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curacy of Santa Maria del Valle; situate on the confines of the Panataguas Indians.

[PAN APA Island of the Orinoco. See Vol. HI. p. 491. of this Dictionary.]

PANAQUIRE, a settlement of the province and government of Venezuela and Nuevo Reyno de Granada, founded in the seventeenth century for the greater convenience of commerce, after the establishment of the Guipuzcoanan company.

PANATAGUAS, a barbarous nation of Indians of the kingdom of Peru, inhabiting the country bounded n. and e. by the province of Guanuco. From them are descended many other nations of different names, some of them having been reduced to the faith by the missionaries of the order of San Francisco in 1631; and although they once rebelled, putting to death their priests and flying to the mountains, they again returned to their obedience, since they are of a pacific and docile disposition; and the first settlements which were made of them, have been ever since rapidly enlarging.

PANCHES, a province and corregimiento of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. Its length is 15 leagues from e. to w. and its width 12 from n. to *. of an hot temperature and rough and craggy territory, full of mountains and ravines. It is watered by several rivers, the largest and principal of which is the Bogata. It is fertile in maize and vines, of which there are two gatherings yearly, although commercial regulations have prohibited the making of wine here. Here are, however, many sugar engines for the manufactory of sugar from the abundance of the canes.

Its natives, and from whom it takes its name, are the most strong, robust, and valorous of any in the kingdom; ferocious, of warlike appearance, and cannibals. They are at continual war with the Muzos, and did not marry the women of the same settlement, looking upon such as sisters: they adored the sun and moon, and although their number, with regard to other nations, was not large, they were so much feared by all, that the Zipas of Bogota had a garrison of them in the settlements on the boundary of their jurisdiction. Their arms were bows and arrows and wooden clubs. The greater part of them, at the present day, live in the woods and mountains.

This province was conquered by Captain Venegas Carrillo, after that it had been attempted in vain by other Spaniards; but they have frequently arisen in their different settlements and committed shocking murders. The capital is Tocaima.

PANCHIMILCO, San Juan De, a settle

ment of the head settlement of the district of Mazatepec, and alca/dia mayor of Cuernavaca, in Nueva Espana, on the shore of a river. It

Jiroduces much maize, fruit, and cotton. Is five eagues from its head settlement, very close to the settlement of Tetelpa; and contains only 26 Indian families.

PANCICHA, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Porco in Peru, on the shore of the river Pilcomayo.

PANCITARA, a settlement of the province and government of Popayan, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada.

PANCRACE, S. a port of the n. coast of the river S. Lawrence in Canada, between the rivers S. Nicholas and English.

PANDABEQUES, a barbarous nation of Indians inhabiting the country of Las Amazonas, to the s. of the river Maranon or Amazons, and bounded by the Chingacuchuscas: reduced to the faith in 1652 by the missionaries of the Jesuits, who formed of them a settlement dependent upon that of Xiaweos, in the province of Muinas..

PANDIYACU, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Pasto in the kingdom of Quito.

[PANDO, a parish of the province and government of Buenos Ay res, situate on the small river of this name, near the sea-coast about 20 miles n. e. of Monte Video, in lat. 34° 41' 18", Ion. 55' 49' 4".]

Pando, a river of the province and government of Buenos Ayres in Peru, which runs s. and enters the Plata at its mouth, betwen the rivers Solis Chico and Monte Video.

PANDOMINE, a chain of mountains of the

Srovince and corregimiento of Loxa, in the kingom of Quito, between the mountains ColaySacapy to the n. e. and Sosoranga to the s. w. It runs from n. w. to s. e. and unites itself with the chain of Pichinche.

PANDIERO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Sieasica, in Peru, eight leagues from its capital.

PANECILLO, a small mountain in the llanura of Callo, in the province and corregimiento of Latacunga, and kingdom of Quito to the n. It is thought to have been made by the Indians, and stands near the antient palace of the princes of this kingdom, to serve as a place of look-out, from whence the whole of the surrounding country may be viewed. It is 85 fathoms high, measured perpendicularly; is the figure of a very regular truncated cone; and on the s. side it is washed by the river Callo; and may be well discovered by the height of Tio-pullu, and from the

llanura of Mula-halo, as you proceed along the Their population is increasing.' They are friendriver Alajes, in lat. 44 32 s.

ly and hospitable to all white persons; pay great PANECILLO, another, a small mountain of the respect and deference to their traders, with whom same figure, and 100 Parisian toises high, near they are punctual in the payment of their debts. the city of Quito, and having at its skirts some They are, in all respects, a friendly, well-dishouses of the suburbs. From its top may be posed people. They cultivate corn, beans, meseen the llanuras of Turu-bamba to the s. and of lons, &c.] Iñaquito Oñaquito to the n. The skirts of this SPANIAS LOUPS, or Wolves. These Inmountain are cultivated and sown with wheat, dians are a branch of the Panias Proper, who sepaand in it is a quarry, from whence stone is ex rated themselves from that nation many years tracted in large pieces for the works of the city. since, and established themselves on a n. branch of It had formerly a subterraneous rout cut through the river Plate, to which their name was given. it by order of the prince, the symptoms of which These people have no idea of an exclusive right are still observable on the part by Chimba-calle. to any portion of country. They hunt on the In this mount spring various streams of delicious Wolf river, above their village, and on the river water, towards the Dominican convent, the best Plate, above the mouth of that river. This of which is drank at Quito.

country is very similar to that of the Panias ProPANERIA, a river of the province and corre per, though there is an extensive body of fertile gimiento of Pasto, in the kingdom of Quito, well-timbered land between the Wolf river, bewhich runs e. and enters the Guames.

low their village, and the river Corn de Cerf, or PANGOA, a river of the province and corre Elkhorn river They cultivate corn, beans, &c. gimiento of Caxamarquilla, in Peru.

The particulars related of the other Panias are PANGORA, a river of the province and corre also applicable to them. They are seldom visited gimiento of Guanta in Peru. It rises in the pro- by any trader, and therefore usually bring their vince of Castro-Virreyna, runs e. then turns n. furs and peltry to the village of the Panias Proand returning to e. unites itself in a large stream per, where they traffic with the whites.] with the river La Sal, and these together run into [PANIAs Pique. These Indians have no interthe Angoyaco,

course with the inhabitants of the Illinois; the PANGUE, a small river of the province and information, therefore, which we have been enacorregimiento of Maule, in the kingdom of Chile, bled to obtain, with respect to them, is very which runs n. n. w, and enters the river Maule.

imperfect. They were formerly known by the PANHANONS, a river of the province and co name of the White Panias, and are of the same lony of Pensylvania, in N. America, which runs n, family with the Panias of the river Plate. They then turns w. and enters the Ohio.

are said to be a well-disposed people, and inhabit PANIAS, a tribe of Indians of the province a very fertile country ; certain it is that they and government of Louisiana, where the French enjoy a delightful climate.] have a fort. They live in a settlement, situate (PANIAS REPUBLICANS, are a branch of Pania on the shore of the river Arkansas.

Proper, or, as they are frequently termed, the [With these Indians, the idea of the possession Big Paunch Indians. About ten years since they of soil is similar to that of the Ottoes. They withdrew themselves from the mother-nation, hunt on the s. side of the river Plate, higher up and established a village on a large northwardly and on the head of the Kanzas. A great pro branch of the Kanzas, to which they have given portion of this country consists of open plains, name ; they afterwards subdivided and lived in interspersed however with groves of timber, different parts of the country, on the waters of which are most generally found in the vicinity of Kanzas river ; but being harassed by their turthe water-courses. It is generally fertile and bulent neighbours, the Kanzas, they have lately well watered; lies level, and free of stone. They rejoined the Panias Proper What has been said have resided in the country which they now in with respect to the Panias Proper is applicable habit since they were known to the whites. to these people, except that they hunt principally Their trade is a valuable one, from the large pro on the Republican river, which is better stocked portion of beaver and otter which they furnish; with timber than that hunted by the Panias.] and it may be expected yet to increase, as those PANICO, a settlement and alcaldia of the animals are still abundant in their country. The Portuguese, in the kingdom of Brazil, between periods of their residence at their village and the rivers Corixes and Tocantines, nearer the hunting are similar to the Kanzas and Osages, shore of the former than the second.

PANIMA, a settlement of the province and surplus they exchange with the Hietans for bufgovernment of Louisiana on the shore of the river'falo, rugs, horses, and mules. The pumpkin Arkansas, with a fort built by the French. they cut round in its shreads, and when it is

PANIMAHA, a settlement of the nation of in a state of dryness, that it is so tough it will the Bread Indians, in N. America, on the shore not break but bend, they plait and work it into and at the source of the river Panis. In its large mats, in which state they sell it to the vicinity are other settlements.

Hietans ; who, as they travel, cut off and eat it PANIMALIAS, a settlement of Indians of the as they want it. Their tobacco they manufacture same nation as the former, situate also on the and cut as fine as tea, which is put in leather shore of the river by the other small settlements. bags of a certain size, and is likewise an article

PANINDIQUARO, SAN ANDRES de, a set of trade. They have but few guns, and very tlement of the head settlement of Puruandíro, and little ammunition ; what they have they keep for alcaldía mayor of Valladolid, in the province and war, and hunt with the bow. Their meat is bishopric of Mechoacán; situate in a flat bottom, principally buffalo ; seldom kill a deer, though of a hot and moist temperature, and containing 32 they are so plentiful as to come into their villages, families of Indians, who cultivate some wheat in and about their houses, like a domestic animal. its district; 18 leagues s. w. of Pasquaro. Elks, bears, wolves, antelopes, and wild hogs,

PANIO VASAS, a settlement of Indians of the are likewise plentiful in their country, and white province and government of Louisiana, on the rabbits, or hares, as well as the common rabbit : shore of a small river which enters the Padoukas. white bears sometimes come down amongst them,

PANIS, a settlement of Indians of the nation and wolves of various colours. The men geneof this name, in the province and government of rally go entirely naked, and the women nearly Louisiana in N. America, where the French had so, only wearing a small flap of a piece of a skin. an establishment defended by a fort. It is sur. They have a number of Spaniards among them, rounded with two small settlements on the shore of fair complexion, taken from the settlement of of the river of its name.

Santa Fé, when they were children, who live as PANIS, another settlement, in the same pro- they do, and have no knowledge of the place vince, on the shore of the river Missouri, where from whence they came. Their language differs also the French had a fort and establishment; from that of any other nation, the Tawakenoes and round about it are upwards of 40 small set- excepted.

excepted. Their present number of men is estitlements of Indians.

mated at about 400. A great number of them, [The Indian tribe mentioned in the two above about six years ago, were swept off by the smallsettlements, are called by the French Panis, pox.] and by the Spaniards Towiaches; the latter is Panis, a river of the territory in which the the proper Indian name. They live on the s. Indians of this name reside. It runs e. and side of Red river, by the course of the river, enters the Missouri, in lat. 39° 44' n. upwards of 800 miles above Natchitoches; and PANO, a river of the province and governby land, by the nearest path, it is estimated at ment of Quixos and Macas, in the kingdom of about 340. They have, at present, two towns Quito, which runs e. and uniting itself with the near together; the lower town, where their chief Tena enters the Hollin, in lat. 58' s. lives, is called Niteheta, the other is called PANOJORIS, a barbarous nation of Indians, Towaahach. They call their present chief the little known, who inhabit the country of Las Great Bear. They are at war with the Spaniards, Amazonas, between the rivers Tigre and Curabut friendly to those French and American hun ray; from these are descended the

Semigals. ters who have lately been among them. They PANONKE, a lake of the province and colony are likewise at war with the Osages, as are of Sagada hook, formed from the river Penob. every other nation. For many hundreds of miles scot, at its mid-course; on the confines of Nova round them the country is rich prairie, covered Scotia, or Acadia. with luxuriant grass, which is green summer PANOS, a barbarous and numerous nation of and winter, with skirts of wood on the river bank, Indians of the province of Las Amazonas, dwellby the springs and creeks.

ing in the woods near the river Ucayale to the e. They have many horses and mules. They bounded n. by the nation of the Cocamas, and s. raise more corn, pumpkins, beans, and tobacco, by those of the Piros and Cunivos. They are than they want for their own consumption ; thé ferocious, treacherous, and cruel : some were

VOL. IV.

reduced to a settlement in 1608 ; but they rose in Hernan Cortés, but its conquest and settlement 1723, and again retired to their native woods. caused him infinite labours. It is rather fertile

[PANSE, DE LA, a branch of Wabash river, in and pleasant than rich, and by no means pothe N. W. territory.]

pulous. PANTALEON, $. a settlement of the pro PANUCO, the capital, situate on the shore of a vince and government of Sonora in N. America, river, from whence it takes its name: 39 miles of the country and territory of the Apaches In from the sea, and 143 n. with a slight inclination dians; on the shore of a river, between the set to the e. of Mexico : founded by order of Hertlements of Rosario and San Eugenio.

nan Cortés in 1520, with the title of San Estevan PANTALEON, another settlement, of the pro del Puerto. It contains about 500 families, and vince and government of Buenos Ayres in Peru; consists of some very neat houses of stone with situate on the shore and at the source of the roofs of palm leaves. The river is navigable for river Las Conchas, and s. of the capital.

large vessels much above the city ; but the port PANTALEON, a lake of the same province and has at its entrance a bar, so as to impede the government as the former settlement, near the passage of the vessels from coming up: a great shore of the river Saladillo.

disadvantage to its commerce. It is in lat. PANTEPEC, a settlement and head settle. 22° 48' n. and long. 98° 52' w. ment of the district of the alcaldía mayor of Panuco, a settlement and real of silver mines, Guauchinango in Nueva España. It contains of the alcaldía mayor of Fresnillo in Nueva Es470 families of Otomies and Totonacos Indians, paña: of a small population, as being near to and its territory is the most fertile of the whole the city of Zacatecas, about three leagues disjurisdiction, producing in abundance, cotton, tant. chile, tobacco, sugar, wax, maize, French beans, PANUCO, another settlement, of the province and various fruits. In its district are five wards, and government of Tucumán in Peru; situate and it is 22 leagues n. of its capital.

n. n. w. of the town of San Fernando. PANTEPEC, another settlement, of the pro PANUELO, QUADRADO, a large square vince and alcaldía mayor of Los Zoques in the sand-bank, having in the midst several small kingdom of Guatemala.

isles, some of which are called Los Abrojos, PANTIPATA, a settlement of the province and on which many vessels have been lost. and corregimiento of Abancay in Peru.

This bank is n. of cape Rojo of S. Domingo, [PANTON, a townshi) in Addison county, and e. of Los Caicos. Vermont; situate on the è side of lake Champ PANUN, a settlement of the province and lain, between Addison and Ferrisburg, and corregimiento of Chancay in Peru; annexed to about 87 miles n. of Bennington. It contains the curacy of Canchas. 200 inhabitants.]

PANZACOLA, a city and garrison of FloPANUAYA, a river of the province and cor- rida, in the province of its name; situate in the regimiento of Mexico in Nueva España, which bay of Santa Maria de Galve: founded by D. rises in the mountains of the sierra Nevada, and Andres de Aveiola, by order of the viceroy of runs to empty itself in the lake of Chalco. Nueva España, the Count de Galve, in 1596.

PANUCO, a province and alcaldía mayor of It was formerly small, and is of a moderate Nueva España ; bounded n. by the Nuevo Reyno temperature, the heat or cold never being exde Leon, and by one part of the audience of cessive at the different seasons.

The territory Guadalaxara, e. by the gulf of Mexico, s. by the although sandy is fertile, and yields abundantly province of Tlaxcala and that of Mexico, and w. of whatsoever is sowed. It produces many wild by the kingdom of Meehoacán. The tropic of fruits, such as bitter acorns, two kinds of walCancer traverses this province, so that it lies nuts, the one of which is very delicate, medlars partly in the torrid, partly in the temperate and chesnuts, which have the appearance of nuts, zone; 55 leagues long, and nearly the same wide. and are of the same taste as the Spanish nuts, The part bordering upon the province of Mexico and vines which yield large grapes of a purple is the best and most fertile, and abounding in colour and somewhat sour. provisions, and having some gold mines and In the forests are various sorts of wood, pine, several salt earths; but the other part, which sassafras, savines, and oaks ; of animals, as deer, is bounded by Leon, is miserable and barren. cebolos, bears, and also of fowl as large as the This country was one of the first discovered by turkies of Europe.

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In 1719 this city was taken by the French, not be liable to the interruption of enemies but restored in the same year by Alfonso Car- cruizers, and, in the event of an invasion of the rascosa de la Torre, who constructed at the point latter province, it might receive early succour of Sigüenza, one of those which form the en from the former. The city of Pao is in lat. trance of the bay, a fort with the name of Prin- 9 22 n. and long. 68 21' w. and lies 105 miles cipe de Asturias; but the French, commanded s.w. of Caracas. by Count de Chamelin, returned again to attack Pao, a river of the former province and goit with a naval force, against which Don Afonso vernment of Barcelona, and known also by the Carrascosa, with very limited means, in vain name of Macuros. It is large and abundant, made an intrepid defence, and it was eventually rises at the back of the serrania, to the s. of the burnt and destroyed. In 1762 it was ceded to table-land of Guanipa, runs s. e. and collects the English by the peace of Versailles, and in some streams by the s.w. Near its source dwell 1781 it was conquered and regained by the Spa some barbarian Indians of the Ivarecipes and niards under Count de Galves. Forty-five miles Peritos Indians. It abounds in small fish, and e.s.e, of Mobile, in lat. 30 33 n. and long. 78 on its shores grows excellent cacao.

grapher Cruz is also wrong respecting the course PAO, Concepcion de, a town of the pro of this river, when he gives its source in the province of Barcelona and government of Cumaná : vince of Venezuela, and makes it enter the Porfounded in 1744 by some islanders of La Marga tuguesa; the fact being that it runs into the rita and Trinidad, and other inhabitants of the Orinoco, 48 miles w. of St. Tome, and from Caracas who had their cattle and estates in this whence it is navigable as far as the town of province; situate at the source of the river of its name. Its mouth is on the n. shore of the its name, and in its district its inhabitants, who Orinoco, in lat. 8 5 n. (of all classes, should amount to 636 souls) have Pao, another, a small river in this province, 30 estates, consisting of some narrow glens which rises in the country and territory of the planted with maize and yucas, also 19 farms of Pandacotos Indians, between the rivers Paragua the larger cattle.

and Arvi, runs n. and turning at mid-course to The soil is the richest and most fertile of the w. enters the latter of those two rivers. province, and the natives being very laborious, Pao, another, with the surname of Amarillo, it is extremely well furnished with provisions; in the province and captainship of Itamaraca in and its population, though small, instrumental Brazil. It rises near the coast, runs e. and ento the guarding against invasion from the Ca, ters the sea between the Doce, or Dulce, and the ribes Indians in the settlements of the' missions town of La Concepcion and fort of Orange. + of the Orinoco and llanos of San Juan. The PAOBONCA, an island of the river Paraná geographer, Don Juan de la Cruz, places this pane, in the province and captainship of Rio city, in his map of S. America, in the province of Janeiro in Brazil... Venezuela, to the s. of the city of Valencia ; ; PAOS, a barbarous nation of Indians who dwell (but this is very erroneous, as it is situated 92 n. of the river Orinoco, and so of the Apure. miles s. by w. of Barcelona, 82 n.w. of St. Tome. These barbarians are bounded w. by the Otoand 152 s.e. of Caracas, in lat. 8 43 n. and macos, and n.w. by the Iraruros. Their con long. 65' 10' w.]

version was begun by the Jesuits in 1722. Pao, San Juan BAUTISTA DEL, a city of the (PAPAGAYO, a gulf on the n. Pacific ocean, province and government of Venezuela. Its

Its and on the w. side of the isthmus of Nicaragua, population is 5400 souls. It has a large trade a small distance from the w. parts of the lake of in horses, mules, and horned cattle, and a vast Nicaragua, and in about lat. 'Il' 10' n.]... quantity of cheese is made' here. The air is · PAPAGA YOS, a settlement of the province wholesome. The river Pao runs to the e. of the and corregimiento of Cuyo in the kingdom of city, its course is n. and s. It discharged itself Chile, n..

It discharged itself Chile, n. of the town of Corocoto. formerly into the lake of Valencia, but by a re PAPAGÁYos, a 'bay, called also Puerto Sila volution of nature it is now made to fall into the vestra, on the é. coast of the strait of Magellan, Apure, and thus contribute to swell the Orinoco. between cape Verde and cape S. Valentin. A canal might easily be cut from about the iPAPAGAYOSO, a settlement of the province source of the Pao to join the Orinoco, which and captainship of 8. Vicente in Brazil, at the would be of vast benefit to commerce, inasmuch source of a small river which enters the Uruas the trade from Venezuela to Guayana would guay.

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