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Thornton, a river of the province and colony of Virginia in N. America. It runs to s. s. e. and enters the Rapahanock.]

THORPE, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district and parish of Santiago, near the w. coast.

[THOULOUSE, Port, on the s. coast of the island of Cape Breton, near the entrance of the Strait of Fronsac or Canso, lies between the

fulf called Little St. Peter and the islands of St. 'eter. It was formerly called Port St. Peter, and is 60 miles w. of Gabaron Bay.]

[THOUSAND ISLES, are situated in St. Lawrence, or Iroquois River, a little n. of Lake Ontario.]

[thousand Lakes, a name given to a great number of small lakes near the Mississippi, a little to the n. e. of St. Francis River, which is about 60 miles above St. Anthony's Falls. The country about these lakes, though but little frequented, is the best within many miles for hunting; as the hunter seldom fails returning loaded beyond his expectation. Here the river Mississippi is not above 90 yards wide.]

[THREE BROTHERS, three islands within the river Essequibo, on the e. coast of S. America/]

[three Islands Bay, or Harbour, on the c. coast of the island of St. Lucia, in the W. Indies.]

[three Points, Cape, on the coast of Guiana in S. America. Lat. 10° 45' n. Long. 62° 45' ».]

[three Rivers, in Canada. See Trois Rivieres.]

[three Sisters, three small isles on the w. shore of Chesapeak Bay, which lie between W. River and Parker's Island.]

[THUM CAP, in the S. Pacific Ocean, a small circular isle, not more than a mile in circumference, seven leagues «. 52° n. w. from La goon Island. High water, at full and change, etween 11 and 12 o'clock. Lat. 18° 35' s. Long. 139° 4' w.l

[THULE, Southern, an island in the S. Atlantic Ocean, the most s. land ever discovered; hence the name. Lat. 59° 34' s. Long. 29°45'a>.]

[THURMAN, a township in Washington County, New York; taken from Queensburg, and incorporated in 1792.J

[THUNDER Bay, in Lake Huron, lies about haif-way between Sagana Bay and the n. w. corner of the lake; it is about nine miles across

either way, and is thus called from the thunder frequently heard there.]

THY, San Miguel De, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of San Juan and alcaldia mat/or of Queretaro in Nueva Es. pafni. It contains 15 families of Indians.

TIABAYA, a settlement of the province and corres;imienlo of Arequipa in Peru.

TfAHUANACU, a territory of an ancient and small province to the s. of Cuzco, and to the e. of the lake Titicaca. The Inca MavtaCapac subjected and united it to the empire. It is famous for the celebrated edifict■ • which belonged to that emperor, and of which the ruins still remain, exciting astonishment from the immensity of the stones: [in lat. 17° 17' 5. and very near the s. c. coast of the lake Titicaca, 28 miles c. of the bridge of the Inca Huama-Capac, or Mayta-Capac]

Tiahuanacu, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Pacages in Peru.

TIAMANCHU, a river of the province of Moxos, and government of Quito; which runs from *. w. to n. e. near the settlement of S. Xavier, and enters the Marmore by the Jc. parts in lat. 14° 13'*.

TIAN, a river of the province and government of Honduras and kingdom of Guatemala; which runs n. and enters the sea between the Pico de Gata and the Triumfo de la Cruz.

[TIANADERHA River. See Unadilla River.]

TIANGUISMANALCO, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Calpa and alcaldia mayor of Atrisco in Nueva Espana. It contains 90 families of Indians, who cultivate some hemp and flax for making rigging and traces. Three leagues e. n. e. of its capital.

Tianguismanalco, another, a small settlement, in the head settlement of the district of Texmelucan and alcaldia mayor of Guejozinco.

TIANGUISTENGO, San Miguel De, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Gueiozinco in Nueva Espana. It contains 38 families of Indians, and is situate n. of its capital.

Tianguistengo, Santiago De, a head settlement of the district of the alcaldia mayor of Metepec in Nueva Espana. It contains 249 families of Indians, and is four leagues s. s. s>. of its capital.

Tianguistengo, another, of the head settlement of the district of Tepehuacan and alcaldia mayor of Mcztitlan in Nueva Espana. It contains a convent of Augustins and 250 families of Indians. Ten leagues s. c. of its head settlement.

TIANGUISZOLCO, San Miguel De, a settlement of the head settlement of the district and alcaldia mayor of Guejozinco in the same kingdom as the former. It contains 25 families of Indians, and is situate w. of its capital.

[TIAOGU, an ancient Indian town, about 150 miles up the Susquehannah River.]

TIAPORO, a settlement of the province and corregimienlo of Aimaraez in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Ancobamba.

TIAPOLLO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Luya and Chillaos in Peru, annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Corobamba in the province of Chachapoyas.

TIATA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Chisquilla.

TIAUME, a river of the province and government of Esmeraldas in the kingdom of Quito; which laves the skirt of the mountain of Esmeraldas, and the country which was inhabited by the Indian nation of this name. It runs from s. to n. and enters by the s. part the river of Esmeraldas, near its mouth, in lat. 56° n.

TIBACUI, a settlement of the corregimiento of Pasca, and province of Panches, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, though abounding in vegetable productions of this climate, and of a warm soil. It contains more than 100 housekeepers and 60 Indians, [and is 30 miles w. of Santa Fe.]

TIBANA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a mild temperature, pleasant, and very healthy, produces much wheat, vetches, papas, plantains, and other fruits, and is near a river. Its inhabitants are few, not exceeding 50; but they live very comfortably, having large breeds of neat cattle and sheep, and making very good woven stuffs of the wool of the latter. Four leagues s. w. of Tunja.

TIBANOS, a settlement of the province and captainship of San Vicente in Brazil; on the shore and at the source of the river Uruguay.

TIBASOSA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunis in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; situate in the llano of Sogamoso. It is of a cold temperature, and the night air here is very hurtful, on account of some swamps which surround it. It produces much wheat and other fruits of a cold climate; is annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Nopsa, contains more

than 150 whites and 100 Indians, and is eight leagues from Tunja.

[TIBER Creek, a small stream which runs 5. through the city of Washington, and empties into Patowmac River. Its source is 23G feet above the level of the tide in the creek; the waters of which, and those of Reedy Branch, may be conveyed to the president's house, and to the capital.]

[TIBERON, Cape, a round black rock on the s. w. part of the s. peninsula of the island of St. Domingo, and forms the n. To. limit of the Bay of Tiberon.]

[tiberon, or Tiburon, a cape, bay, and village, on the s. w. part of the island of St. Domingo. The bay is formed by the cape of its name on the n. w. and Point Burgau on the s. e. a league and three-fourths apart. The stream, called a river, falls in at the head of the bay, on the w. side of the village; which stands on the high road, and, according to its course along the sea-shore, 10 leagues *. of Cape Dame Marie, 20 from Jereme, and 32 by the winding of the road from Les Cayes. The cape is in lat. 18° 20' 30" n. and in long. 64° 28' 40" w. The exports from Cape Tiberon, from January 1, 1789, to December 31, of the same year, were lOOOlbs. white sugar,377,8001bs. brown sugar, 600,0021bs. coffee, 13,6721bs. cotton, 10881b. indigo, and small articles to a considerable amount. Total value of duties on exportation, 24G5 dollars 76 cents.]

[tiberon, a fort, near the town or village above mentioned; taken by the French the 21st March, 1795.J

TIBI, an island of the N. Sea, near the coast of the province and government of Georgia in the United States.

TIBILOS, S. Lorenzo De, a settlement of the missions, which were held by the Jesuits in the province and government of Mainas and kingdom of Quito: founded in 1670 by the Father Lorenzo Lucero, on the shore of the river Guallaga.

TIBfQUARI, a river of the province and government of Paraguay.

TIBIRITA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; of a mild temperature, and producing fruits of a cold soil, such as wheat, papas, &c, as well as those of a warm soil, such as sugar canes, anniseed, and garbanzos.

It has in its vicinity a place which they call Manta, where there is an abundant mine of copper, of which they make choppers, caldrons, stir* rupa, and other articles, of which consists its trade. Its population is of 100 housekeepers and 60 Indians, and it is situate between Santa Fe and Tania, at the back of the settlement of Choconta. rriBURON. SeeTtBERON.] Tiburon, a point of land or cape of the coast and captainship of Espiritu Santo in Brazil; between the sierra Lunar, or De Maestro Alvaro, and the capital of the province.

Tiburon, another, in the province and captainship of Seara in the same kingdom, near the extremity of the n. coast.

Tiburon, another, on the n. coast of the province and government of Darien, and kingdom of Tierra Firine; one of those forming the semicircle of the Bay or Great Gulf of Uraha or Tue- mari.

Tiburon, a large island of the Gulf of California or Mar Roxo de Cortes, very near the coast and in the interior of ifle same.

TIBURONES. Some rocky shoals near the coast of the province and government of Honduras, close to the cape of Gracias a Dios.

TICANI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Paucarcolla in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Huancani.

TICAPA, a settlement of the province and government of Sonora in Nueva Espana, on the shore of a river; between the settlements of Cucurpe and Opodepe.

TICAPAN, a settlement of the jurisdiction and alcaldia mayor of Cuyoacan in Nueva Espana.

TICHBURN, a settlement of the English in the island of Barbadoes, in the s. part of the same.

TICKE, or Tickle, a settlement of the island of Newfoundland, on the e. coast, on the shore of Trinidad Bay.

TICKLE ME QUICKLY, a name given by the English to an excellent bay on the coast of the Isthmus of Darien and kingdom of Tierra Firme, in the n. w. extremity of a cordillera of rocks; with a good anchorage and secure landing, the same being guarded on the one side by a part of the aforesaid rocks and by the islands Samballs on the other, and which form this bay, which is much frequented by pirate vessels.

TICLLACAYAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tarma in Peru; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Huariaca.

TICLLA-COCHA, a great lake in the province and corregimiento of Yauyos of the king

dom of Peru; formed by some streams and from the river Canete, which runs w. till it enters the S. Sea.

TICLLAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Iluauta in Peru.

TiCLLOS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Caxatambo, in the same kingdom as the former.

TICN ABAR, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Arica in the same kingdom as the former; annexed to the curacy of the settlement of Copta.

T1COMAN, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Yautepec, and alcaldia mayor of Cuernavaca in Nueva Espana. It contains 116 families of Indians, dedicated to the cultivation of cotton and garden herbs. Three leagues s. of its head settlement.

TlCONDEROGA, or Ticondirago, a fort built by the French in Canada, in the year 1736, on the n. side of a peninsula, or communication between the two lakes George and Champlain. It has all the advantages both of nature and of art, and is defended on three sides by water surrounded by rocks, and in one half of the fourth side by a strand, where the French built an outwork of nine feet high, in the war between the English colonies of America and the French and the parent country.

[This fort is now a heap of ruins, and forms an appendage to a farm. Its name signifies Noisy, in the Indian language, and was called by the French Corillor. Mount Independence, in Addison County, Vermont, is about two miles s. e. of it, and separated from it by the narrow strait which conveys the waters of Lake George and South River into Lake Champlain. This was the first fortress attacked by the Americans during the revolutionary war. The troops under General Abercrombie were defeated here in the year 1758, but it was taken the year following by General Amherst. It was surprised by Colonels Allen and Arnold, May 10, 1775, and was retaken bv General Burgoyue in July, J777.]

TECOPORO, a settlement of the province and government of Maracaibo, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada; on the shore of the river of its name, and to s. of the city of Pedraza. It is one of those under the charge of the missionaries of St. Domingo.

Tecoporo, the said river, rises in the sierra Nevada, and enters the Apure.

TICSAN, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cuenca in the kingdom of Quito. It is nearly desert and abandoned, through the many damages it has received on different occasions by earthquakes. In its district are the estates of Moyocancha, Atapu, Totora, Sula, Macrallan, ana others. It is of a healthy climate and fertile soil, and on the confines of Riobatnba,m e. of the settlement of Alausi, and s. w. of Moyocancha, in lat. 2°8's.

TlCUNAS, a barbarous nation of Indians in the province and country of Las Amazonas, who dwell in the woods in the n. part. Some families of them have been reduced to the faith, forming the settlements of S. Ignacio de las Pevas, and De Nuestra Senora de Loreto de Ticunas, which is the last of the lower mission of Mainas, and bounded by the territory of the Portuguese. The poison, which these Indians make for envenoming their arrows, is the most active of any known. [The settlement of Loreto is situate on the n. e. shore of the river Amazonas, in lat. 3° 51' s. and long. 69° 41' ».] TICUZES. See Tequanhuna.] TIDCOME, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, on the w. coast, and at the extremity of the island.

TIEMPO, Cape of Good; which the English call Fair Weather: a point of land on the coast of the country of the Patagonian Indians; between the river La Plata and the Straits of Magellan.

[TIERRA AUSTRAL DEL ESPIRITU SANTO, called by Bougainville, The Archipelago of the Great Cyclades, and by Captain Cook, The New Hebrides, ma/ be considered as the e. extremity of the vast Archipelago of Nueva Guayana. The islands are situated between lat. 14° 29' and 20° 14' s. and between long. 166° and 170°21' e. from Greenwich; and consist of the following islands, some of which have received names from the different European navigators, and others retain the names which they ear among the natives; viz. Tierra Austral del Espiritu Santo, St. Bartholomew, Mallicollo, Pic de l'Etoile, Aurora, Isle of Lepers, Whitsuntide, Ambrym, Paoon, Shepherds Isles, Sandwich, Erromango, Immer, Tana, Erronan, Annetom, Apee, Three Hills, Montagu, Hinchinbrook, and Erromanga.

Quiros, who first discovered these islands, in 1666, describes them, as "richer and more fertile than Spain, and as populous as they are fertile; watered with fine rivers, and producing silver, pearls, nutmegs, mace, pepper, ginger, ebony of the first quality, wood for the construction of vessels, and plants which might be fabricated into sail-cloth and cordages, one sort of

VOL. IV.

which is not unlike the hemp of Europe." The inhabitants of these islands, he describes as of several different races of men ; black, white, mulatto, tawny, and copper-colonred; a proof, he supposes, of their intercourse with various people. They use no fire-arms, are employed in no mines, nor have they any of those means of destruction which the genius of Europe has invented. Industry and policy seem to have made but little progress among them: they build neither towns nor fortresses; acknowledge neither king nor laws, and are divided only into tribes, among which there does not always subsist a perfect harmony. Their arms are the bow and arrows, the spear and the dart, all made of wood. Their only covering is a garment round the waist, which reaches to the middle of the thigh. They are cleanly, of a lively and grateful disposition, capable of friendship and instruction. Their houses are of wood, covered with palm-leaves. They have places of worship and burial. They work in stone, and polish marble, of which there are many quarries. They make flutes, drums, wooden spoons, and from the mother-of-pearl, form chissels, scissors, knives, hooks, saws, hatchets, and small round plates for necklaces. Their canoes are well built and neatly finished. Hogs, goats, cows, buffaloes, and various fowls and fish, for food, are found in abundance on and about these islands. Added to all these and many other excellencies, these islands are represented as having a remarkably salubrious air, which is evinced by the healthy robust appearance of the inhabitants, who live to a great age, and yet have no other bed than the earth.

Such is the description which Quiros gives of these islands, in and about which he spent some months, and which he represents to the King of Spain as " the most delicious country in the world; the garden of Eden, the inexhaustible source of glory, riches,' and power to Spain."— On the n. side of the largest of these islands, called Espiritu Santo, is a bay, called San Felipe and Sant-Yago, which, says Quiros, " penetrates 20 leagues into the country; the inner part is all safe, and may be entered with security, by night as well as by day. On every side, in its vicinity, many villages may be distinguished, and if we may judge by the smoke which rises by day, and the fires that are seen by night, there are many more in the interior parts. The harbour in this bay was named by Quiros, La Vera Cruz, and is a part of this bay, and large enough to admit 1000 vessels. The anchorage is on an excellent bottom of black sand, in water of different] 4 c

[depths, from six to 40 fathoms, between two fine rivers/]

TIERRA FIRME, a kingdom of S. America; bounded e. by the province and government of Cartagena, from which it is divided by the river S. Juan, w. by the province of Costarica in the kingdom of Guatemala, and n. and s. by the two seas, at the Isthmus of Panama, or Tierra Firme. It is 146 leagues long, 90 wide in the broadest part, and eight at the narrowest, and at the aforesaid isthmus, the which is the most celebrated of any ever heard of.

This kingdom is divided into three provinces, which are those of Darien, Veragua, Panama or Tierra Firme; which, united, give the whole the latter name. It is of a hot and moist temperature, though the nights are fresh and agreeable, for from five o'clock in the evening the wind from the sea springs up.

It is watered by an infinite number of rivers, the most considerable of which are, the Chagre, Bayano, Atrato, Tiura, some of which enter the N. and others the S. Sea. The territory is for the most part mountainous and craggy, and almost inaccessible, owing to the great cordillera which intersects it; not but that it has some fertile, though little cultivated Uanuras; the natives being rather dedicated to the commerce with the provinces of Peru and with Europe, as, in the time of the galleons, they lay in the very way for such a trade. They, consequently, only cultivate such maize as may be necessary for the subsistence of the Negroes and the great herds of cattle which they breed, and of the flesh of which they make, by drying it in the sun, salted meat in strips of three fingers wide, which they call tasajo, and which is also the common food.

Here are some gold mines, particularly in the province of Darien, the same which were formerly worked with great success, but which are now abandoned through the incursions of those Indians ; and there are now no other mines worked but some in the province of Veragua, which are of very good alloy. In the mountains are found an infinity of strange birds and animals, the former of great beauty and delightful note; and, amongst the latter, many which have excited the particular attention of the naturalist. Amongst others is a species of the sloth, thus called from the difficulty with which it moves, inasmuch as he is whole hours in proceeding only a few steps. This animal is of the shape of a cat, and utters lamentable groans upon moving either his fore or hind feet, and it is said that he does so from the great pain occasioned by the exertion.—

Amongst the birds, the king of the fowls deserves attention, as being rare and of exceeding beauty, with wings of different colours, and of the size of a moderate sized turkey-cock. Should there happen to be any animal killed near the spot where this king-bird is setting, the other birds, although they may be assembled around in vast numbers, never presume to touch the prey until the king shall have first darted upon it. He generally satiates himself with the eyes and the heart; and his retiring is the signal for the rest to begin their feast.

In the province of Veragua are some small monkeys of a yellow colour, and with a white crown, with a skin as fine as the best silk. They are extremely gentle, but so delicate, that they invariably die upon being removed from their native place; for, although every precaution to bring them to- Europe has been adopted, they have all been unsuccessful. In this kingdom are abundance of insects, snakes of many kinds, spiders, centipedes, mosquitoes, and various others, which are troublesome in the extreme.

There are several very good ports on the coasts of both seas, serving as asylums for the illicit traders, the commerce of this kingdom having greatly diminished since the establishment of that of Buenos Ayres. It has therefore become much less opulent than formerly, since then all the trade which was done by Peru and Guatemala with Spain, and vice versa, passed through Tierra Firme, and was shipped and landed at Portobello. The population is not proportionate to its size.—See an account of the same under the article of each of the three provinces composing this kingdom. The capital is the city of Panama.

Tierra Firme, one of the provinces of the above kingdom, and from whence the kingdom had its name. It lies between the province of Darien to the e. and that of Veragua to the ». is 55 leagues long from the jurisdiction of the elcaldia mayor of Nata, by a line which runs from the isle of Veragua in the N. Sea, as far as the settlement and isle ofGuarare in the S. Sea, and, on the opposite part, by another line, which runs from the great strand on the «. coast of the province of Darien to the Port Quemado in the S. Sea. In this province the isthmus, dividing the two seas, is the narrowest, being only eight leagues across; although, from the roughness of the mountains and from the abundance of the waters of the rivers, it is necessary to pass across by a circuitous rout of no less than 16 leagues.

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