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OF

MODERN PHILOSOPHY.

BY M. VICTOR COUSIN.

TRANSLATED BY O. W. WIGH T.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. II.

NEW YORK:

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY,

MDCCO LIII.

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1852,

By D. APPLETON & CO.,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southery

District of New York,

CONTENTS.

SECOND SERIES-VOL. III.

LECTURE XIII.

CLASSIFICATION OF THE SCHOOLS OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY.

Of the method of observation and of induction in history. That induction,

resting upon the observation of all the anterior facts in the philosophy of

history, divides at first the philosophy of the eighteenth century into four

systems.—Confirmation of induction by facts.--Division of the European

schools of the eighteenth century into four schools: sensualistic, idealistic,

skeptical, mystical. Division of this course into four corresponding parts.--

Order of the development of these four schools, and consequently the

order to follow in their exposition.-Spirit of this course.--Its last aim, 125

LECTURE XIV.

SENSUALISTIC SCHOOL IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY,

Subject of this lecture: Review of the different systems of the sensualistic

school in Europe during the eighteenth century, in England, France, and

Germany. -That, even for the sake of fidelity, the historian should attach

himself to the most celebrated systems.—In what order must they be

studied ? Ethnographical method. Three objections: 1st, arbitrary; 2d,

shows not the concatenation, the reciprocal action of systems; 3d, unfa-

vorable to scientific instruction.--Of the true method of its characters :

To follow at once the dates of systems, their reciprocal dependence, and the

analogy of subjects.--To commence with the metaphysics of Locke... 143

LECTURE XV.

LOCKE.

HIS LIFE.

Locke: his biography.-Sprang from a liberal family. His first studies.---

Descartes disgusts him with scholasticism. He pays particular attention to
LECTURE XVII.

ASSAY. FIRST BOOK, INNATE IDEAS. SECOND BOOK, OF SPACE.

First Book of the Essay on the Human Understanding. Of innate ideas.-

Second Book. Experience, the source of all ideas. Sensation and reflec-

tion.-Of the operations of the mind. According to Locke, they are exer-

cised only upon sensible data. Basis of sensualism.-Examination of the

doctrine of Locke concerning the idea of space.--That the idea of space, in

the system of Locke, should be reduced and is reduced to that of body.-

This confusion is contradicted by facts and by Locke himself. Distinction

of the actual characters of the ideas of body and of space.-Examination of

the question of the origin of the idea of space. Distinction between the

logical order and the chronological order of our ideas.-The idea of space

is the logical condition of the idea of body; the idea of body is the chrono-

logical condition of the idea of space.—Of reason and experience, con-

sidered in turn as the reciprocal condition of their mutual development.

Merit of Locke's system.--Its vices: 1st, it confounds the measure of

space with space; 2d, the condition of the idea of space with this idea

itself

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