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[cheap. The profits of tanners and shoemakers must be considerable, when it is a well known fact, that the hides of full grown cattle, and a single pair of shoes sell for nearly the same price.
3. In making bricks—These now sell for nine dollars a thousand, and the call for them is so great, that the bricklayers are not fully supplied.
4. In making pot-ash—The ashes that might be collected in Charleston, and from the woods burnt in clearing new lands in the country, would furnish the means of carrying on the manufacture of pot-ash to great advantage."
Gentlemen of fortune, before the late war, sent their sons to Europe for education. During the war and since, they have generally sent them to the Middle and N. States. Those who have been at this expense in educating their sons, have been but comparitively few in number; so that the literature of the state is at a low ebb. Since the peace, however, it has begun to flourish. There are several respectable academies in Charleston, one at Beaufort, on Port Royal Island, and several others in different parts of the state. Three colleges have lately been incorporated by law, one at Charleston, one at Winnsborough, in the district of Camden, the other at Cambridge, in the district of Ninety Six. The public and private donations for the support of these three colleges, were originally intended to have been appropriated jointly, for the erecting and supporting of one respectable college. The division of these donations has frustrated this design. Part of the old barracks in Charleston has been handsomely fitted up, and converted into a college, and there are a number of students; but it does not yet merit a more dignified name than that of a respectable academy. The Mount Sion College at Winnsborough, is supported by a respectable society of gentlemen, who have long been incorporated. This institution flourishes and bids fair for usefulness. The college at Cambridge is no more than a grammar school. That the literature of this state might be put upon a respectable footing, nothing is wanting but a spirit of enterprise among its wealthy inhabitants. The legislature, in their session in January 1795, appointed a committee to enquire into the practicability of, and to report a plan for, the establishment of schools in the different parts of the state.
Since the revolution, by which all denominations were put on an equal footing, there have been no disputes between different religious sects. They all agree to differ. The upper parts of this *tate are settled chiefly by Presbyterians, Bap
tists, and Methodists. From the most probable calculations, it is supposed that the religious denominations of this state, as to numbers, may be ranked as* follows: Presbyterians, including the Congregational and Independent Churches, Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, &c.
The little attention that has been paid to manufactures, occasions a vast consumption of foreign imported articles; but the quality and value of their exports generally leave a balance in favour of the state, except when there have been large importations of Negroes. The amount of exports from the port of Charleston, in the year ending November, 1787, was then estimated, from authentic documents, at £.505,279. 19s. bd. sterling money. The number of vessels cleared from the custom-house, the same year, was 947, measuring 62,118 tons; 735 of these, measuring 41,531 tons, were Americans; the others belonged to Great Britain, Spain, France, the United Netherlands, and Ireland. The principal articles exported from this state, are rice, indigo, tobacco, skins of various kinds, beef, pork, cotton, pitch, tar, rosin, turpentine, myrtle-wax, ' lumber, naval stores, cork, leather, pink-root, snake-root, ginseng, &c. In the most successful seasons, there have been as many as 140,000 barrels of rice, and 1,300,000 pounds of indigo exported in a year. From the 15th of December, 1791, to September, 1792, 108,567 tierces of rice, averaging 550 lb. nett weight each, were exported from Charleston. In the year ending September 30, 1791, the amount of exports from this state was 2,693,267 dollars, 97 cents, and the year ending September, 1795, to 5,998,492 dollars, 49 cents. Upon the whole, it is certain, that previously to the revolutionary war the exports of S. Carolina amounted, upon an average, to £500,000 sterling, and consisted principally of rice, indigo, tobacco, deer-skins, pitch, tar, turpentine, salt provisions, Indian corn, and lumber. During the war, agriculture and commerce were both materially injured. The usual supplies of clothing from the mothercountry being stopped, manufactories were established, and the Negroes were for the most part clothed with mixed cloths of cotton and wool, spun and woven for the occasion. Many negroes were taken from agricultural pursuits, as well to assist at these manufactures, as to carry on the erection of fortifications, and other public works; in consequence of which, the articles for exportation naturally decreased, or, when collected, were consumed at home, alternately, by friends and foes.]
[At the conclusion of the war it appeared, that the agriculture and commerce of S. Carolina had retrograded nearly 47 years backwards, the exports of 1783 being scarcely equal to those of 1736. The internal consumption, however, must have been greater, but the loss to the state was the same. Since that period her agriculture and commerce have rapidly augmented, though in some degree counteracted by the partial prohibition of the importation of Negroes for several years past, and which was fully carried into execution on the 1st of January, 1808. From year to year, new prospects have presented themselves; new objects of agriculture have arisen; and the loss of one staple has been supplied by another of superior value: cotton is now the most valuable export of S. Carolina.
Since the French revolution Charleston has
been the medium of the greatest part of that trade, which has been carried on between the French W. India islands and the mother country, under the neutral flag of the United States. In this manner quantities of cocoa, coffee, sugar, rum, indigo, and other articles, the produce of the French, Spanish, and Dutch possessions in the W. Indies and S. America, are included in the exports of S. Carolina, from the year 1793, which, in time of peace, are directly exported from the colonies to the mother-country. Within these few years, much of this neutral traffic has been gradually abolished, by the restrictive decrees and orders of council of the two great belligerent powers, in return for which the Americans have retaliated by a general embargo. It may not be amiss here to insert
I STATEMENT exhibiting the Quantities of Rice, Indigo, Tobacco, and Cotton, exported from S. CAROLINA to GREAT BRITAIN and other foreign Parts, from 1760 to 1801, also the total Value of Exports at different Periods.
[Atlantic Ocean. The reformation in France occasioned a civil war between the Protestant and Catholic parties in that kingdom. During these domestic troubles, Jasper de Coligni, a principal commander of the Protestant army, fitted out two ships, and sent them with a colony to America, under the command of Jean Ribaud, for the purpose of securing a retreat from persecution. Ribaud landed at what is now called Albemarle River, in N. Carolina. This colony, after enduring incredible hardships, were extirpated by the Spaniards. No further attempts were made to plant a colony in this quarter, till the reign of Charles II. of England.
The militia of S. Carolina is divided into two divisions, each commanded by a major-general. These divisions comprehend nine brigades, 39 regiments of infantry, eight regiments and a squadron of cavalry, and one regiment and a battalion of artillery, besides artillery companies which are attached to some of the regiments of infantry. The brigades are commanded by as many brigadier-generals; and the regiments are commanded by lieutenant-colonels. The governor is commander in chief of all the militia of the state, both by sea and land.
Every able-bodied white male citizen, between the age of 18 and 45, is enrolled in the militia, and free people of colour are enrolled as pioneers. One third of the militia may be marched out of the state by order of the executive of the United States, on particular emergencies, and under certain conditions; and treated in every respect the same as the regular troops, except that in cases of court-martial, the court is to be selected from the militia of the state. Officers rise by seniority; and no election exists except in the first appointment of subalterns. The number of effective militia in S. Carolina is about 40,000, of whom 2000 are cavalry.
In Charleston, the inhabitants have formed themselves into volunteer corps, armed and clothed at their own expense. One half consists of cavalry and artillery. The uniform of the latter is a long blue coat with red facings, and large cocked hat and red feather; it has a heavy appearance, and is but ill adapted to such a corps, whose chief perfection is in celerity of movement. See United States.]
[SOUTHERN STATES; the States of Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, N. Carolina, Tennessee, S. Carolina, and Georgia: bounded n. by Pennsylvania, are thus denominated. This district of the Union contained, by the census of J 792, upwards of 1,900,000 inhabitants, of whom
648,439 were slaves, which is thirteen fourteenths of the whole number of slaves in the United States. The influence of slavery has produced a very distinguishing feature in the general character of the inhabitants, which, though now discernible to their disadvantage, has been softened and meliorated by the benign effectspf the revolution, and the progress of liberty and humanity. The following may be considered as the principal productions of this division: tobacco, rice, indigo, wheat, corn, cotton, tar, pitch, turpentine, and lumber. In this district is fixed the permanent seat of the general government, viz. the city of Washington. See United States.]
[SOUTHFIELD, a township of New York, Richmond County, bounded n. by the n. side of the road leading from Van-Duerson's Ferry to Richmond Town and the Fish-Kill; e. by Hudson's River. It contains 855 inhabitants.]
[south Georgia, a cluster of barren islands in the S. Atlantic Ocean to the e. of Cape Horn, the s. point of S. America; in lat. about 54° 20/$. and long. 39° 18' w. One of these is said to be between 50 and 60 leagues in length.]
[south Hadley, a township of Massachusetts, Hampshire County, on the e. bank of Connecticut River, 14 miles n. of Springfield, six s. e. of Northampton, and 63 w. of Boston. It was incorporated in 1753, and contains 759 inhabitants. The locks and canals in S. Hadley, on the e. side of Connecticut River, made for the purpose of navigating round the falls in the river, were begun in 1793, and completed in 1795. The falls are about three miles in length; and since the completion of these locks and canals, there has been a considerable increase of transportation up and down the river. Some mills are already erected on these canals, and a great variety of water-works may, and doubtless will soon be erected here, as nature and art have made it one of the most advantageous places for these purposes in the United States. Canals are also opening by the same company, at Miller's Falls in Montgomery, about 25 miles above these, and on the same side of the river.]
[south Hampton, a county of Virginia, between James's River and the State of N. Carolina. It contains 12,864 inhabitants, including 5993 slaves. The court-house is 36 miles from Norfolk, and 25 from Grenville.]
[south Hampton^ township of New Hampshire, Rockingham County, on the s. line of the State, which separates it from Massachusetts; 25 miles s. w.of Portsmouth, and six «. ID. of Newbury Port. It was taken from Hampton, and incorporated in 1742; and contains 448 inhabitants.]
[south Hampton, a township of Massachusetts, Hampshire County, and separated from E. Hampton by Pawtucket River. It was incorporated in 1753, and contains 829 inhabitants; about nine miles s. w. of Northampton.]
[south Hampton, a township of New York, Suffolk County, Long Island. It includes Bridge- hampton, formerly called Saggabonek, and Mecoxe; and, by means of Sagg Harbour, carries on a small trade. It contains 3408 inhabitants, of whom 421 are electors, and 146 slaves. It is 12 miles from Sag Harbour, 18 from Suffolk court-house, and 9o e. of New York.]
[south Hampton, two townships of Pennsylvania, the one in Buck's County, the other in that of Franklin.]
[south Hampton, a township in the e. part of Nova Scotia, and in Halifax County. It was formerly called Tatmagouche, and is 35 miles from Onslow.]
[south Hempsteao, a township of New York, Queen's County, Long Island, had its name altered in 1796, by the legislature, into Hempstead. The inhabitants, 3826 in number, have the privilege of oystering, fishing, and clamming, in the creeks, bays, and harbours of N. Hempstead, and they in return have the same right in S. Hempstead. Of the inhabitants 575 are electors, and 326 slaves.]
[south Hero, or Grand Island, in Lake Champlain. See Hero.]
[SOUTHHOLD, or Southold, a township of New York, Suffolk County, Long Island. It includes Fisher's Island, Plumb Island, Robin's Island, Gull Islands, and all that part of the manor of St. George on the n. side of Peaconock, extending w. to the e. line of Brook Haven. It contains a number of parishes, and houses for public worship, and 3219 inhabitants; of whom 329 are electors, and 182 slaves. It was settled in 1640, by the Rev. John Young and his adherents, originally from England, but last from Salem in Massachusetts.]
[south Huntington, a township in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania.]
[SOUTHINGTON, the s. w. township of Hartford County, Connecticut, 20 miles s. w. of Hartford, and 22 n. of New Haven.]
[south Kingston, a township of Rhode Island, Washington County, on the w. side of Narraganset Bay. It contains 4131 inhabitants, including 135 slaves.]
[south Key, a small island, one of the Ba
hamas, in the W. Indies. Lat. 22° 31' n. long. 74° 6'».]
[south Mountain, in New Jersey. See New Jersey.]
[south Mountain, a part of the Alleghany Mountains in Pennsylvania. Near this mountain, about 14 miles from the town of Carlisle, a valuable copper-mine was discovered in September, 1795.]
[south Sea, now more usually distinguished by the name of Pacific Ocean, was so named by the Spaniards, after they had passed over the mountains of the Isthmus of Darien or Panama, from n. to s. It might properly be named the W. Ocean, with regard to America in general; but from the isthmus it appeared to them in a s. direction. In the beautiful islands in this ocean, the cold of winter is never known; the trees hardly ever lose their leaves through the constant succession of vegetation, and the trees bear fruit through the greatest part of the year. The heat is always alleviated by alternate breezes, whilst the inhabitants sit under the shadow of groves, odoriferous, and loaded with abundance. The sky is serene, the nights beautiful, and the sea, ever offering its inexhaustible stores of food, and an easy and pleasing conveyance.]
[south Thule, or Southern Thule, in the S. Atlantic Ocean, is the most s. land which has at any time been discovered by navigators. Lat. 59° 34' s. long. 27° 45' ©.]
[SOUTHWICK, a township of Massachusetts, in the s. w. part of Hampshire County, 87 miles s. w. by w. of Boston, and 12 s. w. of Springfield. It was incorporated in 1770, and contains 841 inhabitants.]
[south West Point, in Tennessee, is formed by the confluence of Clinch with Tennessee rivers, where a blockhouse is erected.]
[south Washington, a town of N. Carolina, on the n. e. branch of Cape Fear River, which is navigable thus far for boats. It is 25 miles from Cross Roads near Duplin court-house, and 32 from Wilmington.]
[SOUTOUX, an Indian village in Louisiana, on the w. side of Mississippi river, opposite to the Nine Mile Rapids, 22 miles below Wiespincan River, and 28 above Riviere a la Roche. Lat. 40° 32 w.]
[SOW And PIGS, a number of large rocks lying off the s. w. end of Catahunk Island, one of the Elizabeth Islands, on the coast of Massachusetts.]
[SPAIN, New. See Mexico.]
[SPANIARDS' Bay, on the e. coast of Cape Breton Island, is round the point of the s. entrance into Port Dauphin, to the s. of which is Cape Charbon. Its mouth is narrow, but it is wider within till it branches into two arms, both of which are navigable three leagues, and afford secure harbouring. Lat. 47° n. long. 60° w.l [SPANISH AMERICA contains immense rovinces, most of which are very fertile. 1. In
. America, Louisiana, California, Old Mexico, or NuevaEspana, New Mexico,orNuevoMexico, both the Floridas. 2. In the W. Indies, the island of Cuba, Porto Rico, Trinidad, Margareta, Tortuga, &c. 3. In S. America, Tierra Firme, Peru, Chile, Granada, Paraguay, and Patagonia. These extensive countries are described under their proper heads. All the exports of Spain, most articles of which no other European country can supply, were estimated some years back at 80,000,000 livres, or £.3,333,333 sterling. The most important trade of Spain is that which it carries on with its A merican provinces. The chief imports from these extensive countries consist of gold, silver, precious stones, pearls, cotton, cocoa, cochineal, red-wood, skins, rice, medicinal herbs and barks, as sassafras, Peruvian bark, &c. Vaynilla, Vicuna wool, sugar, and tobacco. In 1784, the total amount of the value of Spanish goods exported to America was 195,000,000 reales de vellon; foreign commodities, 238,000,000 r. d. v. The imports from America were valued at 900,000,000 r. d. v. in gold, silver, and precious stones; and upwards of 300,000,000 in goods. In the Gazeta de Madrid, 1787, (Feb. 20,) it was stated, that the exports to America (the Indies) from the following 12 harbours, Cadiz, Corunna, Malaga, Seville, St. Lucar, Santander, Canaries, Alicante, Barcelona, Tortosa, Gipon, St. Sebastian, amounted, in 1785, to 767,249,787 r. d. v.; the duties paid on these exports amounted to 28,543,702 r. d. v. The imports, both in goods and money, from America and the W. India islands, amounted, in the same year, to 1,266,071,067 r. d. v. and the duties to 65,472,195 r. d. v. The profits of the merchants from the whole American trade was valued at 5,000,000 dollars. See Espanna Nueva and Mexico; also General Table, at beginning of Vol. I.]
[spanish Creek, is at the head of St. Mary's River in Florida.]
[spanish Main, that part of the coast of America, which extends from the Mosquito shore, along the n. coast of Darien, Carthagena, and Venezuela, to the Leeward Isles.]
[spanish River, a river and settlement in Cape Breton Island, and the present seat of government.]
SPANISH-TOWN, the capital, formerly, of the island of Jamaica, where the governor used to reside, and the juntas used to be celebrated: founded by Admiral Christoval Colon, who gave it the name of Santiago de la Vega; and which enjoys the duchy enjoyed by the crown of Spain.
Although it does less commerce than the city of Kingston, it is more handsome; and its inhabitants are people of great wealth, so that the number of carriages kept here is very considerable.
Spanish-town, an island in the N. Sea. See article Virgen Gorda.
[SPARHAWK'S Point, on the «. shore of Piscataqua River, abreast of which ships can anchor in nine fathoms.]
[SPARTA, a post-town of New Jersey, Sussex County, 67 miles n. n. w. from Philadelphia.]
[SPARTANBURGH, a county of Pinckney district, formerly in that of Ninety-Six, S. Carolina, containing 8800 inhabitants, of whom 7907 are whites, and 866 slaves. It sends two representatives, and one senator, to the state legislature. The court-house is 19 miles from Pinckney, and 33 from Greenville.]
SPEAR, Cape, on the e. coast of Newfoundland; on the side of the Bay of Taureaux.
SPEIGHT-TOWN, a city of the island of Barbadoes, formerly much frequented by merchants of Bristol; and from thence called Little Bristol. It is very handsome; contains 350 well built houses, and is divided into four regular and spacious streets, the larger of which is called of the Indians; and this, as well as the other three, run strait down to the sea shore. The people of that part of the island called Escosia, or Scotland, embark from thence their productions for Europe, so that they have found it necessary to build there some store-houses: and the concourse of people that assemble there is a great benefit to the town; although the more considerable part of this traffic is now carried on at Bridge-Town.
It has a church dedicated to St. Peter, which gives its name to the territory, and is where the assemblies are held. This city is defended by two castles, besides a third which is in the Bay of Heathcote, at some distance to the s. One of the above forts is in the centre of the city, and contains 14 cannons; the other, in which are 32 cannons, is at the «. extremity; and more than these, it has several batteries, which have been built on the shore since the breaking out of the late war in 1778. [In long. 583 55' w. lat. w. 10' «.]