehended in that of Paraguay, towards the e. s. e. inhabited by the warlike Indian nation of the Guaranies. • TOCANTINES, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Brazil, inhabiting to the s. w. of the province and captainship of Paris, near the river of its name. They are furious and irreconcileable enemies of the Portuguese,

from whom they have retired, flying to the mountains and woods to the s. They are very numerous.

Tocantines, the aforesaid river, which takes its name from the above nation, is large and copious: the lands it irrigates are fertile and pleasant; and the Portuguese have made different excursions through them. This river, after having run many leagues in a n. direction, and collected the waters of the Araguaya, enters the river Park (which is an arm of the Maranon, or Amazon) by the s. side: [in lat. 1° 45' S.)

TOCAREMA, a settlement of the jurisdiction of Tocaima and government of Mariquita in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is situate in the antient province of the Panches to the w. of Santa F£, in a mountainous and craggy district. It is of a hot temperature, abounding in sugar-canes, maize, t/ucas, and plantains, and is annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Anolaima. It is celebrated for two battles fought near it, between the Spaniards commanded by Gonzalo Ximinez de Quesada, aided by the Moscas Indians, and the Panches, commanded by Zaquizazipa, the last king of Tunja, in 1538; in the first of which engagements the latter were victorious, though in the second they were completely routed by the Spaniards. It is ten leagues from Santa Fe.

TOCARIA, a river of the province and government of Guayana, which runs into the Meta. TOCARIGUA, or Tarigua, an extensive and pleasant llanura, or plain, of the province of Coro in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, to the s. w. terminating to the n. by the mountains of Carora. Its climate is hot, but it abounds in excellent pastures, though uncultivated, from want of population.

TOCATIC, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tlaltenango and alcaldia ■mayor of Colotlan in Nueva Espafia; nearly a league to the n. of its head settlement.

TOCAWNI, a river of the province of Pennsylvania in the United States.

[TOCAYA, the principal village of Minas Novas, in the province and government of Rio de Janeyro, in Brazil. It is 35 leagues distant from Tejuco, in a n. e. direction. The road thither is parallel with the river Jigitonhonha, which runs from two to five leagues m. of it. On this road there are numerous farm-houses, which afford sufficient accommodation for a traveller to pass a night: they in general belong to persons resident in Tejuco, where their produce is sold. Numerous rivulets flow into the Jiffi-1 [tonhonha in this direction, in some of which are found white topazes, more commonly known here by the name of minas novas: they are pretty pellucid pebbles, generally rounded, though sometimes they occur perfectly crystallized, in the same form as the yellow topaz. Blue topazes and agua-marinas are also found here; some of the former are of a singular variety, being in one part blue, and in the other clear and pellucid. This neighbourhood is also noted for producing the beautiful chryso-beryl, which is much esteemed by the higher orders of society in Brazil, and in great request among the jewellers of Rio de Janeiro. These gems rarely occur crystallized; they sell at considerable prices in their rough state, and are much more valued in America than in England, where, indeed, they are little known, or they would be more highly appreciated, being, when polished, of great brilliancy and very beautiful.dom as the former; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Colcabamba.

To the a), of the river Jigitonhonha, and opposite the village of Bom Successo, is the Cerro of Sant Antonio, a place much famed for diamonds, which are said to be of an indifferent quality. There are also other parts, well known to many of the inhabitants of the district as being rich in these treasures.

The country is very fertile, and produces a great variety of the finest woods for cabinetworks: also numerous fruits, and most exquisite vayniila, which grows spontaneously. The land, being less elevated than Cerro do F rio, is said to be much warmer, and is highly favourable to the growth of sugar and coffee. The plantations are chiefly of cotton, which is reputed to be equal in colour and quality to that of Pernambuco.

Minas Novas is under the jurisdiction of the Ouvidor of Villa do Principe, who goes thither once a year to settle disputes, administer justice, and discharge other duties belonging to his office.

At Tocaya the Jigitonhonha flows into a larger river, called Rio Grande, which, taking an e. direction, enters the sea in lat. 16° 20' s. near Porto Seguro. The current to the sea is very rapid, and the navigation from Tocaya is performed in six days. It cannot be too much recommended to the government of Brazil, immediately to order a survey of this river, which might be performed in one of their launches in two months at little or no expense, and were it found necessary, a chain of connection might be established from its mouth to Tocaya.

The population of Minas Novas is thin, compared with its extent, but is daily increasing. It

does not appear that mining is the object which attracts settlers, though there is a considerable quantity of stones exported, which are found only here, as has been before observed.

Where the rivers are deep it is very difficult to raise the cascalhao from their beds, in order to wash it for gold, &c; for this purpose various trivial and ineffectual methods are practised: it would be highly conducive to the interest of the proprietor, as well as of the state, to have rafts or boats constructed, and to adopt the machinery used by the ballast-heavers on the river Thames, by means of which the cascalhao might be raised, even from a depth of twenty feet, however rapid were the current. This machinery is highly to be recommended, not only in this district, but throughout the mining country. Were a model of it made by order of government, and the requisite iron-work prepared in Rio de Janeiro (if necessary), and admitted into the mining country, free of duty, there would probably be such an increase of gold obtained by it, that the proportionate augmentation of the royal fifths would amply repay the expense of introducing the improvement. Mawe's Travels.]

[TOCAYMA, a city of Tierra Firme, and in New Granada. See Iocaima.j

TOCHIMILCO, a jurisdiction and alcoMa mayor of Nueva Espana. It is four leagues from e. to w. and three in breadth from n. to s. and its population consists of nine settlements. It is of a soft and mild temperature, fertile, and abounding in fruit, maize, and French-beans, and has many fig-trees contributing chiefly to its commerce.

Tochimilco, the capital is the settlement of the same name, in which dwell 419 families of Mexican Indians, 50 of Spaniards, 82 of Mustees, and 44 of Mulattoes. It has a convent of Franciscans, and is 20 leagues to the s. e. of Mexico, in lat. 19° 10' s. and long. 274° 45' w. The other

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TOCO, a settlement of the province and government of Santa Marta in the New Kingdom of Granada, and of the division and district of the Rio del Hacha: situate in the road leading to Maracaibo, and to the *. s. e. of the city of the Rio del Hacha.

TOCOLUTA, a river of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Tampico in Niieva Espafia, which enters the sea at the river of that name, and by the point of Delgada.

TOCOM E, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or New Andalucia, which rises in the country of the savage Caribe Indians, runs n. and joins itself with the Hacha to enter the Orinoco, changing its name to the Yoby.

TOCOMOCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxamarca in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Huambos.

TOCONAO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Atacamo in the same kingdom as the former, belonging to the district of the archbishopric of Charcas; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of its capital.

TOCONOCK, a fall of the river Henebeck in the province of Continent, one of the four of New England, in the United States of America.

TOCOTA, a river of the province and country of the Amazonas, in the part possessed by the Portuguese. It runs *. turning its course to w. and enters with a large body into the Pariine.

TOCOTAI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Camana in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Chala.

TOCl/YO, a town of the province and government of Venezuela in the new kingdom of Granada: situated between two mountains in the valley of this name, and on the shore of a river near the sea-coast, by the point of Chiburiche. [Its atmosphere is cloudy, and its climate, though rather cold, is wholesome. It has a convent of Franciscans, and another of Dominicans. It is governed by a cabildo. The soil is adapted to everv sort of production, and the wheat is reckoned the best of the province. From eight to ten thousand quintals are annually exported to Baraquisimeto, Guanou, San Philipi, and Caracas. The inhabitants manufacture here blankets and other clothes, and they have a tannery; but their lucrative trade is in salt, which they procure from the salt-pits of Coro. The population is computed at 10,200 souls. Suicide is remarkably common amongst them. Tocuyo is

183 miles vs. s. w. of Caraccas, and 58 n. n. e. of Truxillo, in lat. 9° 25' s. and long. 69° 51' a>.]

[tocuyo, a river of the same province and government as the former. It discharges itself into the sea 57 miles to the s. s. e. of the river Guayeu, or Guigues, and 80 c. s. c. of Coro. Its source is about 43 miles s. of Carora, and more than 152 miles from the sea. It is navigable as far as Banagua, which is more than 40 leagues from its junction with the sea. It fertilizes the neighbouring country, the soil of which is naturally good, and it also affords means of transporting produce: but the indolence of the Spaniards is so great, that none of the adjoining lands are cultivated.]

Tocuyo, another settlement, in the province of Barcelona and government of Cunianc, situate on the coast, to the w. of the river Unare.

TODOS SANTOS, a large, handsome, and convenient bay of the province and eaptainship of the same name, or San Salvador, in the kingdom of Brazil. It is 37 miles long from n. to s.; its greatest width from e. to K>. 27 miles, and its circumference is 36. Its entrance is about eight miles from the point of Tagapipe to that of San Antonio, its two extremities. In it are many bays for careening vessels, and many fertile islands, but on the w. side are two shoals laying on the left as you enter, which are, however, not dangerous, since, there being so large a distance between the two aforesaid points, a sufficient chasm is left for the passage of vessels. Several rivers enter this bay; the principal of which are six, called the Paraguasu, Serzipe, Jaguaripe, Matuim, Paranamerin, and Piraja.

The first who discovered this bay was Christoval Jacques, and it began to be peopled by Francisco Pereira Cowtino, by order of King Don Juan III. of Portugal, he taking with him from that kingdom several persons of distinction for the purpose; but these were all obliged to retire upon an insurrection of the Topiuambes Indians, and again returning to their settlement, they had the misfortune to encounter shipwreck on the coast of Itaparica, where they all perished by the hands of the infidels; on which account the right and proprietorship of the settlers fell upon the crown, who commanded it to be repeopled, and declared it the capital of the state of Brazil; as such there leaves it yearly a fleet, besides many other vessels bound for Lisbon, laden with gold, diamonds, topazes, sugar, tobacco, and other productions of immense profit. The Dutch gained possession of it in 1623, it

having then belonged to the crown of Spain, as and, like the back-settlers in North America, they well as the kingdom of Portugal itself, through the forsake these plantations in a few years, and proinheritance of Philip II.; but which was reco- ceeding still farther into the interior, continue to vered the following year, 1624, by a powerful reduce the woods in the same manner, by which armament under the command of Don Fredrique means a vast number of trees is destroyed that of Toledo. might be converted to purposes of utility.

[A description of this bay has been already The surrounding country is in general well

given by Alcedo, under article Santos. We have cultivated, and abounds with many large planta

not thought right to suppress this account, it tions, the owners of which employ from two to

being, although containing some repetition, per- three hundred slaves, with a proportionate num

haps the better one of the two. We shall take ber of horses in their sugar works. Many of

this advantage of adding some particulars not these planters have realized large fortunes, and

contained in either, which we have collected built for themselves elegant mansions, with cha

subsequently to the publication of the former ar- pels adjoining. Here they reside with their fami

ticle, and which will not, we believe, be unim- lies, except during the rainy season, when they

portant. repair to the city, San Salvador.

Some useful observations were made several The natural productions and animals in the

years ago, respecting the different kinds of tim- province of Todos Santos are similar to those in

ber employed at this bay for ship-building, by the other captainships. Nitre (nitrum natnam)

Colonels de Brito and Weinholtz. The follow- is found in great abundance towards the *. w.

ing table, drawn up by them, shows the gravity of the province; it is said to be of the best quality,

of a cubic foot of each, and to what purposes and, if properly attended to, might furnish a

they may be most advantageously appropriated. profitable article of commerce. In Caxeira,

another district of Todos Santos, a piece of native

Sucupira merim, useful in the construe- 'oz. coPPer> weighing 2666 pounds was found several

tion of every part of a vessel - - - 59 7f V?TM aS°- }\ uwas transmitted to the Royal

Poo de arco, serves for keels, stern- Museum at Lisbon, and far exceeds in size the

posts, ribs, and gunwales - - - - 66 7 specimens contained in any other European

Paoroxa, for the same purposes - - 63 9\ cabinet. From Bah.a there was also brought,

Peeuim, for deck-beams, &c. - - - 64 3 nearly about the same period a specimen of glo

SapocaJa, for keels, ribs, &c. - - - 73 7 bular iron mineral, r^«rri^ *i^^ifOM^

Jetah/amarel/o, for gunwales, &c. - - 66 0 °osa, Wall-Mtn.) with balls of various sizes, from

Vinhatico, for plank! above and below I*0.,1'"? t0 half ? JTM L, JTV Tf'

water, floors; &c. 46 0{ besides the iron, ready formed balls for muskets

Putumuju, for planks, floors, &c. - - 48 0 and ordnance might be extracted.

Louro, for'yards, masts, &c. - - - 37 3 In this province there are several bttletradmg

Jequitiba, for masts, top-masts, yards, \owns Besides the capital; the chief of these are

&c r 44 4 .Tagoanpe, Amor Jacobma, Do hitio, St. t ran

Pao de olio l, Lido, "for" the same ?'8CO> and Cachoeira. The last of these places

purposes 56 l1 19 plea9an"v situated on the banks ot a small

Mmsnranduba, for beams, "posts, "&c" - 68 6 "ver about fourteen leagues from Bahai It is

Olandim, for bowsprits, top-masts, here that the produce of the gold mines of the

cheeks, gunwales, and planks - - 57 9 north centresJ and for the 8Pace °f, abou* n,I**J

° r leagues round the country, is highly cultivated

These are only a very few of the trees which and planted with tobacco. Though most of the

might be advantageously employed, not only in captainships furnish a small quantity of this plant,

the construction of ships and houses, but for va- it is in the province of Bahia alone that it is be

rious other purposes; and it is much to be lamented come of consequence as an article of commerce.

that so many of the valuable productions of this About forty years ago the stagnation of the

country are still unknown to botanists. On ac- exportation of tobacco, on account of the enor

count of the difficulty of transporting timber, mous duties imposed upon it in Portugal, was

many large woods in the interior of the country severely felt in this province, when the govern-

are burnt down by the inhabitants, in order that ment found it necessary to lighten them, on which

they may form plantations of maize and manioc; this trade recovered its former vigour. Besides}

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