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(nature seems to have disunited in a frolic. If a commonly known by the name of oak and hickory pretty high sea were suddenly arrested, and lands, constitute the fourth kind of soil. The transformed into sand-hills, in the very form the natural growth is oak, hickory, walnut, pine, and waves existed at the moment of transformation, locust. On these lands, in the low country, are it would present the eye with just such a view cultivated Indian corn principally; and in the as is here to be seen. Some little herbage, and

Some little herbage, and back country, besides these, they raise tobacco a few small pines, grow even on this soil. The in large quantities, wheat, rye, barley, oats, inhabitants are few, and have but a scanty sub- hemp, fax, and cotton. From experiments which sistence on corn and sweet potatoes, which grow have been made, it is well ascertained that olives, here tolerably well. This curious country con silk, and madder may be as abundantly produced tinues till you arrive at a place called the Ridge, in S. Carolina,

and we may add in Georgia also, 140 miles from Charleston. This ridge is a re as in the s. of France. markable tract of high ground, as you approach There is little fruit in this state, especially in it from the sca, but level as you advance n.w. the lower parts of it. They have oranges, which from its summit. It is a fine high, healthy, belt are chiefly sour, and figs in plenty, a few limes of land, well watered, and of a good soil, and and lemons, pomegranates, pears, and peaches; extends from the Savannah to Broad River. apples are scarce, and are imported from the N. Beyond this ridge commences a country exactly States. Melons, especially the water-melon, are resembling the northern states, or like Devon- raised here in great perfection. The river shire in England, or Languedoc in France. swamps, in which rice can be cultivated with Here hills and dales, with all their verdure and any tolerable degree of safety and success, do variegated beauty, present themselves to the

not extend higher up the rivers than the head of eye. "Wheat fields, which are rare in the low the tides ; ar 1 in estimating the value of this spe. country, begin to grow common. Here heaven cies of rice land, the height which the tide rises has bestowed its blessings with a most bounteous is tak an into consideration, those lying where hand. The air is much more temperate ind it rises to a proper pitch for overflowing the healthful than nearer the sea. The hills are co

swarups being the most valuable. The best invered with valuable woods, the valleys watered land swamps, which constitute a second species with beautiful rivers, and the fertility of the soil of rice land, are such as are furnished with reis equal to every vegetable production. This, serves of water. These reserves are formed by by way of distinction, is called the Upper Coun means of large banks thrown up at the upper try, where are different modes, and different ar parts of the swamps, whence it is conveyed, when ticles of cultivation; where the manners of the needed, to the fields of rice. people, and even their language, have a different Rice was first planted in S. Carolina, about the tone. The land still rises by a gradual ascent; year 1688, when, by chance, a little of it, of a each succeeding hill overlooks that which imme- small unprofitable kind, was introduced into the diately precedes it, till having advanced 220 state. In the year 1696, a bag of a larger and miles in a n. w. direction from Charleston, the whiter rice, was presented by the captain of a elevation of the land above the sea-coast is found brigantine from Madagascar, to the governor, by mensuration to be 800 feet.

who divided it between several gentlemen. Some Here commences a mountainous country, which time afterwards Mr. Du Bois, treasurer to the continues rising to the w. terminating point of British East India Company, sent another parcel the state. The soil may be divided into four of rice; which probably made the distinction kinds ; first, the pine barren, which is valuable which now prevails, between white and gold rice. only for its timber. Interspersed among the In its early cultivation, rice was planted on high pine barren, are tracts of land free of timberland; but it being observed, that this plant not and every kind of growth but that of grass.— only required the richest kind of land, but also These tracts are called savannas, constituting a frequent flowings of water, the planters were nasecond kind of soil, good for grazing. The third turally led from the high lands to the fresh water kind is that of the swamps and low grounds on swamps. To these situations it was found

perthe rivers, which is a mixture of black loam and fectly adapted, and rice immediately became the fat clay, producing natural canes in great plenty, great staple of the country. It was now that cypress, bays, loblolly pines, &c. In these importations were made with great avidity; and swamps rice is cultivated, which constitutes the the proceeds of a crop instead of being spent in staple commodity of the state. The high lands, dissipated living, as they are at this day, were].

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[economised, to increase the exertions of the en- plants a small field; which, though separately suing year. Hence property was rapidly accu considered, cannot produce any considerable mulated, and people from all parts were encou- quantity, yet when collected for exportation, it raged to try their fortunes in $. Carolina. forms a mass by no means unworthy the atten

Indigo was formerly a great source of wealth tion of the merchant. to this state, being introduced into it about the Maize, or Indian corn, is much cultivated in year 1745; and such was the success with which S. Carolina, both for home consumption and exit was cultivated, that in less than two years portation. Like tobacco it is indigenous to Ame200,000 lbs. weight of indigo were exported to rica, or was obtained by the Indians from some England. From that time its culture was much other parts, long before the discovery of the conattended to throughout the lower, and in some tinent. It consists of several varieties, of which situations, in the middle parts of the state; and the gourd and flint kind are principally planted. many fortunes were made by pursuing this The difference between these kinds of corn is, branch of agriculture. Since the commence that the gourd is floury, and wastes much in the ment of the wars which have disturbed Europe grinding; whereas the flint is more hard and for several years past, and in consequence of nourishing, and grinds more into grist. Another large importations from the E. Indies, its culti- peculiarity, which marks their difference, is, that vation has ceased to be profitable, so that a very the flint corn grows principally in the lower small quantity is now planted in S. Carolina. country, degenerating in the middle and upper The lands which were suitable to the growth of country into gourd corn ; and the gourd corn, this plant, are fortunately well adapted to the if brought from the middle and upper country, is cultivation of cotton : hence, by an easy transi- said to change into a more flinty kind. tion, and without much expense, the indigo Hemp is grown in the upper country for sale, planters, driven by necessity to search out other particularly between Broad and Saluda Rivers, sources of industry, have directed their attention on what is called the Dutch Fork. Flax is also to the planting of cotton; and the success they grown, but only for domestic use; as are genehave experienced ought to stimulate the British rally all kinds of small European grain. Wheat, government to accomplish the same thing with however, in parts adjacent to good flour mills, is regard to hemp in Canada, where every thing is an exception to this; for wherever mills are sicongenial to its success, were only a right system tuated, a great encouragement is given to the adopted.

growth of this valuable grain. The produce of Cotton is noticed as an article of export in wheat, in the upper country, where almost every S. Carolina as early as the year 1754 ; but it is one cultivates a little for domestic use, is geneonly within the last 20 years that it has become rally about 15 bushels to the acre; but where a staple commodity, and surpassed, in value, the ground is well tilled, and the wheat ploughed the greatest crops of rice or indigo that have ever in, (as is done by a few of the best farmers) the been made in the state. The planter sells his produce is from 20 to 25 bushels the acre. A cotton to the merchant at least for ls, and gene- slovenly practice too much prevails, of sowing the rally for Is. 62. sterling the pound. In the year wheat over the Indian corn fields after the corn 1799, good cotton found an immediate sale in is gathered in, without having giving it any preCharleston for 2s.4d. and 2s. 8d. the pound; and paration whatever, except perhaps ploughing it is said, that what is called the island or sea the seed (after it is sown) into the land; yet shore cotton, is at least equal, in fineness and even in this careless manner the produce is frestrength of staple, to that of Jamaica. Since the quently 12 bushels the acre. The reason which embargo, the best cotton sold for 10d. and the the farmers give for not setting those wheat crops inferior from 4d. to 6d. the pound; and frequently in a better manner is, that in this way they make no sale was to be found for it at any price. with ease, and with little attendance, as much

In S. Carolina, tobacco is cultivated under wheat as their household concerns require; that some disadvantages; among which the expense to make more would be unnecessary, as they canand trouble of bringing it to market, is not the not conveniently transport so bulky an article least to be encountered. It is grown principally any distance for sale. Canals and roads are, in the upper country, remote from markets and however, now constructing

throughout the state, navigation, where, although the land is well and will, in a few years, afford the back settlers suited to its culture, yet no plantations of large every facility to dispose of their produce. Silk extent have yet been established. Each farmer was formerly raised in S. Carolina and Georgia;]

[but it is now unattended to, though it appears While agriculture is so much attended to, and that mulberry trees and silk worms are the spon- the means of engaging in it so easy, it is not surtaneous productions of the country.

prising that few direct their attention to manuThe implements of husbandry used in S. Caro- factures. Some years ago, a cotton manufactory lina, are few and simple: they consist of various was established near Statesborough, which bid ploughs, such as the, bar-share, shovel, fluke; fair to rise into consideration. It was, however, single coulter, cutter, and drill; harrows, hoes, soon perceived that the price of labour was too spades, waggons, carts, and sledges. Ploughs great to permit its goods to stand any competiare chiefly used in the middle and upper country, tion with those of similar qualities imported from where labourers are few, and the soil tenacious Great Britain ; consequently the proprietors and stubborn. In the lower country they are were obliged to discontinue their operations. A but partially used, although the planters would numerous population, and scarcity of lands, must probably find it their interest to adopt them more first be experienced in a country, before its inhagenerally. In some cases they cultivate a cotton bitants will resort to manufactures, while a more and Indian corn crop by the plough; but they eligible mode of subsistence exists. In the upper are oftener done with the hoe, which may be con- country, however, necessity has obliged the insidered as the principal instrument of husbandry habitants to provide for their respective wants in the lower country. The spade is used chiefly from their own resources, in consequence of the for ditching and draining the rice lands. But the difficulty and expense of conveying bulky articles hoe is used for cultivating them. In some tide, from the sea-coast to the interior. The traveller and inland plantations, however, where the there soon becomes accustomed to the humming ground is strong, and has been kept sufficiently music of the spinning wheel and the loom. Cotdry, ploughs are used with great advantage.

tons and woollens of various descriptions are Waggons and sledges are principally used in made in sufficient quantities for domestic use ; the middle and upper country, the first for trans and if we except the articles of salt and sugar, porting heavy articles to a distance, and the last the people in the upper parts of the state may be for drawing wood, rails, and small timber about considered independent of foreign support; for a settlement. In the lower country, ox carts, carpenters, smiths, masons, tanners, shoemakers, capable of carrying three or four barrels of rice, sadlers, hatters, millwrights, and other tradesare almost solely the mode of land-carriage for men, are conveniently situated throughout the the rice planters. They are drawn by three or country; and the materials necessary for their four yoke of oxen, and attended by two or three respective professions are met with in abunNegro drivers.

dance. There are upwards of 16 different grasses in At the distance of about 110 miles from the digenous to S. Carolina ; but in general little at sea, the river swamps terminate, and the high tention is paid to the forming of pasture and lands extend quite to the rivers, and form banks meadow lands. The cattle are sent into the in some places several hundred feet high from woods to graze, and the culture of cotton, rice, the surface of the water, and afford many extenand maize, becomes the chief object of the planter sive and delightful views. These high banks are and farmer's attention. Some lands in the vici- interwoven with layers of leaves, and different nity of Charleston are, however, converted into coloured earth, and abound

with quarries of freefields for mowing, as the high price of hay in stone, pebbles, flint, crystals, iron-ore in abunthat neighbourhood renders this branch of agri. dance, silver, lead, sulphur, and coarse diamonds. culture a profitable business ; but the greatest The swamps above the head of the tide are ocproportion of hay is brought from the N. States casionally planted with corn, cotton, and indigo. in the packet vessels. In general the cattle is The soil is very rich, yielding from 40 to 50 fed during winter upon the leaves and blades of bushels of corn an acre. It is curious to observe the Indian corn, rice-straw, &c. Horses and the gradations from the sea-coast to the upper poultry are fed with the corn, which, together country, with respect to the produce, the mode with rice, also form the principal food of the of cultivation, and the cultivators. Negroes. The white inhabitants are extremely On the islands upon the sea-coast, and for 40 fond of the corn bruised and boiled into a pud- or 50 miles back, and on the rivers much farther, ding, which they call hominy. It is eaten with the cultivators are all slaves. No white man, to milk, sugar, and butter, and is a favourite dish speak generally, ever thinks of settling a fárm at breakfast.

and improving it for himself without Negroes:]

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[if he has no Negroes, he hires himself as over- triol, and along the banks of rivers large quantişeer to some rich planter who has more than he ties of marle may be collected. There are also can or will attend to, till he can purchase for a variety of roots, the medicinal effects of which himself. The articles cultivated are corn, rye, it is the barbarous policy of those who are in oats, every species of pulse and potatoes, which, the secret to keep a profound mystery: The with the small rice, are food for the Negroes; rattle-snake root, so famous amongst the Indians rice, indigo, cotton, and some hemp, for expor for the cure of poison, is of the number. The tation. The culture of cotton is capable of being next is the venereal root, which, under a vegeincreased equal to almost any demand. The soit table regimen, will cure a confirmed lues. Ănwas cultivated till lately almost wholly by ma other root, when reduced to an impalpable nual labour. The plough, till since the peace, powder, is singularly efficacious in destroying was scarcely used. Now the plough and harrow, worms in children. There is likewise a root, an and other improvements, are introduced into the ointment of which, with a poultice of the same, rice swamps with great success, and will, no will in a short space of time discuss the most doubt, become general. In the middle settle- extraordinary tumours, particularly what is termed ments, Negroes are not so numerous. The mas the white-swelling; this root is very scarce.ter attends personally to his own business. The There is another root, a decoction of which, in land is not properly situated for rice. It pro new milk, will cure the bloody dysentery; the duces tolerable good indigo weed, and some to- patient must avoid cold, and much judgment is bacco is raised for exportation. The farmer is requisite in the portion to be administered. There contented to raise corn, potatoes, oats, rye, poul- is also a plant, the leaves of which, being bruised try, and a little wheat.

and applied to the part affected, relieves rheuIn the upper country there are but few Ne- matic pains; it occasions a considerable agitation groes ; generally speaking, the farmers have of the parts, attended with most violent and acute none, and depend, like the inhabitants of the pains, but never fails to procure immediate ease. N. States, upon the labour of themselves and fa There is also a plant, the leaves of which have a milies for subsistence; the plough is used almost most fetid smell; these leaves being boiled, and wholly. Indian corn in great quantities, wheat, any person afflicted with cutaneous complaints, rye, barley, oats, potatoes, &c. are raised for once bathing therein, will be radically cured. food; and tobacco, wheat, cotton, hemp, flax, and There is a root which acts as an excellent purge, indigo, for exportation. From late experiments and is well calculated for the labouring part of it has been found that vines may be cultivated, mankind, as it is only necessary to chew it in its and wine made to great advantage. Snake-root, crude state, and it requies no manner of aid to pink-root, and a variety of medicinal herbs grow facilitate its operation. An equally efficacious spontaneously; also ginseng on and near the and simple purge is obtained from a weed, the mountains.

stalk of which is red, is about three feet high, and This country abounds with precious ores, such the flower white; the leaves run from the bot. as gold, silver, lead, black-lead, copper, and iron; tom of the stalk in opposite and corresponding but it is the misfortune of those who direct their lines; the seed is about the size of a wheat pursuits in search of them, that they are deficient grain, globular in the centre, and oblate at both in the knowledge of chemistry, and too frequently ends; it is full of oil, and tastes like a walnut make use of improper menstruums in extracting kernel : 20 grains of this, chewed and swallowed, the respective metals. There are likewise to be is, in point of mildness and efficacy, equal to any found pellucid stones of different hues, rock crys- rhubarb ; and the pleasantness of its taste, as a tal, pyrites, peirified substances, coarse corne deception to weak stomachs, appears to have lian, marble beautifully variegated, vitreous been a design of Providence : in its operation it stone, and vitreous sand; red and yellow ochres, resembles castor-oil. A very sovereign remedy which, when roasted and ground down with lin- is extracted from the bark of a tree, which may seed oil, make a very excellent paint ; also pot- be used to great advantage in the diseases in. ter's clay of a most delicate texture, fuller's earth, cident to this climate. Every climate, some beand a number of dye-stuffs, among which is a sin- lieve, has its peculiar disease, and every disease gular weed which yields four different colours, its peculiar antidote under the same climate. In its leaves are surprisingly styptic, strongly re addition to the above is another species of bark, sembling the taste of alum ; likewise, an abun- of a sweet and nauseous taste : the tree grows dance of chalk, crude alum, sulphur, nitre, vi- contiguous to a very powerful chalybeate spring ;]

[the bark, when sufficiently masticated, operates the creek can be made navigable to the works. as a very potential purge and emetic, and in the Mr. William Hill, one of the principal propriehands of a skilful chemist may be rendered very tors of these works, has contrived a method, by serviceable. In this country is a tree which means of a fall of water, of blowing all the fires bears a large pod, inclosing a kind of mucilage, both of the forges and furnaces, so as to render the juice of which is very sharp; the bark smells unnecessary the use of wheels, cylinders, or any like tanned leather, and when prepared like hemp, other kind of bellows. The machinery is simple makes the very best of cordage ; also another and cheap, and not liable to the accident of freeze tree, which bears an ear like a corn-cob, covered ing. In the middle, and especially in the upper with berries containing a large proportion of country, the people are obliged to manufacture oil. There is likewise a very singular tree, which their own cotton and woollen cloths, and most of affords a most superb shade ; it produces a round their husbandry tools ; but in the lower country, ball, which, in the heat of summer, opens and the inhabitants, for these articles, depend almost enlarges a number of male insects, which be- entirely on their merchants. come very troublesome wherever they lodge: this Late accounts from the interior parts of this happens generally some distance from their pa- state inform, that cotton, hemp, and flax, are rent tree.

plenty ; that they have a considerable stock of The hand of nature never formed a country good sheep; that great exertions are made, and with more natural advantages, or blessed it with much done in the household way; that they have a more serene or healthful climate. It abounds long been in the habit of doing something in fawith game of all kinds, is a very fine fruit coun- mily manufactures, but within a few years past try, and is peculiarly adapted to the growth of great improvements have been made. The wo. vines, the olive, silk, and coffee trees, and the men do the weaving, and leave the men to atproduction of cotton. It is a perfect garden of tend to agriculture. This state furnishes all the medical herbs, and its medicinal springs are materials, and of the best kind, for ship building. not inferior to any in Europe.

The live oak, and the pitch and yellow pines, are The iron-works, known by the name of the of a superior quality. Ships might be built here Æra Etna Iron-work, are situated in York with more ease, and to much greater advantage, County, within two miles of the Catawba River. than in the middle and e. states. A want of seaWithin the compass of two miles from the fur men, is one reason why this business is not more nace, there is an inexhaustible quantity of ore, generally attended to. So much attention is now which works easy and well in the furnace. The paid to the manufacture of indigo, in this state, metal is good for hammers, gudgeons, or any that it bids fair to rival that of the French. It kind of machinery and hollow ware, and will is to be regretted, that it is still the practice of make good bar-iron. Some trial has been made the merchants concerned in the Carolina trade, of it in steel, and it promises well. Nothing is to sell at foreign markets the Carolina indigo of necessary for preparing the ore for use but burn- the first quality, as French. The society for the ing. The ore consists of large rocks above the information and assistance of persons emigratsurface ; the depth not yet known. In the cavi- ing from other countries, in a printed paper, ties between, lie an ochre and seed ore. It is which bears their signature, say, that “ À 'mosaid there will be no occasion to sink shafts or nied capital may be profitably employed, 1st. In drive levels for 50 years to come. The Æra erecting mills, for making paper, for sawing lumfurnace was built in 1787 ; the Ætna in 1788. ber, and especially for manufacturing wheat flour. The nearest landing at present (1795) is Cam There are hundreds of valuable mill seats unimden, 70 miles from the furnace. The proprietors proved, and the woods abound with pine trees. of the works, and seven others, have obtained a A bushel of wheat may be purchased in S. Carocharter to open the Catawba to the N. Carolina lina for half a dollar, which will make as good Line, and a charter from N. Carolina to open flour as that which in the vicinity of proper mills the river 80 miles higher in that state, and boats sells for double that price. Such is the cheapcame within 40 miles of the works in the course ness and fertility of the soil, that half a dollar a of the summer of 1795, as there were boats al. bushel for wheat would afford a great profit to ready built for the purpose which were to carry 30 the cultivators thereof. 2. In tanning and matons, and in the course of the following summer nufacturing leather. Cattle are raised with so they were brought within two miles of the works. much ease, in a country where the winters are The works are within two miles of the river, and both mild and short, that hides are remarkably]

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VOL. IV.

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