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pressed against the gums of the upper incisor teeth ; the second, by aspirating the vowel ů at the moment of its removal.*

When D is doubled, as in addition, the second constituent of the first D is omitted. When D is whispered, the second constituent only is heard. When words in which D is doubled are whispered, the first D is mute.

G consists of a vocal sound and an aspirate. The first constituent is formed with the root of the tongue pressed against the curtain, or vail of the palate;t the second, by aspirating the vowel å at the moment of its removal.*

When G is doubled, as in haggard, the second constituent of the first G is omitted. When G is whispered, the second constituent only is heard. When words in which G is doubled are whispered, the first G is mute.

L is a vocal sound, made with the tip of the tongue pressed against the gums of the upper incisor teeth.

M is a nasal sound, made with the lips closed.

N is a nasal sound, formed with the tip of the tongue pressed against the gums of the upper incisor teeth.

NG, as in song, is a nasal sound, formed with the root of the tongue pressed gently against the curtain of the palate.

R is a vocal sound, of which there are two varieties. The first is called the trilled R, and is made by causing the tongue to vibrate against the gums of the upper incisor teeth, while the breath is propelled through the mouth; the second is called the smooth R, and is made with the tip of the tongue elevated towards the centre of the roof of the mouth. R should be trilled when it precedes a vowel, as in roll, crush, &c,; but when it follows a vowel, as in air, orb, &c., it should be made smooth.

I have met with a number of individuals who could not trill the R, and others who did it with difficulty. Those who cannot trill it in a graceful manner, had better not attempt it in public; let such, however, not despair -- their vocal organs may be rendered flexible by frequent and energetic exercise.

* Care should be taken not to make the second constituent vocal. + In the language of anatomy, velum pendulum palali.

TH, as in then, is a compound of vocality and aspiration, formed with the tip of the tongue resting against the inner surface of the upper incisor teeth.

V is a compound of vocality and aspiration. It is formed with the under lip pressed against the edge of the upper incisor teeth.

W is a vocal sound, formed with the lips contracted as in the act of whistling.

Y is a vocal sound, formed with the lips and teeth a little separated.

Z, as in zone, is a buzzing sound, a compound of vocality and aspiration. It is formed by pressing the tip of the tongue gently against the gums of the upper incisors, and forcing out the breath.

Z, as in azure, is a compound of vocality and aspiration. It is formed with the tip of the tongue nearly in the same position as is z in zone, though drawn a little further back, and somewhat widened, so as to enlarge the aperture formed by its upper surface and the roof of the mouth, through which the breath is forced,

CHAPTER IV.

THE ASPIRATES.

F, LIKE V, is formed with the under lip pressed against the upper incisor teeth.

H is the inceptive part of a vowel sound, aspirated in a particular way. H may be uttered in as many varieties of ways as there are vowels in the language; each requiring the same posture of the mouth, which the vowel itself requires. K is formed by pressing the root of the tongue against the curtain of the palate, and then aspirating the vowel ů.

When this element is doubled, as in fickle (pronounced fikkl) the first k is mute.

P is formed by closing the lips, and then aspirating the vowel ů.

When this element is doubled, as in happy, the first P is mute.

S is a hissing sound, and, like z in zone, is formed with the tip of the tongue pressed gently against the gums of the upper incisor teeth.

incisor teeth. It is nearly the same as z in zone aspirated.

SH is formed with the tongue in the same position as is z in azure. SH is nearly the same sound as z in azure, aspirated.

T is formed by pressing the tip of the tongue against the gums of the upper incisor teeth, and then aspirating the vowel ů.* When T is doubled, as in attempt, the first T is mute.

TH, as in thin, like th in then, is formed with the tip of the tongue pressed against the upper incisor teeth.

It is nearly the same sound as the subvowel TH aspirated.

WH is the inceptive part of the vowel ů aspirated in a particular way. The sound which is produced, in the formation of this element, is nearly the same as hů, whispered. WH requires the same posture of the mouth that the vowel ů requires.

That hủ and wh are not identical, may be proved by pronouncing, alternately, the words hoom and whoom, and observing the contrast between them.

* Although of no practical importance, it may not be uninteresting to the philosophic reader to know that the second constituent of the subvowels B, D, G, and of the aspirates, K, P, T, is formed by aspirating the vowel ů only when these elements are uttered singly, when they are final, and when they are followed by a consonant. When they are followed by a vowel, their second constituent is formed by aspirating that vowel. This may be rendered obvious by pronouncing forcibly, and deliberately, the words, Bay, Day, Gay, and Kay, Pay, Tay, or any other words, in which B, D, G, and K, P, T are followed by vowels.

CHAPTER V.

THE POSTURES OF THE MOUTH.

An accurate knowledge of the positions which the organs of articulation should assume in the formation of the several elements of vocal language, is very important to those who would speak with ease and elegance. To aid the reader still further in the acquisition of this knowledge, he is furnished with the various postures of the mouth, required in uttering the elements energetically, and singly.

The elements are grouped according to the posture in which the mouth should be when they are formed. It will be seen that the Diphthongs and Triphthongs have each two postures of the mouth — one at the commencement, the other at the termination of the sound.

These postures are, of course, more or less modified, when the elements are uttered in their various combinations, and with different degrees of force.

The pupil should exercise his organs of speech, in the most forcible manner, three times a week, and, if possible, even every day, on all the elements.

The vowels should be exploded from the throat, both interrogatively and affirmatively, in every range of pitch within the compass of the voice, and with every possible de

The vowels are exploded in the following manner: make a full inspiration, close the glottis, and contract the muscles of expiration so as to condense the air in the lungs, then utter the element with a sudden and forcible emission of the breath. The sounds thus produced may be denominated vocal thunder; the effect upon an audience is electrical.

This exercise strengthens the vocal organs, and enables the speaker to be heard at a great distance, with very little effort, or expenditure of breath. It is also beneficial to health.

gree of force.

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