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[sidiod'Horcasritas on the 20th April, 1773. After a journey of 11 days they arrived at a vast and beautiful plain, one league's distance from the s. bank of the Rio Gila. They there discovered the ruins of an ancient Aztec city, in the midst of which is the edifice called La Casa Grande. These ruins occupy a space of ground of more than a square league. The Casa Grande is exactly laid down according to the four cardinal points, having from n. to s. 136 metres (or 445 feet) in length, and from e. to w. 84 metres (or 276 feet) in breadth. It is constructed of clay (tapia). The pish, or cases in which the clay is rammed down in the construction of a clay wall, are of an unequal size, but symmetrically placed. The walls are 12 decimeters (or three feet 11 inches) in thickness. This edifice had three stories and a terrace. The stair was on the outside, and probably of wood. The same kind of construction is still to be found in all the villages of the independent Indians of the Moqui w. from New Mexico. In the Casa Grande were five apartments, of which each is 27.18 feet in length, 10.82 feet in breadth, and 11.48 feet in height. A wall, interrupted by large towers, surrounds the principal edifice, and appears to have served to defend it. Father Garces discovered the vestiges of an artificial canal, which brought the water of the Rio Gila to the town. The whole surrounding plain is covered with broken earthen pitchers and pots, prettily painted in white, red, and blue. We also find amidst these fragments of Mexican stone-ware pieces of obsidian (itztli), a very curious phenomenon, because it proves that the Aztecs passed through some unknown n. country which contains this volcanic substance, and that it was not the abundance of obsidian in New Spain which suggested the idea of razors and arms of Itztli. We must not, however, confound the ruins of this city of the Gila, the centre of an ancient civilization of the Americans, with the Casas Grandes of New Biscay, situate between the presidio of Yanos and that of San Buenaventura. The latter are pointed out by the indigenous, on the very vague supposition that the Aztic nation, in their migration from Aztlan to Tula and the valley of Tenochtitlan, made three stations; the first near the lake Teguyo (to the s. of the fabulous city of Quivira, the Mexican Dorado!) the second at the Rio Gila, and the third in the environs of Yanos.
The Indians who live in the plains adjoining the Casas Grandes of the Rio Gila, and who have never had the smallest communication with the inhabitants of Sonora, deserve by no means the
appellation of Indios bravos. Their social civilization forms a singular contrast with the state of the savages who wander along the banks of the Missouri, and other parts of Canada. Fathers Garces and Font found the Indians to the s. of the Rio Gila clothed and assembled together, to the number of two or three thousand, in villages which they call Uturicut and Sutaquisan, where they peaceably cultivate the soil. They saw fields sown with maize, cotton, and gourds. The missionaries, in order to bring about the conversion of these Indians, showed them a picture painted on a large piece of cotton cloth, in which a sinner was represented burning in the flames of hell. The picture terrified them, and they entreated Father Garces not to unrol it any more, nor speak to them of what would happen after death. These Indians are of a gentle and sincere character. Father Font explained to them by an interpreter the security which prevailed in the Christian missions, where an Indian alcalde administered justice. The chief of Uturicut replied: " This order of things may be necessary for you. We do not steal, and we very seldom disagree; what use have we then for an alcalde among us?" The civilization to be found among the Indians when we approach the n. w. coast of America, from the 33° to the 54° of latitude, is a very striking phenomenon, which cannot but throw some light on the history of the first migrations of the Mexican nations.
There are reckoned in the province of Sonora one city, Arispe; two towns, viz. Sonora and Hostemuri; 46 villages, or settlements, 15 parishes, 43 missions, 20 farms, or haciendas, and 25 cottages, or ranchos.
The province of Cinaloa contains five towns (Culiacan, Cinaloa, El Rosario, El Fuerte, and Los Alamos), 92 villages, 30 parishes, 14 haciendas, and J50 ranchos.
In 1793 the number of tributary Indians in the province of Sonora amounted only to 251, while in the province of Cinaloa they amounted to 1851. This last province was more anciently peopled than the former.
The most remarkable places of the intcndancy of Sonora are: Arispe, Sonora, Hostimuri, Culiacan, Cinaloa, El Rosario, Villa del Fuerte, Los Alamos.
The population of this intendancy amounted, in 1803, to 121,400: the extent of surface, in square leagues, is 19,143; making the number of inhabitants to the square league 6.]
Sonoha. The capital of the above province and intendancy, with the dedicatory title of San
there guiquilile, this being the chief article of commerce. It produces also much sugar, which they make in the engines; rice and starch, made ofyucca root, in such abundance, as by these two last articles to supply the whole kingdom of Guatemala; also in qjonjoli, (sessamum) from which they extract a certain portion of oil. Its territory produces no wheat, owing to the heat of the climate; and what is necessary is therefore provided from the alcaldias may ores of Xalapa and Totonicapan. It has large breeds of swine, which it sends in droves to the capital; of neat cattle; domestic fowl, fruit, and vegetables, necessary for its own consumption, and of very superior quality. In this province are many muleteers, who, in requas, or droves of 25 to 50 mules, which they call atajos, carry on the traffic of conveying the aforesaid effects to the port of its name, and to the capital. It is watered by various rivers, which run to empty themselves into the S. Sea; with the exception of that which they call Del Agua Caliente (of warm water), which is very large, and enters the N. Sea.
In its jurisdiction is comprehended the celebrated coast of Balsamo, whereon is found the richest balsam known, and consequently highly esteemed in all parts. The population, which amounts to about 40,000 souls, is entirely of Indians, Mulattoes, Negroes, and other casts; although there are not wanting some Spanish families. Along the whole coast of the S. Sea the waters are so violent, as to deserve any name rather than that of Pacific; and as the only commercial port here, called Acajutla, is nothing more than a very large bay, in which vessels lie exposed to the inclemency of the weather, and at a distance from land; it follows that the lading and unlading of merchandise are attended with great inconveniences, and not unfrequently with considerable loss. Notwithstanding this, however, vessels do not fail to arrive here from the kingdoms of Nueva Espafia, Tierra Firme, and Peru; from the convenience of this spot being only four leagues distant from the capital, and of throwing the effects immediately into the interior provinces.
The capital is of the same name, with the dedicatory title of Santissima Trinidad; being a town founded on the shore of the river of its name, and four miles from the port of Acajutla; which has also the same title, in the S. Sea, and is a large bay, much frequented by vessels from the kingdoms of Peru, Tierra Firme, and Nueva Espafia, conveying the greatest part of the traffic carried on with Guatemala.
It has, besides the parish church, three convents of religious; which are of San Francisco, S. Domingo, and La Merced; a convent for female orphans, founded by Don Fr. Juan de Zapata and Sandoval, of the order of San Agustin, bishop of Vera Paz. Its population, which is tolerably large, is composed of three wards; bearing the names of Sonsonate, Mexicanos, and San Antonio; and in these dwell about 100 Indians and 1900 other souls, of which 400 may be Spaniards.
This town, although of the greatest importance from the reasons above mentioned, has no fortification or defence whatever. In its vicinity runs the grand Sierra Apaneca for many leagues from c. to w. and in it are three volcanoes. Its temperature is hot. As the port aforesaid is close to the capital of the kingdom Guatemala, there are in the vicinities of this town many muleteers, masters of large droves, who employ themselves in carrying merchandise; and as this is the principal branch of commerce, the number who thus gain their livelihood is very great. [This town is distant from Guatemala 162 miles. Lat. 13° 46' n. long. 89° 45' was
S. Pedro Caluco, Talmasuc,
S.Andres Guaimango, Comacagua,
Santiago Naulingo, Theotepeque,
S. Miguel Jujuta, Xicalapa,
Asuncion de Avecha- Chiltiupa,
pan, Asuncion de Izalco,
Ataco, San Juan Navizalco,
S.SilvestreGuaimaco, San Pedro Pauztlan,
Zapotan, Sto. Domingo Guiza
Mixata, San Andres Apaneca,
S. Antonio Atheos, Salcotitan.
SOPACHUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tomina in Peru.
SOPETRAN, a settlement of the province and government of Antioquia in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, close to its capital. In it is venerated a miraculous image of Nuestra Senora of its name, presented by the oidor of Santa F6, Don Francisco Campuzano, and held in particular devotion by all the surrounding people.
SOPINGA, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan m the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.
SOPO, a settlement of the correginriento of Zipaquira in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a cold temperature, and abounding in vegetable
productions corresponding to its climate. It contains more than 200 housekeepers and 100 Indians; and is six leagues n. of Santa Fe.
SOQUICANCHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guarochiri in Peru; annexed to the curacy of San Cosme and San Damian.
SORA, a settlement of the province of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a moderately cold temperature, and abounding in productions of such a climate, especially in wheat of very fine quality, maize, papas, &c. It contains 100 housekeepers, and 150 Indians; and is two hours' journey from the road of Tunja to the a), going to the town of Leiba.
SORACA, a settlement of the same province and kingdom as the former; of a very cold temperature, and surrounded by swamps, which make it sickly, particularly during the evening. It produces sufficient wheat, maize, barley, papas, &c. and much cattle, of the wools of which its natives fabricate woven stuffs. Its population was once large; but now reduced to 25 housekeepers and 150 Indians; though these, the greater part of them, may be said to have gone over to Tunja, which is half a league to the c.
Soraca, a very abundant river in the same province and kingdom as the former settlement. SORAMINA, a river of the province and government of Guayana, or Nueva Andalucia, in the territory possessed by the Dutch.
SORAS, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Lucanas in Peru.
SORASORA, a settlement and asiento of goldmines of the province and corregimiento of Oruro in Peru, four leagues from its capital.
SORAYA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Aimaraez in the same kingdom as the former.
[SOREL, a small town; situate at the entrance of the river Sorel, which runs into Lake Champlain. It has a respectable appearance from the water: it is somewhat smaller than Three Rivers, and is inhabited by several Eng-i lish and French families. The streets are prettily laid out, but the houses are yet very thinly scattered. Sorel, indeed, seems rather on the decline, both in wealth and population; and the few stores that are kept there, are mostly dependent upon the merchants of Montreal and Quebec. Its trade is confined to the supplying the inhabitants of the town and neighbourhood with English manufactured goods, West India produce, &c. The little importance that was formerry attached to Sorel, arose from the shipbuilding carried on there for some years; but of late that has entirely ceased.
The country people in the vicinity are mostly employed as voyageurs in the n. w. fur trade, ana the cultivation of their small farms is left to their wives and children. When they return home, they seldom bring more than enough to support them during the winter. The soil is thus neglected, and the town is badly supplied with provisions. Three horrid murders were committed here about nine or ten years ago. A store, kept by an old man, was observed, one morning, not opened as usual: the neighbours knocked at the door, but not getting admittance, they broke it open, and discovered the old man, and his niece, who lived with him, lying dead behind the counter. It appeared that they must have been just called from supper to serve the villain who had murdered them, for the supper things were laid out on the table in an adjoining parlour. The till was emptied of all the money, and many articles strewed about the floor.
The very next night, to the dread and astonishment of this little town, another man was murdered in his store in a similar manner, and his money stolen; but what was most surprising, the murderer remained undiscovered, and even unsuspected! nor was it ever positively ascertained who had been guilty of such atrocious deeds. But when the foreman of the shipyard, an European, decamped a few days after, with the wife of a tradesman in the town, strong suspicions were entertained that he was the murderer. He however made his escape into the United States, before any measures could be taken to apprehend him.]
Sorel, a fort built by the French in the province and country of the Iroquees Indians; situate at the to. point of the mouth of the river of the same name.
[sorel River, the outlet of Lake Champlain, which, after a course of about 69 miles n. empties into the river St. Lawrence, in lat. 46° 5', and long. 72° 55' w.
The country in the neighbourhood of the river Sorel does not yield to the others either in fertility or beauty. This river has three names; sometimes it is called Sorel, sometimes Chambly, (places thus named being situate upon it) and sometimes Richlieu. This river is of great value to Canada, because it has its source in Lake Champlain, from whence great quantities of valuable produce, particularly ship-timber and pot
ashes, are annually introduced from the United States. Indeed, it is the only channel acknowledged in law for the commerce of the States with Lower Canada. Hence, at a place called St. John's, on this river, near the lake, we have established a custom-house, which takes cognizance of whatever passes to and from the United States.
There is a fort at Chambly, and another at St. John's ; neither of them are very formidable: that at Chambly is built of stone; that at St. John's of wood. We generally have some troops at St. John's, as it is a frontier town.]
SORIBAN, a port of the coast of the N.Sea, in the province and kingdom of Tierra Firme: it is also called Port de Escribanos, and lies between that of N ombre de Dios and the point of San Bias.
SORITOR, R settlement of the province and corregimiento of Chachapoyas in Peru.
SORO, a settlement of the province and government of Cumana; one of those which are held by the Aragonese Capuchins; in the midst of the Serrania.
SOROCOTA, a llanura, called, by another name, De San Martin, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is very large, populous, fertile, and delightful, and of a mild and healthy climate: was discovered by Gonzalo Ximenez de Quesada in 1537.
SOROCUCHO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Cajamarca in Peru; annexed to the curacy of Celedin.
SOROPALCA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Porco in the same kingdom as the former.
[SORREL. See Sorel.]
SOTAQUI, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Coquimbo in the kingdom of Chile. In its district are four vice-parishes, and two small settlements of Indians, through which passes the river Limari; and in the valley here are gathered abundant crops of grapes and seeds.
SOTAQUIRA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Tunja in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. It is of a very cold temperature, and abounding in wheat, barley, maize, and papas. It has large breeds of cattle, from the fleeces of which they make fringed shirts and mantles, and also of cotton, towels, napkins, and other fine articles, of great estimation throughout the whole kingdom. It contains 200 housekeepers, and ISO Indians: and is a little more than three leagues between «. and n. w. of its capital.
SOTARA, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the same kingdom as the former.
SOTKING, a small island of the N. Sea; one of the Lucayas: w. of the island of Yuma.
SOTO, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru, of the district and jurisdiction of the city of Cordoba, on the shore of the river Primero.
SOTOLAMARINA, a settlement of the province and government of Sierra Gorda in the Bay of Mexico and kingdom of Nueva Espana; founded by the count of that title, Don Joseph de Escandon, Colonel of the Militia of Queretaro, in 1750.
SOTOTA, a small settlement of the head settlement of the district of Orijava and alcaldia mayor of Ixmiquilpan in Nueva Espana.
[SOTOVENTO, a name applied to the Lesser Antilles in the W. Indies. Among these, the chief may be reckoned Trinidad, Margareta, Curacao, and Tortugas.]
P_sotovento Lobos, or Leeward Island Of Sea Wolves Or Seals, on the coast of Peru, is seven leagues from the Barlevento Lobos, or Windward Island of Sea Wolves. It is about six miles in circuit, and 25 miles from Cape
SOTOVIS, a settlement of the province and government of Louisiana in N. America; where the French have built a fort on the shore of the river Arkansas.
SOTOYA, a small river of the province and country of Las Amazonas; which rises in the territory between the nations of the Indians called Greabellados, Cenequajes, and Cungies, runs w. and enters the Isa or Parana.
[SOUFFRIER Mountain. The most northerly of the lofty chain running through the centre of the island St. Vincent, and the highest of the whole, as computed by the most accurate survey that has as yet been taken. For some time previous to the 30th April, 1812, this memorable mountain had indicated much disquietude; and, from the extraordinary frequency and violence of earthquakes, (which are calculated to have exceeded 200 within the preceding year) had portended some great movement or eruption. The apprehension, however, was not so immediate as to restrain curiosity, or to prevent repeated visits to the crater, which of late had been more numerous than at any former period, even up to Sunday last, the 26th of April; when some gentlemen ascended it, and remained there for some time. Nothing unusual was then remarked, or
any external difference observed, except rather a stronger emission of smoke from the interstices of the conical hill, at the bottom of the crater. To those who have not visited this romantic and wonderful spot, a slight description of it, as it lately stood, is previously necessary and indispensable, to form any conception of it, and to the better understanding the account which follows; for no one living can expect to see it again in the perfection and beauty in which it was on Sunday, the 26th instant.
About 2000 feet from the level of the sea, (calculating from conjecture) on the s. side of the mountain, and rather more than two-thirds of its height, opens a circular chasm, somewhat exceeding half a mile in diameter, and between four or 500 feet in depth: exactly in the centre of this capacious bowl rose a conical hill, about 260 or 300 feet in height, and about 200 in diameter, richly covered and variegated with shrubs, brushwood, and vines, above half-way up, and for the remainder powdered over with virgin sulphur to the top. From the fissures in the cone and interstices of the rock a thin white smoke was constantly emitted, occasionally tinged with a slight bluish flame. The precipitous sides of this magnificent amphitheatre were fringed with various evergreens and aromatic shrubs, flowers, and many Alpine plants. On the n. and s. sides of the base of the cone were two pieces of water, one perfectly pure and tasteless, the other strongly impregnated with sulphur and alum. This lonely and beautiful spot was rendered more enchanting by the singularly melodious notes of a bird, an inhabitant of these upper solitudes, and altogether unknown to the other parts of the island: hence principally called, or supposed to be, invisible; though it certainly has been seen, and is a species of the merle.
A century had now elapsed since the last convulsion of the mountain, or since any other elements had disturbed the serenity of this wilderness than those which are common to the tropical tempest. It apparently slumbered in primeval solitude and tranquillity, and from the luxuriant vegetation and growth of the forest which covered its sides from the base nearly to the summit, seemed to discountenance the fact, and falsify the records of the ancient volcano. Such was the majestic, peaceful Souffrier, on April the 27th; but the surrounding inhabitants trod on "ignem repositum cinen doloso," and their imaginary safety was soon to be confounded by the sudden danger of devastation. Just as the}