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suffer, than in order to make them suffer. Curiosity at the same time is gratified; and the fine animated attitudes and gestures of tormented animals, besides being picturesque, raise an interest, and excite various emotions in the mind. This is by no means intended to justify cruelty to brutes, but only to account for it in those who do not think.
The pleasure of games of skill and activity, so generally felt by mankind, consists very considerably in triumph over an adversary.
(d) Art. 5.] Some men say, partly perhaps in the way of pleasantry, that they cannot bear to be shewn things; meaning collections of pictures, statues, literary curiosities, fine houses, prospects, &c.-probably those who say this, feel something of insult, or malice, mixing itself with the explanations which are given them. It does not seem impossible, that a Cicerone,if narrow-minded, may feel a degree of triumph in what he knows familiarly, and his pupil for the hour is unacquainted with, though acknowledged to be worthy of general notice or admiration.
(e) Art. 6.] See my Lectures in Divinity, Bookiii. Chap. ix. Sect. 1. Note (a)-In these Lectures it was frequently found necessary to observe, that the language of Scripture is popular. There is no such word as Sacrament in Scripture; nor as Trinity.
(f) Art. 7.] It must not appear strange if in some of the instances quoted, different sentiments should run into one another. How natural it is for them all to mix and unite has been shewn repeatedly.
(g) Art. 8. For common life see Fielding's Amelia, B. 2. Ch. 1. "turned their heads aside, unable to support their secret triumph ".
With regard to Captives, it seems almost unaccountable, that small tribes of Savages should so often be conquerors and conquered by turns, and yet continue to
destroy captives; when it must be strikingly evident, that a mutual forbearance of such cruelty must be for the common good.-Perhaps they act only from the passion of the moment: untaught to look forward, disdaining to think of consequences, their views extend no farther than to satiating their revenge, and triumphing over their adversaries and Rivals.. As far as they act from any principle, it is from a contempt and detestation of the character of coward: which they think he must deserve and incur, who first spares an enemy with the view of being afterwards spared himself.
(h) Art. 20. Edward son of Edward III, commonly called the Black Prince: at the Battle of Crecy. 1346.
NOTES ON PART V.
(a) Art. 4.] Bishop Joseph Butler has an excellent Sermon on Resentment. How much I am indebted to it I really do not know; as many years have passed since I read it, till within these few days (1799). He seems to divide Anger into sudden and deliberate, then to use the term, sometimes for the genus, and some times for either species. Should this minute remark be admitted, the inaccuracy, such as it is, may be accounted for by what is here (in the text) observed. Bishop Butler was one of the most accurate of writers, as well as one of the best of men.
(b) Art. 4.] Ressentiment in French seems to correspond to this ancient sense of our Resentment.
Courroux, in Girard's Synonymes, implies some loftiness mixed with anger; it is a sentiment such as arises in the mind of a person of high rank, and pride,
towards an offending inferior. Rancune seems to answer to our bearing malice; (Part iv. Art. 3.); whereas rancour with us is used for enmity of the most malevolent and bitter sort.
(c) Art. 6.] See Butler's Sermons on Resentment, Vol i. 12mo. p. 205.
(d) Art. 7.] See my printed Sermons on Malevolent Sentiments, p. 52.
(e) Art. 12.] Horace mixes the ideas of Hatred and Resentment in this line,
Dum pænas odio per vim festinat inulto.
Epist. Lib. i. Ep. 2. v. 61.
(f) Art. 13.] There is an appearance as if some men deceived themselves by attending too much to their freedom of choice, and too little to the motives by which that choice is determined: perceiving such self-deceit may have driven others into the doctrine of Necessity. Our consciousness of a power of chusing makes us think ourselves less passive than we really are. We are impelled by our feelings to good, and that by such constant laws, that a spectator would take it for granted we should act as we do, though in every act we are sensible that we might have acted differently.-I can conceive that men would not make much opposition to the notion of the beneficial influence of the malevolent sentiments, were they to digest thoroughly what is here intimated. But it certainly wants a more full explanation, or examination. Something to the purpose might be found in my Lectures in Divinity, Book iv. Art. x. Sect. 49, and elsewhere.
(s) Art. 22.] Part I. 37.-Part III. 16.-Part IV. 9.
Madame de Genlis introduces Modern Philosophy (from Pensées Philosophiques, &c.) pleading in favor of indulging the passions, and contemning those who would subdue them. To make this subduing the more
contemptible it is called annihilating; we do not desire really to annihilate passions; but the manner in which such a thing is charged upon us shews, that it was deemed confessedly absurd. See Mad. de Genlis on Religion, p. 153.
(h) Art. 22.] It is not easy to conceive what we should be if deprived of any one of those passions which now continually prompt us to action; yet the attempt to conceive such a thing might have its use. How would a man be if entirely devoid of Anger? When he received harm, injury, affront, would he not be perfectly still and quiet? as little stirred as a piece of marble or wax-work? When he beheld oppression, cruelty, treachery, meanness, ingratitude, would not his features be fixed, and his countenance as placid as ours is on the sight of an indifferent event, or a serene day? A blow might give him bodily pain, but as it would not provoke him, he might perhaps thank the striker for taking much trouble on his account. Mock such a one as much as you please, scorn, insult him; he takes no morę notice than a portrait, or a statue. And must not such a person, in his turn, deal about blows and injuries with perfect insensibility? must he not make himself odious? and bring on continual attacks?
This is not meant as a faithful representation of what a man would be without anger; for that, as I set out with observing, is difficult to be conceived; but merely as something to set others on trying to form an idea of what I am unable to imagine so as to satisfy myself.
(i) Art. 27.] It is not here meant, that a man may fully expect such particular gratitude for every good action as he determines to be adequate; were that the case would there be any such thing as disinterested goodness? but it seems as if a benefactor might indulge general expectations, that a number of good actions would, in one way or other, produce a number of returns.
It may not seem material to mention, that these
thoughts on forgiveness make part of a Sermon, or set of Sermons, preached before the University of Cambridge in the year 1769. What follows relative to Examples, Part VII. was preached on St. Stephen's day; and all relating to Resentment from Part VII. 43. to the end, in 1769.
NOTES ON PART VI·
(a) Art. 6.] PERHAPS in French Courroux conveys much the same idea. See Note (b) in Part V.
(b) Art. 7.] In 2 Cor. vii. 11. we have the word Revenge; but it seems to mean one part. or mark, of Repentance.-Locke and Hammond conceive it to be anger aimed by the penitent at himself; and we are certainly angry with ourselves, and feel a desire to punish ourselves, when we look back upon sins and follies into which we have suffered ourselves to be seduced. Yet in reading the passage something gave me the idea of desiring to punish others as well as ourselves, if they had been instrumental in our seduction.
(c) Art. 7.] The passage here meant is 1 Tim. ii. 8. on which see Hammond's Note. In that Note he refers to his Note on Matt. xv. 19.-This also should be read; also Matt. v. 24. They all relate to the purity of the Heart from from Revenge, or Grudge: xwpis oprns και διαλογισμό (or διαλογισμων) might be better translated than by "wrath and doubting"; the two words should denote ideas or feelings which usually mix together in the Heart. Hammond was sensible of this, yet he does not seem to keep the tenth commandment enough in view. He might think coveting property the thing particularly forbidden. But the tenth commandment appears