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A caitiffa recreant to
cousin Hereford ! Farewell, old Gaunt; thy sometimes brother's wife With her companion grief must end her life.
Gaunt. Sister, farewell: I must to Coventry: As much good stay with thee, as go with me!
Duch. Yet one word more ;-Grief boundeth where it falls, Not with the empty hollowness, but weight: I take my leave before I have begun; For sorrow ends not when it seemeth done. Commend me to my brother, Edmund York. Lo, this is all :-Nay, yet depart not so ; Though this be all, do not so quickly go; I shall remember more. Bid him-0, what? With all good speed at Plashy visit me. Alack, and what shall good old York there see, But empty lodgings and unfurnish'd walls, Unpeopled offices, to untrodden stones? And what cheersthere for welcome but my groans? Therefore commend
let him not come there,
SCENE III.—Open Space near Coventry.
Enter the LORD MARSHAL 11 and AUMERLE. 12
Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpet.
a Caitifs. The original meaning of this word was, a prisoner. Wickliffe has - he stighynge an high ledde caityfte caityf” (captivity captive). As the captive anciently became a slave, the word gradually came to indicate a man in a servile condition—a mean creature—a dishonest person. The history of language is often the history of opinion; and it is not surprising that, in the days of misused power, to be weak, and to be guilty, were synonymous. The French chétif had anciently the meaning of captif.
b Cheer. The quarto of 1597 reads cheer; the subsequent early editions, hear. (See Illustrations to Act I.)
Aum. Why, then the champions are prepar’d, and stay For nothing but his majesty's approach.
Flourish of trumpets. Enter KING RICHARD, who takes his
seat on his throne; GAUNT, and several Noblemen, who take their places. A trumpet is sounded, and answered by another trumpet within. Then enter NORFOLK, in armour, preceded by a Herald.
K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion
Mar. In God's name and the king's, say who thou art,
Nor. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk; Who hither come engaged by my oath, (Which heaven defend a knight should violate !) Both to defend my loyalty and truth To God, my king, and his succeeding issue,a Against the duke of Hereford that appeals me; And, by the grace of God, and this mine arm, To prove him, in defending of myself, A traitor to my God, my king, and me: And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven! (He takes his seat.
Trumpet sounds. Enter BOLING BROKE, in armour, preceded
by a Herald.
a The first folio, deviating from the first three editions, reads "his succeeding issue;"—the succeeding issue of the king. My succeeding issue, the reading of the quartos, must be received in the sense that Mowbray owed to his descendants to defend his loyalty and truth to them, as well as to his God and to his king. Their fortunes would have been ruined by his attainder ; their reputations compromised by his disgrace. This, however, would be to refine somewhat too much.
And formally according to our law
Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold,
Boling. Lord marshal, let me kiss my sovereign's hand,
Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your highness,
K. Rich. We will descend, and fold him in our arms.
Boling. O, let no noble eye profane a tear
Lo, as at English feasts, so I regreet
[He takes his seat. Nor. [Rising.] However heaven, or fortune, cast my
Earthly. In the folio, earthy. b Waren coat. The original meaning of the noun wax is that of something pliable, yielding. Weak and wax have the same root. Mowbray's waxen coat, into which Bolingbroke's lance's point may enter, is his frail and penetrable coat, or
© Furnish is the reading of the folio; furbish of the quarto of 1597. To furbish is to polish ; to furnish to dress.
d Adverse, in the quarto; the folio, amaz’d.
As gentle and as jocund, as to jest,a
K. Rich. Farewell, my lord : securely I espy
[The King and the Lords return to their seats. Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Receive thy lance; and God defend thy right!
Boling. [Rising.] Strong as a tower in hope, I cry—amen. Mar. Go bear this lance [to an Officer] to Thomas, duke
of Norfolk. 1 Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, On pain to be found false and recreant, To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, A traitor to his God, his king, and him, And dares him to set forward to the fight. 2 Her. Here standcth Thomas Mowbray, duke of
[A charge sounded. Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down.
K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets and their spears, And both return back to their chairs again : Withdraw with us : and let the trumpets sound,
a To jest. A jest was sometimes used to signify a mask, or pageant. Thus, in the old play of “ Hieronymo:
“He promis d us, in honour of our guest,
To grace our banquet with some pompous jest.” To jest, therefore, in the sense in which Mowbray here uses it, is to play a part in a mask.
b Warder—the truncheon, or staff of command.