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v. 20, 21. where λos is translated "emulations," and φθονοι σε envyings," merely to change the English word; not with a view of following the distinction of Aristotle, who makes ovos to mean that sentiment which prompts a man to hinder others from gaining the object in view; and nos that which prompts a man to gain the object for himself. As nos may be laudable and ovos not, the former is more likely than the latter to be used for the most favourable species of our sentiment.-It must depend then on circumstances and connection in what sense os is at any time to be taken: it is the only word used for any species of envy in the Acts of the Apostles; and it seems always to be used when any reference is made to rival sects. St. James (iii. 14 and 16.) gives it pos for an epithet, and connects it with epideia; πικρος and St. Paul reckons it among the works of the flesh; probably there is no instance in which the term is taken favourably when fervour means that of competitors, or contending parties; because in fact fervour in such cases does commonly run into faulty excess; and the senses of words are taken from realities. Charity envieth not", 8 nλo: a benevolent spirit does not run into such contentions as we see in the world.-So James iv. 2. Φονευετε και ζῃλετε : ye contend evento taking away life, and yet ye do not obtain what ye contend for. Acts vii. 9. nawoavtes is used for the motive of selling Joseph, which must have been envy, or jealousy. The Jews deliver up Christ dia povov, Matt. xxvii. 18. On the whole then Aristotle is right in making his ethical and theoretical distinction between Sovos and λos, and yet it was natural for the sacred writers, in their popular language, to follow the actual state of things. Not but Rivalship in Virtue seems to be recommended 2 Cor. ix. 2. and Heb. x. 24. And Rom. xi. 14. both παρα now in Greek and emulation in English are used in a way of commendation.
In French Envie signifies both envy and a longing, or desire when we long for any thing, another possesses it, and our desire is accompanied with envy towards the possessor. Zèle is used for envy, much as nos in the New Testament. "la méchanceté du
"zèle"-the next words are, "les envieux se trahissent "eux-mêmes". (Genlis.)
(x) Art. 12.]
Invidia Siculi non invenere Tyranni
(d) Art. 14.] See Byron's Narrative, 8vo. second edition, 1768.
Miss Ray, the Mistress of the Earl of Sandwich, was shot by her lover, a person in Holy Orders, who, immediately after shooting her shot himself.
The fact is recorded in a book called Love and Madness; but I have not, now, any account of the particulars at hand.
"Jelousie is Hell". Percy's Relics, vol. 1. p. 297. Patient Countess, line 2d.
See also the beginning of Mrs. Montolieus fable, or &c.--but above all, Shakspeare's Othello.
(e) Art. 16.] Mr. Wilberforce says, p. 355. that "emulation is forbidden: for besides that this passion "almost insensibly degenerates into envy, and that it "derives its origin chiefly from pride and a desire of "self-exaltation, how can we easily love our neigh"bour as ourselves, if we consider him at the same "time as our rival, and are intent upon surpassing him "in the pursuit of whatever is the subject of our com" petion"?
Mr. Cowper the Poet, who seems to have been in the same way of thinking with Mr. Wilberforce, blames emulation in one place, and commends it in another: I am sorry that want of room, where I made the remark, prevented my noting the particular places.
It appears, I think, that Mr. Wilberforce was acquainted, with the distinction between Envy and emulation. I would ask then, (though I hereafter acknowledge the imperfection of Emulation,) cannot we fulfill the command to love our neighbour as ourselves if we'
try to make ourselves as good as our neighbours? When I try to make myself as excellent as any one, it is because I love or esteem him; his kind of excellence suits my taste; my ideas of real merit. Nay, if I endeavour to make myself as rich as any friend, it does not seem necsssary that such endeavour should abate my friendship. A friend of mine, who in one part of his life was witness to many academical competitions, writes thus; "So far as my Cambridge experience goes, I will venture to answer Mr. W.'s question thus; "that I think, the rivalships, as there carried on in my days, (I imply nothing for or against other days, but merely confine myself to what I best know), did not "on the whole, retard men in approaching to that love "which is called loving our neighbour as ourselves, "but advanced them in the approach. I can speak the "most strongly of my own feelings in those rivalships. "Those rivalships did, I think, increase my benevo"lence at least my general benevolence; and either "increased, or did not much diminish my benevolence "to my Rivals themselves. Quære, however, whe.. "ther this would have been so if I had been oftener "disappointed in my competitions. I really think, that "the Rivalships which I witnessed in others, appeared "to me to be carried on in a very honourable way; "and that on my present reflection, I may believe them
to have improved the moral feelings of the compe"titors. This must be understood with exceptions." So far my friend: I wish to remark, that in one principal Competition, into which I examined with dili gence, 'tho' probably not without a degree of prejudice, this person had not the preference which he merited; according to the best judgement I was able to form at the time.
P.S. As I see no reason to the contrary, I am inclined to add, that the friend here spoken of is my Brother Richard Hey, author of several works which have been valued. On Liberty, Gaming, &c.-Happipiness and Rights: and that his sentiments (above expressed) were such in 1798, at the end of thirty years from the time of which he speaks.
Art. 17.] Le plus heureux est chargé des avances: son bonheur lui impose le devoir d'étre doux, d'étre patient. Un cœur abreuvé d' amertume, exige les égards, les ménagements les plus délicats.
I much approve of this, but I forget where I met with
Le mérite commence par éveiller l' envie, mais il peut toujours la désarmer par la modération et la modestie. Genlis: Libraire, p. 184. 129.
You cannot envy your neighbour's wisdom, if he gives you good counsel; nor his riches, if he supplies you in your wants; nor his greatness, if he employs it to your protection. Swift, quoted by Johnson, in his Dictionary, under Envy.
(g) Art. 21.] Où la vertue regne, il n'ya point de Rival.
Rosiere. Mémoire, near end.
Near the beginning of this Memoire Mons. Target, by whom it is drawn, speaks of the tender friendship of the Rivals for the Rose: " la tendre amitiè des rivales " &c. see Pref. to Madame de Genlis's Rosiere.-Some may say, here is a verbal contradiction; but the meaning seems to be, that such very friendly Rivals may be considered as no rivals at all, in the usual sense of the word; though they be competitors.
NOTES ON PART IV.
(a) Art. 3.] FOR instances of this proper sense of Malice see my printed Sermons on Malevolent Sentiments, p. 45. Bishop Hurd uses the expression to malign and envy". Sermons vol. i. p. 224. have in Horace, laudare malignè. Ep: ad Aug. 209. On which see Dacier's Note.
Gil Blas says, Book 7. Chap. 2, speaking of the Archbishop of Grenada's Officers," mais j'eus la malice "de ne pas contenter leur curiositè, pour me venger de "leur mépris" In the Book of Ecclesiasticus, "xviii. 31. the verb " malign" is used in our sense. Bishop Law expresses the sentiments of envy and malice (as malice is felt by the object) when he says,, "what eagerness to excell some, what dread of falling below others!" Theory of Rel. p. 12. 4th edit. The Song has both sentiments; Malice and Envy.
I laugh not at another's losse,
I grudge not at another's gaine;
Percy's Reliques. Vol. i. p. 295.
(b) Art. 3.] Though common men may not easily be driven to use malice in what we call the proper sense, yet I have observed that those to whom the word has become familiar, in that sense, find very frequent occasions to use it. Nay they use a verb; and want as often to speak of one man's malicing another, as of one man's envying another.
(c) Art. 4.] Cruelty to brutes, &c. seems to be using them in a tyrannical insulting manner, allied to malice, and that rather without attention to what they