you were


thee on with full as many

lies As may be holla’d in thy treacherous car From sun to sun: a there is


pawn ; Engage it to the trial, if thou dar'st.

Aum. Who sets me else? by heaven, I 'll throw at all:
I have a thousand spirits in one breast,
To answer twenty thousand such as you.]b

Surrey. My lord Fitzwater, I do remember well
The very time Aumerle and you did talk.
Fitz. 'Tis

true :


presence And you can witness with me, this is true.

Surrey. As falsc, by heaven, as heaven itself is true.
Fitz. Surrey, thou liest.

Dishonourable boy!
That lie shall lie so heavy on my sword,
That it shall render vengeance and revenge,
Till thou the lie-giver, and that lie, do lie
In earth as quiet as thy father's skull.
In proof whereof, there is my honour's pawn;
Engage it to the trial, if thou dar'st.

Fitz. How fondly dost thou spur a forward horse !
If I dare eat, or drink, or breathe, or live,
I dare meet Surrey in a wilderness,
And spit upon him, whilst I say, he lies,
And lies, and lies: there is my bond of faith,
To tie thee to my strong correction.
As I intend to thrive in this new world,
Aumerle is guilty of my true appeal:
Besides, I heard the banish’d Norfolk say
That thou, Aumerle, didst send two of thy men
To execute the noble duke at Calais.

a connexion between an oath and the earth, when the gage was thrown-or as Warner has it in bis ' Albion's England,' when the glove was terr*d-yet points at an etymological affinity between the Gothic aith (juramentum) and airtha (terra).

a From sun to sun. The old copies read from sin to sin. The time appointed for the combats of chivalry was betwixt the rising and the setting sun. Shakspere, in . Cymbeline,' uses the phrase in this sense.

b The challenge of the anonymous lord to Aumerle, and his answer (eight lines in brackets), are omitted in the folio.

c 'Tis very true. So the quarto of 1597. The folio reads, “ My lord, 't is very true.

Aum. Some honest Christian trust me with a gage,
That Norfolk lies : here do I throw down this,
If he may be repeal’d to try his honour.

Boling. These differences shall all rest under gage,
Till Norfolk be repeald : repeal'd he shall be,
And, though mine enemy, restor'd again
To all his land and seignories; when he's return’d,
Against Aumerle we will enforce his trial.

Car. That honourable day shall ne'er be seen.
Many a time hath banish'd Norfolk fought
For Jesu Christ; in glorious Christian field
Streaming the ensign of the Christian cross,
Against black pagans, Turks, and Saracens :
And, toil'd with works of war, retir'd himself
To Italy; and there, at Venice, gave
His body to that pleasant country's earth,'
And his pure soul unto his captain Christ,
Under whose colours he had fought so long.

Boling. Why, bishop, is Norfolk dead ?
Car. As sure as I live,


Boling. Sweet peace conduct his sweet soul to the bosom
Of good old Abraham!—Lords appellants,
Your differences shall all rest under gage,
Till we assign you to your days of trial.

Enter YORK, attended.

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York. Great duke of Lancaster, I come to thee
From plume-pluck'd Richard ; who with willing soul
Adopts thee heir, and his high sceptre yields
To the possession of thy royal hand:
Ascend his throne, descending now from him,-
And long live Henry, of that name the fourth!

Boling. In God's name, I 'll ascend the regal throne.

Car. Marry, Heaven forbid !--
Worst in this royal presence may I speak,
Yet best beseeming me to speak the truth.
Would God, that any in this noble presence
Were enough noble to be upright judge

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Of noble Richard ; then true nobleness a would
Learn him forbearance from so foul a wrong.
What subject can give sentence on his king ?
And who sits here that is not Richard's subject ?
Thieves are not judg'd but they are by to hear,
Although apparent guilt be seen in them :
And shall the figure of God's majesty,
His captain, steward, deputy elect,
Anointed, crowned, planted many years,
Be judg’d by subject and inferior breath,
And he himself not present? O, forfend h it, God,
That, in a Christian climate, souls refin'd
Should show so heinous, black, obscene a deed!
I speak to subjects, and a subject speaks,
Stirr'd up by heaven thus boldly for his king.
My lord of Hereford here, whom you call king,
Is a foul traitor to proud Hereford's king:
And if you crown him, let me prophesy,—
The blood of English shall manure the ground,
And future ages groan for this foul act;
Peace shall go sleep with Turks and infidels,
And, in this seat of peace, tumultuous wars
Shall kin with kin and kind with kind confound ;
Disorder, horror, fear, and mutiny,
Shall here inhabit, and this land be call'd
The field of Golgotha, and dead men's skulls.
O, if you rear this house against this house,
It will the woefullest division prove
That ever fell


this cursed earth: Prevent it, resist it, and let it not be so, Lest child, child's children, cry against you-woe!

North. Well have you argued, sir; and, for your pains,

* Nobleness. So all the old copies. Modern editors read nobless. Steevens changed the word to get rid of a short syllable. He had, however, authority for the use of nobless in the sense of nobleness, in Ben Jonson (Epigram 102) :

“But thou, whose noblesse keeps one stature still.” b Forfend. So the quarto of 1597. The folio, forbid. We cling to the less common word, as in “Othello :'

“No, heavens forfend, I would not kill thy soul." c Rear, in the folio ; in the quartos, raise.

Of capital treason we arrest you

here :
My lord of Westminster, be it your charge
To keep him safely till his day of trial.
May 't please you, lords, to grant the commons' suit?

Boling. Fetch hither Richard, that in common view
He may surrender; so we shall proceed
Without suspicion.
I will be his conduct.

Boling. Lords, you that here are under our arrest,
Procure your sureties for your days of answer:
Little are we beholden to your love, [T. CARLISLE
And little look'd for at your helping hands.

Re-enter YORK, with King RICHARD, and Officers bearing

the crown, &c.
K. Rich. Alack, why am I sent for to a king,
Before I have shook off the regal thoughts
Wherewith I reign'd? I hardly yet have learn'd
To insinuate, flatter, bow, and bend my knee:-
Give sorrow leave awhile to tutor me
To this submission. Yet I well remember
The favours a of these men : Were they not mine?
Did they not sometime cry, all hail! to me?
So Judas did to Christ: but he, in twelve,
Found truth in all but one; I, in twelve thousand, none.
God save the king !-Will no man say, amen?
Am I both priest and clerk ? well then, amen.
God save the king! although I be not he;
And yet, amen, if heaven do think him me.
To do what service am I sent for hither?

York. To do that office, of thine own good will,
Which tired majesty did make thee offer,--
The resignation of thy state and crown
To Henry Bolingbroke.

K. Rich. Give me the crown :--Here, cousin, seize the

crown ;

a Favours-features, countenances.

Vol. IV.

2 H

Here, cousin, on this side my hand; on that side thine.a
Now is this golden crown like a deep well,
That owes two buckets filling one another;
The emptier ever dancing in the air,
The other down, unseen, and full of water:
That bucket down, and full of tears, am I,
Drinking my griefs, whilst you mount up on high.

Boling. I thought you had been willing to resign.

K. Rich. My crown I am, but still my griefs are mine : You may my glories and my state depose, But not my griefs; still am I king of those.

Boling. Part of your cares you give me with your crown.

K. Rich. Your cares set up do not pluck my cares down. My care is loss of care, by old care done; Your care is gain of care, by new care won: The cares I give I have, though given away; They tend the crown, yet still with me they stay.

Boling. Are you contented to resign the crown?

K. Rich. Ay, no ;-no, ay; for I must nothing be;
Therefore no, no, for I resign to thee.
Now mark me how I will undo myself :-
I give this heavy weight from off my head,
And this unwieldy sceptre from my hand,
The pride of kingly sway from out my heart;
With mine own tears I wash away my balm,
With mine own hands I give away my crown,
With mine own tongue deny my sacred state,
With mine own breath release all duteous oaths :
All pomp and majesty I do forswear;
My manors, rents, revenues, I forego ;
My acts, decrees, and statutes, I deny:
God pardon all oaths that are broke to me!
God keep all vows unbroke are made to thee!

a This is the reading of the folio. The quarto of 1608, the only other edition in which the passage appears, reads thus :

6 Give me the crown.-Seize the crown.

Here, cousin, on this side my hand, and on that side yours." It appears to us that the repetition of “here, cousin,” is Shaksperian; and that Malone is wrong in omitting “here, cousin,” in the second line.

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