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the head settlement of Tarimbaro and alcaldia mayor of Valladolid in the province and bishopric of Mechoacan. It contains 25 families of Indians employed in the cultivation of the lands of eight estates of its district, and is divided from the capital merely by a river.
Puente, a small river of the kingdom of Brazil, which rises in a branch of the sierra of Los Coriges; runs e. and enters the Tocantines between those of Magues and San Antonio.
PUER, [or more properly Peur,] a bay on the s. coast, and in the part possessed by the French in the island St. Domingo, between the rivers Salado and Colorado.
PUERCOS, Morro De, a very lofty mountain at the extremity or point of land formed by the coast in the province and government of Veragua, of the kingdom of Tierra Firnie in the S. Sea.
Puercos, an island of the N. Sea; one of the small Lucayas, between those of Providence and Espiritu Santo.
Puercos, a small river of the island of Cuba, which enters the sea between the Bay of Honda and that of Santa Isabel.
[purcos, another river in N.America; the country between which and the sources of the river Colorado is unknown.]
PUERRES, a settlement of the province and government of Pastos in the kingdom of Quito.
[PUERTO, the Spanish name for port. Names of this description, adopted by the Spaniards, will be found under Port, or Porto.]
Puerto, S. Martin Del, a city of the province and government of S. Juan de Los Llanos in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada: founded by Captain Pedro Daza in 1585, with the name of Medina del Torres, and, from having been destroyed a second time, with the name it at present retains, by Governor Juan de Zarate in 1641, as being on the shore of the river and port of Ariari. This city has been celebrated for its quantity of gold and riches which it formerly possessed; but, at present, it is so reduced and poor, as scarcely to count 60 housekeepers. It is of a very hot and unhealthy temperature, and yields the same vegetable productions as the other settlements of this province, and particularly wild cocas, which abounds greatly. Notwithstanding the country be so sickly as we have just mentioned, we should remark that Doctor Pineros lived curate here for 90 years, dying in 1741. It is eight leagues from the city of S. Martin, and so from the capital of the kingdom of Santa Fe.
Puerto, another city, with the dedicatory title of Santa Maria, the capital of the province and government of Barbados in the kingdom of Quito. It is very reduced and poor.
Puerto, another, with the dedicatory title of S. Estevan, of the province and alcaldia mayor of Panuco in Nueva Espana: founded by Gonzalo de Sandoval, by order of Hernan Cortes in 1520. It has a very good parish church, and a convenient and safe port at eight leagues distance. Sixty-five leagues from Mexico.
PUERTO-REAL, a city of the island of Jamaica. See Port Royal.
Puerto-real, an island of the N. Sea, near the coast of the province and colony of S. Carolina; situate on the confines of Georgia. It has a very large and convenient bay of the same title, and capable of containing many ships. The island is small, but of a beautiful territory, and celebrated from the city of Beaufort, which stands in it, having been the first commercial town, which the English had in that part of America.
Puerto-real, one of the three entrances of the lake of Terminos, in the province and alcaldia mayor of Tabasco in Nueva Espana; formed by the islands of Tris.
PUERTO-RICO, an island of the N. Sea, one of the Lesser Antilles, discovered by the admiral Don Christopher Columbus, in his second voyage in 1509. It was conquered by the adelantado Juan Ponce de Leon, native of Seville, after many conflicts and fatigues; since its natives were very valorous, and defended their liberty at the dearest rate, the greater part of them dying with the weapons in their hands. It was then extremely well peopled with Indians; and some authors exaggerate the number of inhabitants to>600,000. [Be this as it may, it is certain that in 1778 it contained only 80,660 inhabitants, of which, only 6530 were slaves. There were then reckoned upon the island 77,384 head of horned cattle, 23,195 horses, 1515 mules, 49,058 head of small cattle, 5861 plantations, yielding 2737 quintals of sugar; 1163 quintals of cotton, 19,556 quintals of rice, 15,216 quintals of maize, 7458 quintals of tobacco, and 9860 quintals of molasses. It is 94 miles long, and 35 wide.]
The rains, which cause it to be unhealthy, last during the months of July and August; but without them the heat would be insufferable. In the mid-summer, or time of gathering the harvests, the hurricanes are very frequent; and that experienced in 1742, was so strong as to render the land for a long time barren. In the former sea-son great mischief is done to the plants and fruits by the n. e. wind. From eight in the morning till four in the evening the briza prevails; but from six to eight in the morning, and from four to six in the evening, the heat is very intense.
The territory, which is beautified from the variety of woods, hills, valleys, and meadows, is extremely fertile, and abundant in wild cattle, the same having been first brought hither by the Spaniards. Through the middle of the island passes, from e. to w. a chain or Cordillera of mountains, from which descend many rivers and streams which water the llanuras, causing them to be covered with fine pastures. The hills and skirts of the mountains are covered with trees fit for ship-building and other useful purposes ; but the principal productions, and which form the commerce of this island, are sugar, ginger, cotton, flax, coffee, cassia, incense, and hides, of which are embarked annually 2000 for Europe; also mules, which are much esteemed in the islands of St. Domingo, Jamaica, and Santa Cruz. It also abounds in canafistola, rice, maize, plantains, pines, oranges, citrons, lemons, calabashes, potatoes, melons, and many other productions, not to omit fine salt. Notwithstanding all these advantages the chief use made of it by the Spaniards was as a place for their ships to touch at and take in necessaries on their passage to the kingdoms of Tierra Firme and Nueva Espana, and this from its favourable situation and goodness of its port. It was thus also that there was established here the office of the maritime post, and that it was the place where the letters for the aforesaid kingdoms, and for that of Granada, are
ut up together. This island has few towns;
ut the inhabitants of them should amount to 10,000.
[According to Humboldt the dollars imported into Puerto-Rico and Cuba in 1803, amounted to 11,000,000: and the exports consisted of produce to the value of 9,000,000 dollars. Puerto-Rico requires annual remittances from Mexico. The population of Cuba in 1801 is stated, by the same author, at 432,000 souls ; and Le Dru makes that of Puerto-Rico, in 1794, 136,000.]
Pcerto-rico, the capital, is the city of the same name, with the dedicatory title of San Juan; situate in a small island on the n. side of the island of Puerto-Rico, and united by means of a causeway. The port is very large and convenient, and in it vessels, however large, may lie perfectly safe. This city was founded by Juan Ponce de Leon, in 1510. It is of an hot temperature, but abounding in vegetable productions,
and is much frequented by vessels. It has boon the focus of a contraband trade carried on by the English, French, and Dutch, with the Spaniards, in spite of all the laws and provisions made to the contrary.
It has convents of the religious of San Francisco, and St. Domingo, a monastery of nuns, and two hospitals; the one with the name of La Concepcion, for the sick of the inhabitants; and another called San Nicholas, for the troops of the garrison; also an hermitage, dedicated to Santa Ana.
In the s. w. part of the city is the fort and citadel, called San Antonio, which at the same time defends and commands the city; and at the entrance of the fort is another strong large castle. It is the head of a bishopric, suffragan to the archbishopric of St. Domingo, erected in 1511. The Senor Don Charles III, whom God preserve, made it in 1766 a royal garrison, as a perpetual banishment to criminals, who employ themselves in the labours of the great works and fortifications which are making to render it impregnable. Its population is composed of from 400 to 500 Spaniards, exclusive of the people of colour ana the prisoners, who form an immense number.
This city has been invaded several times. The first by Francis Drake, who burnt all the vessels that were in the port; but who, not being able to keep it without abandoning his schemes for the plundering of other ports of America, did not attempt to take the place of arms. The second attempt was in 1598, and also by the English, under the Duke of Cumberland, who made himself master of the whole island, and had thoughts of retaining it, as was afterwards the case with the island of Jamaica; but having lost 400 men in the space of a month by an epidemic disorder, he abandoned it, carrying away 70 pieces of cannon and great wealth. The third attempt was by the Dutch, who sent hither a strong squadron in 1615, which took and sacked the city, but could not reduce the castle; and it was attacked a fourth time in 1742, by the English, but without their being able to obtain any advantage whatever.
It is the native place of Miguel Henriquez, a celebrated Mulatto shoemaker, whose honourable conduct and distinguished services done to the crown, and in which he spent the greater part of his fortune, caused great distinctions to be conferred upon him, and the permission to use the title of Don before his name, also that of Captain, with the use of a gold medal with the king's effigy. [This city declared on the 7th of December 1810, for the regency of Cadiz in Old Spain. See Mexico.] It lies in lat. 18° 29' 10" n. Long. 66° 6' w.
Bishops who have presided in Puerto-Rico.
1. Don Alonso Manso, native of Becerril do Campos, collegiate of San Bartolome de Salamanca; of which university he was visitor, by order of the Catholic king, who made him also magistral of that church. He was chief sacristan of the chapel of the prince Don Juan, bishop of Puerto-Rico, and first inquisitor of the New World, retainiug the dignity of canon, which, however, he was afterwards ordered to resign by the Emperor Charles V. He returned to Spain on ecclesiastical matters, and these being concluded, he resumed his functions. He founded in his native place a chapel of Nuestra Senora, in which mass is celebrated every Saturday ; and he died in 1534.
2. Don Rodrigo Bastidas, dean of St. Domingo; elected in 1539. He came to Spain on church affairs, and was promoted to the bishopric of Venezuela, which he visited; and from thence to that of Puerto-Rico in 1547: he began the grand chapel of the cathedral, and died there.
3. Don Fr. Andres de Carvaja), native of the town of Alcantara in Estremadura, a religious of the order of San Francisco, collegiate in the college of San Pedro and San Pablo in Alcala, guardian of the convents of Guadalaxara and of Alcala; elected bishop of Puerto-Rico, and promoted from thence to the archbishopric of St. Domingo in 156S.
4. Don Fr. Manuel Mercado, of the order of San Geronimo. He was bishop in 1570.
5. Don Fr. Diego de Salamanca, native of Burgos, of the order of San Augustin, and difinidor of the same order. He passed over to India as visitor of those provinces, returned to Spain upon business of the three mendicant orders, and was elected prior of the convent of San Felipe el Real in Madrid, in which employ he stood when King Philip II. presented him to the bishopric of Puerto-Rico. He laid, at his own expense, the steps forming the ascent to the temple, and sought permission of his holiness to go to Rome to communicate to him some grave and important matters; the same also he requested of the king: and he obtained his request of both, being commanded to leave as vicar-general a man of good character. He renounced the bishopric in 1587.
6. Don Fr. Nicolas Ramos, of the order of San Francisco, native of Villasaba,of the bishopric of
Placencia, collegiate in the college of San Pedro de Alcala, ca/ificador of the holy office, provincial of his province, a consummate theologist and preacher, and elected bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1588, and thence promoted to the archbishopric of St. Domingo.
7. Don Antonio Calderon, dean of the church of Santa Fe de Bogota, nominated bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1592. He passed to the bishopric of the church of Panama in 1597. As he was going to the former of these bishoprics he was stopped by a pirate called Santa Cruz, on the island of this name, and on the day of the cross; when the said pirate took nothing from him but a cross from his breast.
8. Don Fr. Martin Vazquez de Arce (Fr. Lorenzo Zamora calls him Felipe), of the order of St. Domingo, native of Cuzco in Peru, collegiate and rector in the college of Santo Tomas de Sevilla, lecturer of arts and theology in the convent of Granada, prior in those of Osuna and Cordoba, and master in his religion: elected to the bishopric of Puerto-Rico, and promoted from this see to that of Truxillo in 1616.
9. Don Fr. Alonso de Monroy, of the order of La Merced, native of Sevilla, in which convent he was comendador, as also in the convents of Burgos, Valladolid, and Toledo; provincial of Andalucia, and visitor-general of the provinces of Peru. He repaired the cloisters of the convent of Sevilla and the great chapel, adorning it with pictures and a silver lamp, and endowing it with a real of 400 ducats, and dedicating it to Nuestra Senora. He also obtained of the Pope the same indulgences to this convent as those enjoyed by the Basilicas of San Juan de Let ran in Rome. He was elected general of his order, in which he ever paid great respect to letters and virtue. The king, Philip in., presented him to the bishopric of Puerto-Rico, but before he received the bulls he died.
10. Don Fr. Pedro Solier, of the order of San Agustin, native of Barajas; elected bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1616, and promoted from thence to St. Domingo in 1619.
11. Don Bernardo de Balhuena, native of Valdepends in the archbishopric of Toledo. He studied and graduated as doctor in the university of Sigiienza, named abbot of Jamaica in 1608, and in 1620 bishop of Puerto-Rico, of which he took possession at the end of the year 1623. He was an excellent preacher, celebrated a synod, and assisted at the provincial council at St. Domingo: he died in 1627, leaving his estate to the cathedral, that on it might be built a chapel dedicated to San Bernardo, and leaving as an endowment a lamp which was to burn the whole year round, and where the first Sunday of the month a mass might be said for the welfare of his soul, and another on the day of San Bernard, with a sermon and vespers. He wrote the poems entitled, " El Bernardo, El Siglo de Oro, and the Description of Puerto-Rico," in verse; all works of great merit.
12. Don Juan Lopez Agurto de la Mata, native of Mexico, professor in its university, canon in that holy church, and doctor in that of La Puebla de los Angeles. The king, Philip W., presented him to the bishopric of Puerto-Rico in 1630, and when he received the account in the island of TenerifFe (of which place some will have him to be native), he was performing great acts of goodness and charity: he was promoted to the mitre of Venezuela in 1634.
13. Don Fr. Juan Alonso de Solis, native of Salamanca. He was married, paid great attention to the study of philosophy and theology, and on the death of his wife, resigning the titles of his house, he took the habit of a religious Carmelite in the convent of San Andres de Salamanca; was master in theology, a good preacher, and of an excellent memory; difinidor in his province, prior of the convent of San Silvestre de Avila, and presented to the bishopric of Puerto-Rico in 1635: he governed till 1641, when he died; having been extremely charitable, and having confirmed 10,000 Indians.
14. Don Fr. Damian Lopez de Aro, of the order of La Santisima Trinidad, native of Toledo. He studied in the convent of Salamanca, was master in theology, preacher-general in his province, calificador of the supreme council of inquisition, minister in the convents of Guardia, Zamora, Arevalo, Cuenca, Talavera de la Reyna, and twice in Madrid. In the first he made the cloister and erected the belfry, and rebuilt the sanctuary of the Santo Nino Inocente; and in all the other places he performed works which reflected great light upon his charity : also in the convent of Madrid he paid off a debt of 20,000 ducats, at the same time augmenting the estate; he formed a library, and the garden, with the fish-ponds and fountains, and left already laid the foundations for an hospital, infirmary, and house for novices. He established the congregation of Santo Christo de la F6, built its chapel, and brought thither its image with great solemnity. He was visitor and difinidor ofliis province, and redeemed and ransomed captives in Argel to the number of 200. He was commissary and.
visitor-apostolic of the province of Andalucia, preacher to King Philip IV., and, finding himself on the visitation of the convent of Toledo, received the cedule for the bishopric of PuertoRico. In 1643 he entered his church, and in the following year celebrated orders and a synod. He made the visitation amongst the faithful,
Srinted a treatise with the title of " Donativo eal," and two excellent sermons: he died in 1648.
15. Don Fr. Bartolome de Escanuela, of the order of San Francisco; elected in 1657: he passed to Durango in 1676.
16. Don Juan de Santiago Garavito, native of the town of La Palma in Andalucia, collegiatemajor of Cuenca in the city of Salamanca, professor of philosophy in that university, magisterial-canon of Badajoz; elected in 1676, and promoted the following year to the church of Guadalaxara. .
17. Don Fr. Francisco de Padilla, of the order of La Merced, native of Lima.
18. Don Fr. Geronimo Valdes, of the order of San Basilio, master in theology, calificador of the holy office of inquisition, synodical-examiner of the archbishopric of Toledo, a subject of credit and literature; elected bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1703, and promoted to that of Cuba in 1706.
19. Don Fr. Pedro de la Concepcion y Urtiga, of the order of San Francisco; elected in 1706.
20. Don Fr. Fernando de Valdivia, of the order of San Agustin, of the province of Andalucia; elected in 1717.
81. Don Fr. Sebastian Pizarro, of the order of San Basilio, preacher to his majesty, abbot and provincial of his religion in the province of Castilla in 1736.
22. Don Fr. Francisco de Bejary Segura, native of Madrid, of the order of San Basilio, master of theology, thrice difinidor of the province of Castilla, commissary-provincial, four times abbot of the colleges of Salamanca, Alcala, and Madrid, and a public writer; elected bishop in 1743, and he died in 1745.
23. Don Francisco Xavier Gomez de Cervantes, prebendary of Mexico, provisor and vicar
feneral of that bishopric; elected bishop of uerto-Rico in 1745, and he died in 1747.
24. Don Francisco Julian Antolino, native of Zamora, an excellent theologist, curate of his native place, canon-penitentiary of the church of Badajos; nominated bishop in 1748, and promoted to Caracas in 1753.
25. Don Andres de Arce y Miranda, native of Huejozingo in Nueva Espana, canon of La Puebla de los Angeles; he was elected bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1754, and died in the following year.
26. Don Pedro Martinez de Oneca, who was canon and provisor of the bishoprics of Balbastros, Placencia, and Tarazona; elected to Puerto-Rico in 1756, and he died in 1760.
27. Don Mariano Marti, of the principality of Cataluna, doctor in canons at the university of Cervera, provisor and vicar-general of the archbishopric of Tarragona in 1761; promoted to Caracas in 1770.
28. Don Joseph Duarte Buron, in 1770: he died a few days after.
29. Don Fr. Manuel Ximenez Perez, in 1771; he died in 1782.
30. Don Felipe Joseph de Tres Palacios, native of Aviles in the bishopric of Oviedo, canon of the church of St. Domingo, and elected bishop of Puerto-Rico in 1784.
[PUERTO, Santo, an island on the coast of Peru, a league w. n. w. of the port and city of Santo or Santa, nearly opposite to the port of Ferrol, a league distant». and nine n. w. of Guanapc Island.}
Puerto Seguro. See Porto Seguro.
PUERTO VIEJO, a district and jurisdiction of the province and government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito; one of the six which compose it, and of the greatest extent of any, since it is in length 24 leagues, and in breadth 18: bounded on the side of the coast by the settlement of Canoa, of the province of Esmeraldas, and by the inaccessible mountains of Tosagua, the same being covered with the finest and largest trees, such as amarillos, colorados, figueroas, mulberry-trees and laurels, the latter as large as the trees called de maria, and of the same strength, and not so heavy for timbers of vessels.
This district is watered by rivers flowing down from the mountains, and called Grande and Chico. The same fertilize the large gardens found on the shores of each, as also the fruitorchards and plantations of plantains, cocoa, and tobacco, this being of the best quality of any in the province, as having been planted from the seed of the island of Trinidad. These estates also abound in yucas, mani, and other productions peculiar to the country.
This territory yields 70,000 lbs. of wax annually, 80,000 bundles of tobacco, 4000 lbs. of thread of pita, 1000 lbs. of zarzaparilla; and the natives make sashes, garters, and other manufactures of cotton, cords ofcabuya, which they
manufacture of the threads produced from the wild thistle of maguey; and these threads being prepared by exposure to the sun, rain, and air, they twist and make of as strong contexture as is the thread of hemp. They also weave hammocks and a sort of saddle-bags from reeds, which they here call linches. Here also they gather plentiful crops of a fungus of ceibo and quiriqua, two sorts of trees. T he fungus of the former is from the flower, which is of great whiteness, and as soft as silk, and so spongy that it serves to fill mattresses without the inconvenience of becoming matted, and so clean is it and open, as not to be affected or rotted by moisture; although that if it be from time to time exposed to the dry air and sun, it becomes more open, and has a better chance of remaining sweet. The other wool is found in some round knobs, somewhat larger than the young almond, growing upon the tree; the wood of which tree is as good as ebony, and in the cavities of the trunk of which tree lies the wool, as fine as that of the vicuna, of the same colour, and of greater ductility; so much so, that a piece contained in one knob may be spread over the whole hand: it is with this valuable material that they stuff pillows, saddles, and, as a branch of trade, it affords a greater profit than any other article sold in these parts. This district contains 4000 inhabitants, namely, 2000 Indians, 500 Spaniards, and 1500 Mustecs, divided into the following settlements:
Monte Christi, Charapoto,
and the capital, which is the settlement of the same, with dedicatory title of San Gregorio, and which was formerly the capital of the whole province, as being one of the first establishments formed there, and built upon the sea shore, four leagues from where it at present stands; having been translated to this spot in 1628, after that it was sacked by the English pirate, Jacob Hermit Clerk. It is in a beautiful plain, irrigated by two rivers, the Chico and Grande, and is very abundant in fruits. [It is 75 miles n. n. w. of Guayaquil, in lat. 1° 2' s, and long. 80° 10' ffi.j
PUES, a settlement of the province and government of Cartagena, in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, between the sea-coast and. the river Cauca, to the e>. of the town of San Benito Abad.
PUGNICO, a settlement of Indians of Nova Scotia in N. America, on the w. coast, near Cape Sable.