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[just above this place, it is passable for boats to the mouth of Tugelo River. After it takes the name of Savannah, at the confluence of the Tugelo and Keowee, it receives a number of tributary streams from the Georgia side, the principal of which is Broad River. Tybee Bar, at the entrance of Savannah River, has 16 feet water at half-tide. Tybee lighthouse lies in lat. 32° «. and long. 81° w. and from thence to Port Royal is six leagues w. e. J e.
The freshes of this river will sometimes rise from 30 to 40 feet perpendicular, above the usual level of the river. In 1701 a very destructive one occurred in part of the country; and, in 1796, a similar flood poured down the Savannah River, laying the town of Augusta upwards of two feet under water, and damaging goods therein to a large amount. It tore away an extensive bridge, near 800 feet long, belonging to Mr. Wade Hampton, which had been thrown over that river from S. Carolina, and carried destruction and dismay before it, quite to the town of Savannah. The height of this fresh was supposed to be from 35 to 40 feet at Augusta above its common-level. This inundation also occasioned immense damage in S. Carolina, where the waters rose to as great a height as in Georgia. Several bridges were carried away, and many of the Negro huts on the islands and swamp plantations near the coast, were torn up with the people in them, and carried by the torrent entirely out to sea.
Proceeding up Savannah River, from the town, the sight is regaled with a variety of beautiful views. Numerous small islands intersect and divide the river into pretty meandering channels. The shores are mostly lined with large foresttrees, and the islands, with abundance of small shrubs. A few plantations appear at intervals upon the banks, with now and then a handsome house; but in general you see nothing but the Negro huts, together with many of the slaves who work upon the rice swamps: these, together with the cotton plantations, are very numerous on the banks of this river; of the latter we shall speak towards the end of this article; the cultivation of the former is conducted in the following manner:
Rice lands are laid out into squares, or small fields, proportioned to the strength of the Negroes who work them, in such manner, that they can be planted or hoed through in the course of a week. These fields are separated from each other by proper banks, sufficiently strong for retaining water in the one, whilst those adjoining are kept dry. They communicate with each
other by trunks and sluices, having valves at either end to receive or retain water, and large trunks or flood-gates, from rivers or reservoirs, through which water is occasionally introduced. About the 20th of March the spring has so far made its appearance as to enable the sowing of rice in the tide-lands: the inlands are not planted until the first or second week in April, as their soils are of a colder nature. Now the red-flowering maple has put on its scarlet robe, the alder its blossoms, and the willow its leaves; the alder also shoots up its vigorous stalks from the rich land in which it grows; and the swamp sloe-bush is covered with a profusion of showy blossoms. The wild-geese and ducks have departed for the northern regions; and the planter, freed from their ravages, begins seriously to sow his crop, continuing that business, from time to time, until the 10th of June, after which the seasons scarcely permit its ripening before the frosts set in. For this purpose, the land having been previously turned up, is drilled either with ploughs or hoes, but most generally with the hoe, into about 100 or 125 trenches in the half-acre, or 80 trenches in a quarter of an acre, and rice is sown therein, from one to two bushels the acre. It is then covered, and the general custom of tide-planters is, immediately to flow the fields with water, keeping the same on from two to four days, according to the season and the heat of the weather.
After the rice is some inches high, and attained a little strength, it requires hoeing. This is a very necessary business, as without it the plant will sometimes sicken and die. Three or more of these hoeings are commonly given to rice during its growth; and at the second hoeing the toil becomes more serious, for the grass and weeds are then hand-picked from the roots of the rice. After the operation is over, a flowing of tide-lands is commonly given, and continued from 10 to 20 days, in order to give the rice a stretch, and to prepare it for branching, which it now begins to do. After this the water is run gradually off, and the rice remains dry for some time. This is a critical period of the crop, as the harvest proves good or bad in proportion to the branching of the rice, and as every branch produces one ear, containing from 100 to 300 grains, as the lands may prove productive. In dry seasons the rice is liable to attacks from a small bug, equally injurious to it as the Hessian fly is eaid to be to wheat, or the blast to sugarcanes. These insects attach themselves to the rice, and suck out all the nourishment of the plant. In tide-plantations this mischief is easily) [remedied, by opening the sluices, and flowing the fields with water; but the inland planter has not this convenience; patience and hope are the only sources to which he can then apply for consolation.
Three months after the sowing of rice it begins to joint, blossom, and form the ear; water is now absolutely necessary, for without it there is much light rice; and whenever it can be thrown on from rivers or reservoirs it is immediately done, and is retained thereon, with a change of water, if convenient, until a few days before the harvest. This curious operation in agriculture generally begins on tide-lands towards the end of August, and in September the harvest becomes general throughout the state. In August, when the rice is flowed, and, as it is termed, the hoes laid by, the cooper-stuff is procured, which is necessary for exporting the rice in barrels: for this purpose, Negroes are then sent into the pine-lands to split staves and heading for barrels, while others afterwards cut hoop-poles for making them. Now the barns and barnyards are put in order, and the rice-mill is prepared for manufacturing the rice for market.
The produce of rice to the acre is different on different soils, and in proportion to the skill with which it is managed. On tide-lands, 2400 lbs. have been made to the acre; but, in general, the produce is from 1200 to 1500 lbs. weight each acre. The inland plantations do not average so much, ranging only between 600 and 1200 lbs. of clean rice to the acre. They, however, in addition to this, generally furnish their own provisions, which is an advantage that the tideplanters seldom enjoy, in consequence of the poverty of their high grounds.
After harvest the crop is placed in the open barnyards, either in stacks or in large ricks. It is then threshed out by hand-flails, and being winnowed from the straw, is ready for beating. This operation was formerly performed by manual labour, with a pestle and mortar, and is still so done, in some parts of the state; but, from public encouragement, aided by private necessity and invention, the rice-mills of S. Carolina are now arrived to a perfection unequalled, perhaps, by those of any part of the world.
As you proceed a few miles further up the river, you frequently may see a great number of alligators of various sizes; the largest of which are about eight feet long, and from 16 to 18 inches diameter in the thickest part of the body. They may be seen either swimming along shore, with their heads just above water, or basking in
the sun upon the branches of trees which project into the river. Their colour, when just coming out of the water, is a dark green or brown; but when dry, it resembles that of a log of wood. If you fire at them, the effect is just the same as though the bullet had struck against a coat of mail. The eye, or the breast, are the most vulnerable places. In the upper parts of the river they abound in great numbers, and of a very formidable size, growing frequently to the length of 18 or 20 feet.
This river abounds also with a great many tortoises or terrebins, which bask in the sun like the alligators, upon the trunks and branches of trees that grow in the water along shore. They are of various sizes, and are said to live in harmony with the alligator, in the same hole: in which case the terrebins cannot form an article of food for that voracious animal, otherwise they would fly from his presence. The variety offish with which the Savannah abounds, affords the alligator abundance of provision, without infringing the rights of hospitality.
In navigating this river it is necessary to keep some distance from the trees and shrubs which hangover the banks of the river, as there are a great number of water vipers reclining upon the branches. They are apt to spring into the boat, if it approaches too close, which is dangerous, as their bite is said to be venomous. Besides these vipers, the shores abound with a species of water rattle-snake, whose bite is also of a deadly nature.
The winter of Savannah is warm and moderate, but the weather is unsettled. Trees, shrubs, and plants, are then destitute of their beautiful foliage and fragrant blossoms; and the fields, plantations, and gardens, want their verdant crops, their gay and lively flowers. At that season we see nothing but the deep unvarying tint of pines, firs, laurels, bays, and other evergreens. The summer is too sultry to admit of frequent exposure in the open air, and the autumn generally brings with it, in the country parts, fever and ague, and in the towns, the typhus icterodes, or yellow fever.
In the plantations, the Negro men and women, boys and girls, are alike engaged; and each has a separate piece of ground marked out for their day's work. When their task is finished, some planters allow their slaves to work for themselves, on small gardens which are usually allotted to them. Where they have the good fortune to fall into the hands of a liberal-minded man, their situation is far from irksome, and] [they frequently know nothing of slavery but the name. In such cases, Negroes have been known to save up enough from the produce of their little gardens and live stock, to purchase their freedom, which is generally equivalent to 500 or 600 dollars.
Cotton is raised from the seed, and managed nearly in the following manner: About the latter end of March, or beginning of April, commences the season for planting cotton. In strong soils the land is broken up with ploughs, and the cotton is sown in drills, about five feet from each other, and at the rate of nearly a bushel of seed to the acre; after which, when the cotton is a few leaves high, the earth is thrown up in a ridge to the cotton, on each side, by a plough, with a mould-board adapted to that purpose; or, in the first instance, beds are made rather low and flat, and the cotton is sown therein. By some they are sown in holes, at about 10 inches distance; but the more general practice is to sow the cotton in a drill along the length of of the bed; after which it may be thinned at leisure, according to its growth. In rich highland soils, not more than 15 of these beds are made in a quarter of an acre; but in inferior lands, 21 beds are made in the same space of ground. When the plants are about four or six leaves high, they require a thinning; at which time only a very few plants are left at each distance, where it is intended the cotton is to grow: and from time to time these plants are thinned, until at length two plants, or only one, are left at each distance.
Where the land is not rich, the plants remain within JO or 12 inches of each other; but when a luxuriant growth is induced, they are thinned to 18 inches and two feet, and in rich swamp lands, to four feet distance in the rows. At the time of thinning also the first hoeing is generally
Siven, and the rule is, not to draw the earth own, but constantly to draw up a little earth at each hoping, to the plant; and to give the fields a hoeing every two or three weeks. With some planters the practice of topping the main stalk has been used when the plants are too luxuriant; but the plant throwing out consequently an abundance of suckers, and thereby increasing the toil of the Negroes to pull them away, has induced its discontinuance. Towards the middle of September, however, it may be advantageous to top the cotton to the lowest blossoms; as from that time no blossoms will
}>roduce cotton. By this treatment also the sun ias a greater influence with the plant, the pods
open sooner, and the strength of the plant is not drawn unnecessarily from those pods which are likely to come to maturity.
Towards the middle of June the plants begin to put forth their beautiful blossoms, and continue blossoming and forming the pods until the frosts set in; at which time all the pods that are not well grown are injured and destroyed. - Early in August the cotton harvest begins, and in September it is general throughout the state, continuing until December. The cotton wool is contained in the pod, in three or four different compartments; which bursting when ripe, presents the cotton full blown to the sight, sur- v rounding its seed. The cotton is then picked from the pods, and put into small bags of Osnaburg, which are slung over the Negroes' shoulders for that purpose, and afterwarcls carried to the cotton-house. From thence it is, in a day or two after, taken out, and spread on a platform to dry, after which it is ready for ginning. For this purpose a suitable house is necessary, sufficiently large to receive both the cured cotton, and that which has been lately brought in. When the cotton is well opened, a Negro will gather 60 or 70 lbs. of cotton in the seed in one day. The produce of cotton is va- '» rious, according to its different situations and kinds. In the lower country the black seed produces from 100 to 300 lbs. of clean cotton per acre. In the middle and upper country green seed does the like. Upon indifferent lands, only from 60 to 100 lbs. of clean cotton is made to the acre; on better lands from 100 to 200 lbs.; and on the best lands, in good seasons, upwards of 300 lbs. have been made in Beaufort district. The planter, however, is satisfied with from 150 to 200 lbs. of clean black seed cotton to the acre. The green seed planter expects somewhat more.
There are several kinds of gins in use, but the saw gins are reckoned to clean the most cotton in the shortest time. The saw gins are used particularly for extracting the cotton from the green seed, to which it closely adheres. This mill is worked either by oxen or water, and consists of an horizontal cog-wheel, or a waterwheel working a band which puts the pulleys of the saw-mill in motion. One of these pulleys turns a cylinder, round which is affixed from 20 to 40 circular iron plates, about three-fourths of an inch distant from each other, serrated at the edge; these continually revolve between iron straps into the compartment where the cotton is placed, and thus tear the cotton from the seeds,] [as the space through which they revolve is not sufficiently large to let the seeds pass through. Another pulley moves a cylinder with a set of brushes opposite each saw, which take, the clean cotton from the teeth of the saw, and discharge it from the gin. One person, besides the packers and those who drive the oxen, is sufficient to attend this gin, and the cotton cleaned by it daily may be from 600 to 900 lbs. weight.
After the cotton is thus ginned, a number of hands are employed in picking from it any dirt, or bits of seed, which may remain in it: it is then packed up in bags, weighing from 250 to 300 lbs. and is ready for market. Such is the growth of cotton in S. Carolina, and the mode of preparing it for market; but it is not all of the same intrinsic value, as that raised on lands adjacent to the sea and salt-water, called island or sea-shore cotton, being black seed, is preferred to the green-seed cotton, which is raised in the interior of the country. Cotton is also grown at Berbice, Demerara, Surinam, Cayenne, St. Domingo, Tobago, Jamaica, and other parts of the W. Indies, as well also in the E. Indies; but Great Britain has lately received her chief supplies of that article from the American States.]
[savannah River, Little, falls into the Gulf of Mexico, n. w. of St. Joseph's Bay.]
[savannah La Mar, at the e. end of the island of St. Domingo, is a settlement on the s. side of the Bay of Samana, opposite the city of Samana on the w. side, and lies between the Bay of Pearls (which is "an excellent port) and the point of Icaque. It has its governor and rector, and is situated at the end of a plain, which is more than 10 leagues from c. to w. and four wide from n. to *. The city of Samana and this town were both begun in 1756, and together do not contain more than 500 souls. The anchorage here is only fit for small vessels: shallows and breakers render the navigation very dangerous between this and the point of Icaque, four leagues and a half distant.]
[savannah La Mar, on the *. side of the island of Jamaica, in Cornwallis County, has a good anchorage for large vessels. It was almost entirely destroyed by a dreadful hurricane and inundation of the sea in 1780: it is now partly rebuilt, and may contain from 60 to 70 houses. It bears from Bluefield's Point w. by n. \ n. about three leagues. Lat. 18° 13'«. long. 78° 2' a>.]
SAVANNAS, a settlement of Indians of the province of Georgia in N. America, on the shore of the river Apalachicola.
Savannas, another settlement of Indians, in
the province and colony of S. Carolina, on the shore of the river Albama.
SAVARIMA, a strand of the island of Cuba, near the city of Havannah; and at the front of it is a shoal on which, in 1698, was wrecked a very valuable galleon.
SAUCE, Punta De, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru; situate on the shore of the river Quinto, near the lake into which this runs, and in the road of the port from Chile to Buenos Ayres.
Sauce, a small river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres, which runs;, and enters the river Plata, by the side of the colony of Sacramento, which belonged to the Portuguese.
Sauce, another, also a small river, of the same province as the former. It runs w. and enters the Uruguay between those of Gracian and Vibora.
Sauce, another, with the surname of Roto, in the same province; which runs w. and enters the Santa Lucia Chico.
Sauce, a fort, in the province and government of Tucuman, to restrain the barbarian Indians.
Sauce, a fertile and large valley of the province and corregimienlo of Melipflla and kingdom of Chile.
SAUCES, a settlement of the province and government of Tucuman in Peru, near the river of Pa sage.
Sauces, another settlement of the same province, on the shore of the river Dulce, between the settlements of Tamisqui and La Dormida.
Sauces, another, also in the sameprovince,with the denomination De Rio, in the jurisdiction of the city of Cordoba.
Sauces, another,of the province ofTepequana and kingdom of Nueva Vizcaya in N. America.
Sauces, a river, in the province and government of Paraguay, which laves the territory called Pampas, it receives in the s. part of its course the waters of several rivers flowing down from the cordillera of the kingdom of Chile; and, after running 126 leagues to the s. it turns e. and disembogues itself on the sea of Magellan, forming a great bay. In lat. 40° 42'*.
Sauces, a river of the island of La Laxa in the kingdom of Chile, which runs w. and turning its course to n. enters the Pecoiquen.
[SAUCON, Upper and Lower, townships in Northampton County, Pennsylvania.]
SAVIANGO, a large river of the province of Loxa in the kingdom of Quito. It rises in the mountain of Pandomine and runs a>. till it enters by the n. part into the Macara, in lat. 4°25' s.
[SA VILLA, St. a small town of Georgia, midway between Savannah and St. Mary's.]
SAVIRE, a small river of the province and government of Guayana or Nueva Andalucia, which rises near the mountain of Barragan, and enters the Orinoco by the e. side, near the settlement of Urafia.
[SAUKIES, or Saikies, called also Renars or Foxes, an Indian tribe in the N. W. Territory, and one of the savage nations of N. America. The Saukies or Renars are so perfectly consolidated, that they may, in fact, be considered as one nation only. They speak the same language: they formerly resided on the e. side of the Mississippi, and still claim the land on that side of the river, from the mouth of the Wisconsin to the Illinois River, and e. towards Lake Michigan; but to what particular boundary we are not informed: they also claim, by conquest, the whole of the country belonging to the ancient Missouri*, which forms one of the most valuable portions of Louisiana: but what proportion of this territory they are willing to assign to the Ayouways, who also claim a part of it, we do not know, as they are at war with the Sioux, who live n. and n.m. of them, except the Yankton Ahnah. Their boundaries in that quarter are also undefined: their trade would become much more valuable if peace were established between them, and the nations w. of the Missouri, with whom they are at war: their population has remained nearly the same for many years: they raise an abundance of corn, beans, and melons: they sometimes hunt in the country w. of them, towards the Missouri, but their principal hunting is on both sides of the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Oisconsin to the mouth of the Illinois River. These people are extremely friendly to the whites, and seldom injure their traders; but they are the most implacable enemies to the Indian nations with whom they are at war. To them is justly attributable the almost entire destruction of the Missouris, the Illinois, Cahokia, Kaskaskias, and Piorias.J
SAUMON, a small river of the island of San Juan in Nova Scotia. It rises from two small lakes, runs n. and enters the sea between the Bay of Basque and the island of Sea Wolves.
Saumon, another, also small, of the same province which runs e. and enters the sea in the port of Chedaboucto.
Saumon, another, also small, in the country and land of Labrador, which runs s. and enters the sea in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.
Saumon, a port on the e. coast of Newfoundland, within Cork Bay.
[Samson, See Salmon.]
SAUMONS, a river of New France or Canada, which runs w. and enters the St. Lawrence.
SAUNDERS, a settlement of the island of Barbadoes, in the district of the parish of St. Thomas.
[saunders Island, in the Atlantic Ocean; one of the small islands which surround the two chief of the Falkland Isles.]
[saunders Island, one of the Sandwich Islands in the S.Atlantic Ocean, is about 13 leagues n. of Cape Montague. Lat. 58° 8' s. Long. 29° 8' ».]
[saunders Island, or Sir Charles SaunDers' Island, called by the natives Tapoamanao, in the S. Pacific Ocean, is reckoned one of the Society Islands. When Port Royal Bay, at Otaheite, is 70° 45' *. distant 61 miles c. this island bears s.s.w. Lat. 17° 28' s. Long. 151° 4' w. It is about two leagues long.]
SAVORY, a settlement of the same island as the former; situate in the district of the parish of S. Joseph, near the e. coast.
[SAURA Lower Town, is situated on the s. side of Dan River in N. Carolina. It was formerly the chief town of the Saura Indians.]
[saura Upper Town, in the same state, an ancient and well peopled town of the Saura Indians : situate in Stokes County, on the s. side of Dan River.]
Saura, a river of the province and corregimiento of Piura in Peru, which runs w. and enters the Piura.
SAUS, a settlement of the head settlement of the district of Tamazunchale, and alcaldia mayor of Valles in Nueva Espana. It is of Pames Indians, who live like barbarians in that sierra.
SAUSA, a small settlement of the kingdom of Peru, between Cuzco and Caxamarca; celebrated for the imprisonment and death of the emperor Huascar Inca, fourteenth monarch of Peru; who was quartered by order of Atahualpa, usurper of the crown, in 1532.
SAUTEURS, a river of Canada in N.America, which runs through the territory of the Messesagues Indians to the s. w. and enters Lake Huron.
[sauteurs, Le Morne Des, or Leaper's Hill, a precipice near the river Sauteurs, at the n. end of the island of Grenada. After the year 1650 the French gradually exterminated the Charaibes: near this place they butchered 40 of them on the spot; and 40 others, who had escaped the