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us with a figure of the monarch wearing over his armour the military surcoat as yet undistinguished by armorial blazonry. On his head is either a cylindrical helmet, without the aventaile, or a cap of cloth or fur. It is difficult, from the state of the impressions, to decide which. He bears the knightly shield, assuming at this period the triangular or heater shape, but exceedingly curved or embowed, and emblazoned with the three lions, or leopards, passant regardant, in pale, which are first seen on the shield of his brother, Richard I.
The spur worn at this period was the goad or pryck spur, without a rowel. The principal weapons of the knights were the lance, the sword, and the battle-axe. The shape of the sword may be best ascertained from the effigy of King John, who holds one in his hand; the pommel is diamond-shaped, and has an oval cavity in the centre for a jewel.
The common soldiery fought with bills, long and cross-bows, slings, clubs, and a variety of rude but terrific weapons, such as scythes fastened to poles (the falcastrum), and a sort of spear, with a hook on one side, called the guisarme. The arbalast, or crossbow, is said to have been invented in the previous reign, but Wace mentions it as having been known to the Normans before the Conquest. Engines of war, called the mangonell and the petraria, for throwing heavy stones, are mentioned by Guliel. Britto in his Phillippeis,'l. 7:
“Interea grossos petraria mittit ab intus
Assidue lapides mangonellusque minores." And in the close rolls of John is an order, dated 2nd April, 1208, to the Bailiff of Porchester, to cause machines for flinging stones, called petrariæ and mangonelli, to be made for the King's service, and to let Drogo de Dieppe and his companions have iron and other things necessary for making of them. Philip sent to his son Louis a military engine, called the malvoisine (bad neighbour), to batter the walls of Dover Castle.
The costume of the following personages of the drama will be found in their portraits, which are introduced into the Historical Illustration accompanying each act :-King John, Queen Elinor, King Philip, Prince Lewis, Blanch of Castile, Salisbury, Pembroke, Henry III
Enter KING JOHN, QUEEN ELINOR, PEMBROKE, Essex, SALIS
BURY, and others, with CHATILLON. King John. Now say, Chatillon, what would France with
Chat. Thus, after greeting, speaks the king of France, In my behaviour,a to the majesty, The borrow'd majesty of England here.
a Behaviour. Haviour, behaviour, is the manner of having, the conduct. Where,
Eli. A strange beginning ;-borrow'd majesty!
Chat. Philip of France, in right and true behalf
K. John. What follows if we disallow of this?
Chat. The proud control of fierce and bloody war, To enforce these rights so forcibly withheld.
K. John. Here have we war for war, and blood for blood, Controlment for controlment: so answer France.
Chat. Then take my king's defiance from my mouth,
K. John. Bear mine to him, and so depart in peace :
[Exeunt CHATILLON and PEMBROKE.
then, is the difficulty which this expression has raised up? The king of France speaks, in the conduct of his ambassador, to “ the borrow'd majesty of England;"– a necessary explanation of the speech of Chatillon, which John would have resented upon the speaker himself, had he not in his “behaviour" expressed the intentions of his sovereign.
Which now the manage
a of two kingdoms must With fearful bloody issue arbitrate.
K. John. Our strong possession, and our right, for us.
Eli. Your strong possession much more than your right; Or else it must go wrong
Essex. My liege, here is the strangest controversy,
[Exit Sheriff. Our abbeys, and our priories, shall pay Re-enter Sheriff, with ROBERT FAULCON BRIDGE, and Philip,
his bastard Brother.
Bast. Your faithful subject I, a gentleman,
K. John. What art thou ?
K. John. Is that the elder, and art thou the heir ?
Bast. Most certain of one mother, mighty king,
Eli. Out on thee, rude man! thou dost shame thy mother, And wound her honour, with this diffidence.
Manage has, in Shakspere, the same meaning as management and managery,— which, applied to a state, is equivalent to government. Prospero says of Anthonio :
“ He whom next thyself
Bast. I, madam? no, I have no reason for it;
Bast. I know not why, except to get the land.
K. John. Why, what a madcap hath Heaven lent us here!
Eli. He hath a trick b of Cour-de-lion's face;
not read some tokens of my son
K. John. Mine eye hath well examined his parts,
Bast. Because he hath a half-face, like my father;
a Wher. This in the original is where; it is sometimes wher. The word, however spelt, has the meaning of whether, but does not appear to have been written as a contraction either by Shakspere or his contemporaries.
b Trick, here and elsewhere in Shakspere, means peculiarity. Gloster remembers the “trich” of Lear's voice ;-Helen, thinking of Bertram, speaks
“ Of every line and trick of his sweet favour;" —
6 Her infant babe