Lima, dean of Truxillo, magisterial canon of the holy church of his native place: elected bishop of Panama in 1667, and promoted to the bishopric of Guamanga.

SI. Don Antonio de Leon, who was promoted to the bishopric of Truxillo in 1677, having been provisional president and captain-general by order of the King.

22. Don Lucas Fernandez de Piedrahita, native of Santa Fe in the Nuevo Reyno de Granada, racionero and canon of this holy church, treasurer and chanter in the same, bishop of Santa Marta, and promoted to Panama in 1682: he died in 1688.

23. Don Diego Ladron de Guevara, collegiate mayor in the real de Alcala, canon of the cathedrals of Siqiienza and Malaga: presented to the bishopric of Panama in 1689, and promoted to that of Guamanga in 1699, when he was provisional president.

24. Don Fr. Juan de Arguelles, of the order of S. Agustin, native of Lima: elected bishop of Panama in 1694, and promoted to the bishopric of Arequipa.

23. Don Fr. Manuel de Mimbela, of the order of San Francisco, native of Fraga in Aragon: he passed over as missionary apostolic to Zacatecas in Nueva Espana, where he was lecturer in theology, and twice guardian in his convent, and then returned to Spain as procurator-general. After this, promoted to the church of Oaxaca; and, before he took possession, to that of Guadalaxara.

26. Don Fr. Juan Joseph de Llamas y Rivas, of the order of the Carmen Calzado, native of Murcia, provincial of his order in the province of Andalucia; elected bishop of Panama, and afterwards nominated provisional president, governor, and captain-general of the kingdom in 1716.

27. Don Fr. Bernardo Serrada, of the order of Nuestra Senora del Carmen Calzado, provincial in his religion; elected bishop of Panama in 1720, and promoted to Cuzco in 1725.

28. Don Agustin Rodriguez, curate of Hortaleza in the bishopric of Toledo; elected the aforesaid year of 1725, and promoted to La Paz in 1731.

29. Don Pedro Morcillo, who went as auxiliary bishop to Panama in 1732: he died in 1741.

30. Don Fr. Diego de Salinas y Cabrera, of the order of San Agustin: he refused to accept the office.

31. Don Juan de Castaneda, archdeacon of the holy cathedral church of Cuzco; bishop of

Panama in 1743, and promoted to that of Cuzco in 1749.

32. Don Felipe Manrique de Lara, native of Lima; elected to the bishopric of Panama in 1753, but he renounced it.

33. Don Francisco Xavier de Luna y Victoria, native of the same city of Panama; founder of the university of San Xavier in the college of the Jesuits, presented to the bishopric of his native place in 1751, and to that of Truxillo in Peru in 1759.

34. Don Manuel de Romani y Carrillo, native of Guamanza; elected bishop in 1759, and promoted to that of Cuzco in 1763.

35. Don Miguel Moreno y Olio, native of Panama, canon of its holy church, commissary of the tribunal of the inquisition of Cartagena; elected bishop in 1763, and promoted to Guamanga in 1770.

36. Don Fr. Francisco de los Rios, of the order of San Francisco; elected, the above year, bishop of Panama: he died in 1777.

37. Don Joseph Antonio Umeres de Miranda, inquisitor of the holy tribunal of La Fe in Cartagena of the Indies: elected bishop of Panama in 1777.

Commandants-general, Presidents, and Governors, who have ruled in the Kingdom of Tierra Firme.

1. Don Pedro Arias Davila, native of Segovia, brother of Count Puiisolem-rostro; elected by the emperor for his qualifications to command in Darien in 1514, where his glories were sullied from his having commanded, in a fit of passion, the heads of Vasco Nunez de Balboa and of Francisco Fernandez de Cordoba to be cut off: he governed until 1526, when his successor arrived in,

2. Don Pedro de los Rios, native of Cordoba, nominated on account of the complaints, made against the former, and through the death of the Licentiate Lope de Sosa, also of Cordoba, who had been nominated, and had died suddenly. The clamours still persisting, the Licentiate Antonio de la Gama was sent out as residentiary judge in 1528 ; and as successor to the government was sent,

3. Francisco de Barrionuevo, native of Soria, famed for his conquests in the islands of Puertorico and S. Domingo, appointed to the government of Tierra Firme; but receiving a commission to attend the treaty of pacification with the cazeque Enrique at S. Domingo, he did not take possession till 1533.

4. The Licentiate Pedro Vazquez de Acufia, who was nominated governor and residentiary judge; and sore complaints having been raised, there was shortly sent out another in the person of,

5. Doctor Francisco Robles, with the same commission as the former: he entered on his office in 1539, filled it with prudence and justice; but whether it was the effect of the climate, or some malignant fate had sown the seeds of discord in this government, he could not escape, covered as he was with perfections, the shafts of calumny and malice.

6. Pedro de Casaos, native of Sevilla, who, with the title of corregidor of Panama, was nominated by the king to govern it. In his time occurred the robberies and depredations performed by Hernando Bachicao, captain Gonzalo Pizarro.

7. The Licentiate Don Pedro Ramirez de QuiBones, first president, with the title as such of that audience: he settled the existing disturbances in the kingdom, and made war against the Negro Bayano, so as to succeed in restoring a perfect tranquillity.

8. Juan de Bustos Villegas, who passed whilst governor of the plaza of Cartagena to the government of Panama in 1551: he died by a fall from his mule.

9. The Licentiate Juan Lopez de Cepeda, who was oidor deacon of the island of S. Domingo, when he went to Santa Fe in the same capacity: from thence he went to be alcalde del crimen of the audience of Panama, and promoted to Charcas in 1558.

10. The Licentiate Francisco de Cardenas, the last robed president of Tierra Firme, from the establishment there of the commandancy-general of the kingdom, the city of Panama, its capital, being the place of arms, (plaza de annas): he died in 1594.

11. Don Juan del Barrio Sepulveda, oidor deacon of the royal audience, provisional governor through the death of the former, and was holding the reins when arrived,

12. Don Alonso de Sotomayor y Andia, Marquis of Valparaiso, comendador of Villa-mayor in the order of Santiago, native of Tuxillo in Estremadura, an officer of great credit in Flanders and at Chile, where he had governed the king's armies: was at Lima, on his way to Europe, when he was nominated president of Panama, by the viceroy the Marquis of Cafiete, to defend the kingdom against an English armament, which, when arrived, he gloriously and completely re

pulsed: he governed until 1596, when he passed to Spain.

13. The aforesaid Juan del Barrio Sepulveda, oidor deacon of the audience, returned to be provisional governor till 1601, when there came,

14. The same Don Alonso de Sotomayor, nominated by the king in consideration of his conduct and great ability in the fortification of the Plaza of Portobello, in company with the renowned engineer Juan Baptista Antoneli. Although he had received an order to proceed to the government of Chile, he embarked for Europe in 1605.

15. Don Diego de Orozco, native of Lima.

16. Don Rodrigo de Viveroy Velasco, in whose time the conquest and spiritual reduction of the Guaimies Indians of the province of Veragua was commenced by the religious order of S. Domingo: his government ended in 1624.

it. Don Alvaro de Quinones Osorio, knight of the order of Santiago, Marquis of Lorenzana: he governed until 1632, when he was promoted to the presidency of Guatemala.

18. Don Sebastian Hurtado de Corcuera, promoted from the presidency and captainship-general of the Philippine isles in 1634, having held that of Panama only two years.

19. Don Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor, promoted from the government of Puertorico to this presidency, which he exercised until 1638, when he died, causing great sentiments of regret.

20. Don Inigo de la Mota Sarmiento, knight of the order of Santiago, chamberlain to his majesty the Archduke of Alberto, and of the supreme council and junta of war; promoted to the government of Puertorico in 1639, and died at Portobello whilst assisting at the dispatch of the galleons under the charge of the general Don Francisco Diaz Pimienta, in 1642.

21. Don Juan de Vega Bazan, who had been admiral of galleons, nominated president, governor, and commandant-general of the kingdom of Tierra Firme.

22. Don Juan de Bitrileante y Navarra, knight of the order of Calatrava : he died at Portobello, assisting at the dispatch of the armada of galleons, commanded by admiral Don Juan de Echavarri, in 1651, as may be seen by the stone over his sepulchre in the church.

23. Don Fernando de la Riva Aguero, knight of the order of Santiago, colonel, governor of Cartagena of the Indies, when he was nominated president of Panama: he died also at Portobetlo, assisting at the dispatch of the galleons, in 1663.

24. Don Juan Perez de Guzman, knight of the order of Santiago, colonel, governor of Cartagena, and after having served in the militia and been governor of Antioquia and Puertorico,, he was promoted to this presidency in 1665, through the death of the former. He went to retake the island of Santa Catalina, in the hands of the English pirate John Morgan, and was, nevertheless, deposed from the government by the viceroy of Peru, Count of Lemos, owing to some charges made against him by Don Bernardo Trilco de Figueroa, oidor deacon of that a**> dience.'

25. Don Agustin de Braeamonte,, nominated provisional governor by the viceroy of Peru.

26. The aforesaid Don Juan Perez, who was now fully and honourably acquitted of all the charges against him. In his time the city was ruined and destroyed by the English pirate in 1670; when he was again suspended by the viceroy, and sent to answer for bis conduct before the king.

27. Don Antonio Fernandez de Cordoba, knight of the order of Santiago, nominated immediately that the misfortune of the city was known, with orders to remove it to some more favourable spot. He accordingly embarked with a troop, called La Chambecga, and began to put his designs in execution on his arrival in 1671, when he died.

28. Don Francisco Miguel de Marichalar, alcalde del crimen of the royal audience of Lima, sent as provisional-governor by the viceroy, Count of Lemos: he ruled till the proprietor arrived in 1676. ,

29. Don Alonso Mercado de Villacorta, major-general, who was serving as governor of the provinces of Tucuman, where he had performed singular services to the king. He was promoted to this presidency, and translated the city, as commanded, to the spot where it now stands; who also began its fortification, as we find inscribed on the stone over the land-gates: but he died before he concluded his work, in 1681.

30. Dr. Don Lucas Fernandez de Piedrahita, native of Santa Fe, bishop of the holy church of Panama, and celebrated author of the history of the conquest of the Nuevo Reyno de Granada. He entered through the death of the former, and through the nomination of the viceroy of Peru, Count of Castellar. Although he manifested great powers, his reign was of but short duration, since in 1602 the proprietor arrived.

31. Don Pedro Ponte y Llerena, count of Palmar: he was the only president who fulfilled the term of the appointment, eight years, and this, notwithstanding that certain charges were made against him by the ministers of that audience.

32. Don Pedro Joseph Guzman, Davalos, Ponce de Leon, Santillan y Me«(a, Marquis of La Mina, native of Sevilla, general of artillery, who, on account of his extraordinary services by sea and land, was nominated president of Panama, and commandant-general of the kingdom, of which office he took possession in 1690: he governed five years, when by charges made against him, he was seized and treated with a rigour theretofore unexampled, being confined for four years without being allowed any communication with any one whatever.

33. Dr. Don Diego Ladron de Guevara, bishop of that holy church: encharged with. the government by the king until the arrival of the proper successor.

34. Don Pedro Luis Henriquez de Guzman, Count of Canillas, knight of the order of Cala^ trava, cohregidor of Potosi: he took possession in 1696, and ruled to 1699, when, from the complaints of the people against the violence offered to the Marquis of La Mimi, a successor was no- minated in,

36. Don Joseph Antonio de la, Rocha't Carranga, Marquis of Villa Rocha, knights of the order of Caiatrava, general of the artillery in 1699, when he entered into the presidency; but he, in six months after, received a crdttte, ordering him to give up the government to the same.

Mr. Don Pedro Luis Henriquez de Guzman, Count of Canihas, on account of his having falsely given the king to understand of services he had performed for the kingdom, and robbing the governor of Cartagena, Don Juan Diaz Pimienta, of the honour of having routed the Scotch from Darien; for he, the count, having barely sent home an account of the success, without mentioning who had performed it, the king nominated him as viceroy of Peru, by way of reward for his prowess; but he did not reap any fruits of his stratagems, as he died the same year that he received his appointment, in 1699.

37. Don Fernando D'A vila Bravo de Laguna, knight of the order of Santiago, major-general, native of Lima: he entered in 1702, and governed till 1707, when he died. «

38. Don Juan Eustaquio Vieentalo, Tello, Toledo y Leca, Marquis of Brenes, knight of the order of Santiago, native of Sevilla, nominated on the death of the former, by the viceroy of Peru, the Marquis of Casteldios-rius. He only governed five months when the successor arrived,

39. The aforesaid Marquis of Villa Rocha, whose reign was of no long duration, as he Whs suspended in a few days by a cedule transmitted at the the instigation of the audience, who had certain charges against him.

40. Don Fernando de Haro Monterroso: he exercised the power for six months, until 1709, when the viceroy of Peru sent a minister of the audience of Lima to try him upon certain excesses which he had committed; upon which he was taken prisoner to Spain, and died in a prison at the court of Madrid.

41. Don Juan Baptista de Orueta y Irusta, a/calde del crimen of the royal audience of Lima; commissioned on the deposition of the former: he governed till 1710, when the successor nominated by the king arrived, himself returning to Lima to the execution of his office.

42. Don Joseph de Larrafieta y Vera, brigadier of the royal armies; serving in the government of Portobello, with the optional quality of accepting the precedency and captainship-general of the kingdom, in case of a vacancy of the present one, by a cedule from the king nominating him as it were viceroy: he took the reins in 1710, and half of the following year had not elapsed before two successors arrived at once.

43. The one, a person twice mentioned, the Marquis of Villa Rocha. His reign was so short that it could only be counted by hours, for having reached the capital from the fort of Chapo, where he had been confined, he took possession, and at five in the evening of the same day arrived,

44. Don Joseph Hurtado de Amezaga, brigadier-general of the royal armies: he took possession in 1711, and governed till 1716, when he was deposed by the king's order, deposition being committed to the charge of the bishop of that church, and the tribunal of audience being at the same time abolished.

45. Don Fr. Juan Joseph de Llamas y Rivas, of the order of Nuestra Senora del Carmen, bishop of Panama, who also by the above-mentioned commisson was encharged with the government in 1716; and he held it till 1718, when arrived,

46 Don Geronimo Vadillo, brigadier of the royal armies, promoted to the government of Cartagena, which he was then exercising, ac

cording to the new establishment of five years provision in the governments which have no audience : his government lasted till 1723.

47. Don Gaspar Perez Buelta, who had been oidor of the audience then abolished, but which was by order of the king restored in 1723: he was there provisional deacon for three months and an half, when he embarked for Peru; promoted to the audience of Lima at the beginning of 1724.

48. Don Joseph de A lzamora y Ursino, who became deacon of the audience at the departure of the former, and as such encharged with the provisional government, the presidency and the commandancy-general, when in a month the proprietor arrived.

49. Don Manuel de Alderete, knight of the order of Santiago, field-marshal of the royal armies: he was promoted from the situation of viceroy of the Plaza of Cadiz to this presidency, and took possession in 1724; he governed till 1730, when he was deposed, and taken captive to the castle of Chapo, and being sent from thence at the departure of registrar of the house of commerce, in the frigate of war the Ginovesa, which was wrecked upon the shoal of La Vivora, he was there drowned.

50. Don Juan Joseph de Andia Vivero y Velasco, Marquis of Villa-hermosa, brigadier-general: he was governing at Cartagena, when he was promoted to the presidency of Panama, with a commission to depose the predecessor the aforesaid year of 1730; and having solicited a licence to return to Spain, he obtained the permission of his majesty, who exalted him to the rank of lieutenant-general, in 1735: and shortly after his arrival he was made grandee, with the title of Marquis de Valparaiso.

51. DonDiomsio Martinez de la Vega, brigadier-general of the royal armies; promoted from the government to relieve the former governor in 1735. He remained till 1743, when his successor arrived, nominated by the king. As a reward for his services in making a peace with the Indians, his majesty raised him to the rank of lieutenant-general, as also admitted him to be

gentleman of the bed-chamber. In his time the English, commanded by admiral Vernon, took the city of Portobello and castle of Chagre: he died at Panama in 1744, whilst arranging his voyage to Spain.

52. Don Dionisio de Albedo y Herrera, who had served in the presidency of Quito and commandancy-general of this kingdom, and found himself at court when nominated by the king to proceed to Panama, and to undertake the defence of Tierra Firme, threatened by invasion from the English from the year 1739. He was charged with different commissions, on account of his knowledge of America and his zeal in the service of his king; fulfilled his important duties with the greatest ability till 1749, when he was separated from his office through some calumnies made against him by the oidors of that audience, the origin of all the discords of this province. During his government he chastised the smugglers of the province of Natal, who to the number of 200, and supported by the English, had taken up arms against his majesty: he returned to Spain, where he was honourably acquitted.

53. Don Manuel de Montiano, brigadier-general of the royal armies: he was promoted from the

government of Florida, and entered Panama in 749, when the audience was abolished through the representations made by the former, proving it to be the only means whereby to ensure the tranquillity of the government, as was in fact proved till 1750, when arrived,

M. Don Antonio Guill, colonel of the regiment of infantry of Guadalaxara, a man of great talent, virtue, and military experience: he was shortly removed to the presidency and captainship-general of Chile in 1761, his short reign being universally regretted.

55. Don Joseph Iiaon, brigadier of the royal armies: he governed for little more than two years, as having been removed to the presidency and captainship-general of the Philippine isles in 1763.

56. Don Joseph Blasco de Orozco, knight of the order of San Juan, colonel of the regiment of infantry of Burgos: he passed over to this government in the aforesaid year, and died in 1767.

57. Don Vicente de Olaziregui, colonel of the regiment of infantry of Granada : he governed in 1709, and died in 1773.

58. Don Pedro Carbonel, colonel of the regiment of infantry of Aragon, nominated in 1775: he governed till 1779.

59. Don Ramon de Carvajal, colonel of infantry, who was governing at Vique in the province of Cataluna, when he was destined to the government of Guayaquil in the kingdom of Quito, and before he took possession was promoted to this of Panama in 1780; which he exercised till 1785, when the king nominated a successor in,

60. Don Joseph Domas, brigadier of the royal armada, nominated in 1785.

Panama, or Del Darien Isthmus, a wide

strip of land .uniting N. and S. America, washed on the n. by the N. sea, and on the s. by the Pacific or S. sea, and forming the gulf of Panama. Its width from the mouth of the river Chagre in the N. sea, to that of the river Caimito or Capina in the S. is 41 miles, and at its narrowest part, namely, from the mouth of the river Bayame in the gulf of Panama, to the bay of Mandinga in the N.sea, it is 20 miles only. Its length from e. to w. is more than 200 miles. The cordillera of the Andes mountains, which are the lowest here, traverses its whole length, and then splits itself into several branches in N. America. This isthmus belongs in part to the province of Tierra Firme, and in part to that of Darien. The climate is nearly throughout hot and moist. It takes its name from the city of Panama, which is situate upon it, on the shore of the S. sea; and in the opposite part, to the n. is Portobello, where there used to be celebrated the large fair of merchandizes on the arrival of the galleons, inasmuch as all the riches that were carried from Peru to the mother-country were brought by this isthmus, as also the effects returned from Spain to the former: the same being carried by the round-about journey of 18 leagues, owing to the asperity of the mountains and the immensity of the rivers that obstructed a direct communication.

In the time of Philip II. it was projected to cut through this isthmus and to unite the two seas; and accordingly two Flemish engineers were sent to reconnoitre it, but they found insuperable difficulties; and the council of the Indies having represented the mischief which might ensue to the monarchy in case the idea were carried into effect, it was ordained by the Spanish government, that no one should afterwards treat on the subject on pain of death. Eugenio Ray- nondi calls it Strait San Miguel, but improperly, as there is no communication between the two seas.

[Of all the subjects, either of political or commercial consideration, relating to the continent of America, none perhaps is of greater moment than this idea of the communication of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. For a diffuse disquisition on this topic, as likewise of the relative facilities for effecting the same object with regard to other parts of America, see Index to new matter respecting Mexico, Chap. X.]

[PANAMBUCO, a harbour or bay on the coast of Brazil. See Pernambuco.]

PANAO, a settlement of the province and corregimiento of Guanuco in Peru; annexed to the

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