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computes that the whole number of horse and foot, by land and sea, out of Asia and out of Europe,

soldiers and followers of the camp, amounted to five millions two hundred eighty-three thou. sand, two hundred and twenty men. Xerxes content with stirring up the east, but was for stirring up the west likewise, and engaged the Carthagenians in his alliance, that while he with his army overwhelmed Greece, they might fall upon the Greek colonies in Sicily and Italy: and the Carthagenians for this purpose not only raised all the forces they could in Africa, but also hired a great number of mercenaries in Spain, and Gaul, and Italy; so that their army consisted of three hundred thousand men, and their feet of two hundred ships. Thus did Xerxes stir up all against the realm of Grecia: and after him no mention is made of any other king of Persia. It is to be noted,' saith Jerome, *that the prophet having enumerated four kings of the Persians after Cyrus, slippeth over nine, and passeth to Alexander'; for the prophetic spirit did not care to follow the order of history, but only to touch upon the most famous events.' Xerxes was the principal author of the long wars and inveterate hatred between the Grecians and Per. sians : and as he was the last king of Persia who invaded Greece, he is mentioned last. The Grecians then in their turn invaded Asia, and Xerxes' expedition being the most memorable on one side, as Alexander's was on the other, the reigns of these two are not improperly connected together.

“ Alexander is thus characterized, verse 3: ' And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule

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with great dominion, and do according to his will. That Alexander was a mighty king and conqueror; that he ruled with great dominion, not only over Greece and the whole Persian empire, but likewise added India to his conquests ; and that he did according to his will, none daring, not even his friends, to contradict and oppose him, or if they did, like Clitus and Callisthenes, paying for it with their lives; are facts too well known to require any particular proof or illustration.

“But his kingdom was soon to be broken and divided. Verse 4: ' And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled : for his kingdom shall be plucked up even for others besides those.' These particulars were in good measure suggested before; viii. 8, 22: · He waxed very great, and when he was strong, the great horn was broken : and for it came up four notable ones towards the four winds of heaven. Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it, four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power.' Alexander died in Babylon, having lived only thirty-two years and eight months, of which he reigned twelve years and eight months. In so short a time did this sun of glory rise and set: and in the space of about fifteen years afterwards his family and posterity became extinct, and chiefly by the means of Cassander. It was soon after Alexander's death, that his wife Statira, the daughter of Darius, was murdered out of jealousy, by his other wife Roxana; and her body was

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thrown into a well, and earth cast upon it. His natural brother, Aridæus, who succeeded him in the throne, by the name of Philip, was, together with his wife Eurydice, killed by the command of Olympias, the mother of Alexander, after he had borne the title of king six years and some months; and not long after Olympias herself was slain in revenge by the soldiers of Cassander, Alexander Ægus, the son of Alexander by Roxana, as soon as he was born was joined in the title of king with Philip Aridæus; and when he had attained to the fourteenth year of his age, he and his mother were privately murdered in the castle of Amphipolis, by order of Cassander. In the second year after this, Hercules, the other son of Alexander by Barsine, the widow of Memnon, was also with his mother, privately murdered by Polysperchon, induced thereto by the great offers made to him by Cassander. Such was the miserable end of Alexander's family; and then the governors made themselves kings, each in his province, from which title they had abstained as long as any just heir of Alexander was surviving. Thus was Alexander's kingdom broken and divided not to his posterity, but was plucked up even for others beside those : and it was divided toward the four winds of heaven ; for four of his captains, as it hath been shown in former dissertations, prevailed over the rest, and Cassander reigned in Greece and the west, Lysimachus in Thrace and the north, Ptolemy in Egypt and the south, and Seleucus in Syria and the east.

“ But though the kingdom of Alexander was divided into four principal parts, yet only two of them have a place allotted in this prophecy, Egypt

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and Syria. These two were by far the greatest and most considerable: and these two at one time, were in a manner the only remaining kingdoms of the four; the kingdom of Macedon having been conquered by Lysimachus and annexed to Thrace; and Lysimachus again having been conquered by Seleucus, and the kingdoms of Macedon and Thrace annexed to Syria. These two likewise continued distinct kingdoms, after the others were swallowed up by the power of the Romans. But there is a more proper and peculiar reason for enlarging upon these two particulars; because Judea, lying between them, was sometimes in the possession of the

kings of Egypt, and sometimes of the kings of Syria ; and it is the purpose of the holy Scripture, to interweave only so much of foreign affairs, as hath some relation to the Jews : and it is in respect of their situation to Judea, that the kings of Egypt and Syria are called the kings of the south and the north. Verse 5: And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes,' that is, of Alexander's princes,' and he shall be strong above him.' There is manifestly either some redundance, or some defect in the Hebrew copy; which should be rendered as it is by the Seventy, And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes shall be strong above him: or perhaps may be better rendered thus, And, the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and the king of the north shall be strong above him, and have dominion ; his dominion shall be a great dominion. The king of the south was indeed very strong; for Ptolemy had annexed Cyprus, Phænicia, Caria, and many islands, and cities, and

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regions to Egypt, as Jerome here commemorates out of the ancients. He had likewise enlarged the bounds of his empire, as Justin testifies, by the acquisition of Cyrene, and was now become so great, that he was in a condition not so much to fear, as to be feared by his enemies. But still king of the north, or Seleucus Nicator, was strong above him; for having annexed, as we have seen, the kingdoms of Macedon and Thrace to the crown of Syria, he was become master of three parts out of four of Alexander's dominions. All historians agree in representing him not only as the longest liver of Alexander's successors, but likewise as the conqueror of the conquerors. Appian in particular enumerates the nations which he subdued, and the cities which he built, and affirms, that after Alexander he possessed the largest part of Asia ; for all was subject to him from Phrygia up to the river Indus, and beyond it; and afterwards he denominates him expressly 'the greatest king of Alexander.'

“Seleucus Nicator, having reigned seven months after the death of Lysimachus, over the kingdoms of Macedon, Thrace, and Syria, was basely murdered; and to him succeeded in the throne of Syria, his son, Antiochus Soter, and to Antiochus Soter succeeded his son, Antiochus Theus. At the same time Ptolemy Philadelphus reigned in Egypt after his father, the first Ptolemy, the son of Lagus. There were frequent wars between the kings of Egypt and Syria. There were so, particularly between Ptolemy Philadelphus, the second king of Egypt, and Antiochus Theus, the third king of Syria. Verse 6: · And in the end of years they shall join themselves together'; for

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