cence; especially if it has been exerted with success, and repaid with gratitude. And there is no person so little pleasing in himself as not to become a pleasing object to us, when he makes this consciousness to operate forcibly. At least we may, by beneficence towards him whom we fancy we cannot love, prevent hacred from proceeding to settled ill-will; which is to disarm it of a great share of its evil.

45. We may now imagine a disgust to arise in a connection which seemed to promise the reverse : between friends, or any who bear to each other regard and affection. It is here material to be aware, that all friendships and attachments between human beings are liable to occasional disgusts. Not that these disgusts would be of very great consequence if men were perfectly clear and ready in the notion that they are temporary: whilst we are under the influence of passion we see no end to it ; (m.) and therefore we are apt to deceive ourselves so far as to fancy there is none : this is found a hurtful error, on many occasions. The very idea of our disgusts abating would naturally help them to abate ; whereas if we conclude that because we feel something like hatred, all affection is for ever at an end, we shall be very apt to do something or other, which will materially shake and weaken its foundations.

46. Were a man desirous to do what was right in all cases where hatred is apt to arise, he would never indulge that passion to any one's disadvantage before he had asked himself one question. This man is certainly odious to me, but how does he become so? by his faults merely? or may it not be because he makes me feel my own faults too strongły? because by being the occasion of my condemning myself, he makes me feel uneasy and dissatisfied ? He is the occasion of my being disappointed of what I earnestly desire; but ought I to desire such a thing ? is it consistent with the general good that I should possess it? Let me take care that I do not hate the virtuous or innocent; that by me no man be persecuted for righteousness sake. To soften and restrain my dislike in this case is particularly important; for if my neighbour has incurred my


hatred only by thwarting my illicit purposes, then at the sanie time that I overcome my aversion to him, I reform myself.

47. From what has been said concerning the propagation of hatred, and the deceptions on which it is frequently founded, we may see what great caution we ought to use in adopting the aversions and antipathies oí our friends.

We can seldom expect to do that without involving ourselves in great difficulties, and in much blame. The least that any man ought to do before he takes up an aversion in compliance with a friend, is to view the object of the aversion, not only as he appears to enemies, but as he appears to those, whose love and esteem he is desirous to cultivate.

48. Many more expedients for the regulation and discipline of hatred might possibly be recommended ; but I shall content myself with these ; under a persuasion, that he who should make himself master of these, and acquire a readiness in reducing them to practice, would find them lead to others, such as new situations happened to demand: all which, when united, would gradually gather strength, meliorate themselves, and approach perpetually to a perfect rule of life.


Malevolent Sentiments.



1. I MIGHT now dismiss the subject of hatred,

and proceed to the consideration of another malevolent sentiment, were there not a species of hatred which seems to require a separate discussion ; I mean, what is commonly called Misanthropy, or hatred of mankind. It is one actually prevailing in a considerable number of men, though it subsists in different degrees in different minds, and appears in various forms. It is dangerous, because it professes to be virtuous. And indeed it is a kind of luxuriance of virtue; an extreme or excess of moral feeling ; and, like other extremes, has the effects of vice: it does much harm ; it prevents much good; both in private and in public. What the scripture says against hatred, against reviling, judging, may often be applied to the Misanthrope : who frequenty acts and speaks in a manner inconsistent with Christian love.

2. As it must be the most useful to treat this fault according to some settled method, I will endeavour, in the first place, to give a description of it. Secondly to expose the Fallacies under which it shelters itself. Thirdly to describe the mischiefs attending it. And fourthly to propose some remedies.

3. In the first place then I am to attempt some dcscription of what is usually called Misanthropy,

If we ask the Man-hater why he hates Mankind; he answers, because they are so vicious ; so selfish, mean, cruel; so false and faithless. He cannot tole rate such infamous proceedings as he beholds in the world; he is too warm a friend of virtue to be placid and indifferent; and he is above flattery; he is too frank, sincere, and too little of a coward even to dissemble; therefore he must be permitted to vent an honest indignation ; he means in private society; as to public matters, though he will not flatter the great, he will keep himself aloof. He can see that public transactions are all oppression, corruption, and iniquity; and therefore he will undertake no office; he will not appear to countenance abuses which he cordially detests. Is he a writer ? he runs into virulent satyrę his pen expresses nothing but gloominess and malignity; sometimes it is envenomed with the most poisonous slander : it wounds, and there is no cure. If he is not a writer, he gratifies himself by embittering conversation with austerity and invective: he alarms the cheerful tranquility, the social security of convivial enjoyment, by representing every character and every transaction not as unpleasing only, but as shocking and detestable. He holds them up to view on the most unfavourable side, and rails at them as if they were incapable of any more favourable representation. His pleasure consists in the indulgence of his rancour and abhorrence : offer him an idea or expression that is candid or pleasing ; he loaths it, as nauseously sweet and cloying. His companions, when companions he admits, are those who are best qualified to join with him in drawing gloomy pictures of mankind; in making malignant jests and acrimonious strictures : with such entertainment he gluts himself, as the savage animal with his prey. A cheerful moderate companion is at best but insipid to him, generally odious, Such a one is called unfeeling, time-serving, and a traitor to the cause of virtue. If any thwart his views, or interfere with his rights, they are immediately put upon the footing of enemies; however innocent they may be: no trial is held; they are calumniated with virulence, and hated with bitterness : chagrin and ill-humour, in various shapes, take possession of his mind; and leave

no authority to calm dispasssionate reason, no room for mild forbearance. Yet be pretends to reason; the form of argument is kept up; nay he would be thought a man of deep reflection; of such penetration as to see through all hypocritical pretences: the complacent mask which men wear, does not impose upon him; no; he can strip it off; and discover beneath it the hide den features of moral deformity.

This may give some idea of the hater of mankind : his character is indeed by some moralists too strongly charged; but that may make it the more plainly discernible: and if misanthropy be once understood, we can the more easily recognize it when it is mixed with other qualities, good or bad; or when it is but occasional, appearing and disappearing; when it is the temper only of an hour of disappointment, a day of mortification, or a season of bodily indisposition. ( a )

4. Having done what was first proposed, I am, in the next place, to endeavour to detect some of the fallacies under which misanthropy is apt to shelter itself. To deny the man-hater some love of virtue would be neither candid nor just ; but it may be truly said, that he presumes himself to be more the friend of virtue than he really is: that is, he deceives himself; and could the particular deceptions or fallacies, into which he runs, be exposed, and distinctly marked, he himself might be ashamed of some of them; and other men might be witheld from imitating him, or from feeding his malevolent humor by inconsiderate respect, or illjudged admiration.

5. The misanthrope deceives himself by founding his pretensions to virtue on conduct inconsistent with human happiness. The grand design of virtue is to make men happy; the misantlıropę is constantly engaged in making men unhappy; in destroying all their enjoyments: he never sympathizes with men in any thing which affords them satisfaction ; he never encourages or accepts their endeavours to please ; not a smile is seen upon his countenance; nor is suffered to display itself without interruption on the countenance of any one who is in his presence. The hospitable reception,

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