The 'vanishing stress,' that abrupt force which is given with a sudden jerk of the voice, on the very last of a syllable, is used in nature, to express impatience,' defiance,' revenge,' * contempt,' scorn,' &c.

The compound stress,' with abruptness on both the opening and closing parts, is necessary to give emphatic ridicule,' sarcasm,' . insinuation,' irony,' &c.

The thorough stress,' which sustains the opening boldness throughout, is appropriate in bold, martial command.'

The tremor' of the voice adds nervous intensity to the • abrupt stress;' but it is most effective, when inspired by strong feeling, with the smooth' or median' stress. The * soft and slow tremor' expresses pity' and feebleness'; the smooth, 'rapid tremor,' expresses fervent joy' or ' tenderness.'

Examples of long quantity' and abrupt force' on the very opening of the emphatic tone or the radical stress.


“Come one, come all ! - this rock shall fly

From its firm base as soon as I.”

2. “ There is, however, one man, who distinctly and audaciously tells the Irish people that they are not entitled to the same privileges as Englishmen, and pronounces them, in race, identity, and religion, to be aliens, — to be aliens in race, to be aliens in country, to be aliens in religion ! Aliens? Good God! was Arthur, Duke of Wellington, in the House of Lords, and did he not start up and exclaim, · Hold! I have seen the aliens do their duty ?'

Examples of very long quantity,' with very loud · vanishing stress' or abrupt force' on the very last part of the emphatic tone. 1. “Shame! shame! that in such a proud moment of life,

Worth ages of history, when had you but hurled
One bolt at your bloody invader, that strife
Between frcemen and tyrants had spread through the

That then, - oh! disgrace upon manhood ! - e'en then

You should falter, should cling to your pitiful breath, Cower down into beasts, when you might have stood men,

And prefer a slave's life to a glorious death!”

66 I saw

2. The corse, the mangled corse, and then I cried For vengeance! Rouse, ye Romans ! Rouse, ye slaves!

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Painful earnestness, anxiety, or entreaty, also demand the * vanishing stress.

3. “I never heard entreaties for life poured forth with such agony of spirit. He prayed but for life, - for life he would give all he had in the world. It was but life he asked, life, if it were to be prolonged under tortures and privations.”

Examples of compound stress' or abrupt force' on both the very first and very last parts of a syllable. This double stress is only used with the double or circumflex slides.

1. • What has there been in the conduct of the British ministry to justify these hòpes? Is it that insidijus smile with which our petition has been lately received? Ask yourselves how this grăcious reception of our petition comports with those wàrlike preparations which cover our wàters and dàrken our land. Are fleets and årmics necessary to a work of lóve and reconciliation ? Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled, that force must be called in to win back our lóve ?”

2. “Sir, — the atrocious crime of being a young man, which the honorable gentleman has, with such spirit and decency, charged upon me, I shall neither attempt to palliate nor deny;

but content myself with hoping that I may be one of those whose follies cease with their youth, and not of that number, who, as they have advanced in age, have receded from virtue, and become more wicked with less temptation.”

3. “ They planted by your care? No, your oppressions planted them in America. They nourished up by your indul

gence? They grew by your neglect of them. They protected by your arms ! They have nobly taken up arms in your defence.”

Examples of thorough stress,' with a sustained bold force on the whole tone. 1. Strike — till the last arm'd foe expires, Strike — for

altars and


fires, Strike — for the green graves of your sires, God — and your native land !”

2. But if ye are men, then follow me!

Strike down yon sentinel, and gain the mountain passes ; and there do bloody work as did your sires at old Thermopylæ ! ”

Examples for the median stress,' with a smooth tremulous swell.

First, the slow tremor,' - as in the feeble, pathetic pleading of the dying child, very short slides,' and very soft force.' 1. “Give me three grains of corn, mother,

Only three grains of corn ;
It will kcep the little life I have,

Till the coming of the morn.
I am dying of hunger and cold, mother,

Dying of hunger and cold,
And half the


of such a death My lips have never told.”

2. "I tell you that which you yourselves do know; Show you sweet Cæsar's wounds, - poor, poor dumb mouths, And bid them speak for me.”

Second, rapid tremor' of joy, tenderness, rapture, or fer



“ The heart of the sleeper beats high in his breast;

Joy quickens his pulses, — his hardships seem o'er,

And a murmur of happiness steals through his rest,

O God! thou hast blest me; I ask for no more."

2. “On board, we hailed the lad beloved,

With many a manly shout:
The father drew with silent joy

Those wet arms round his neck,
And folded to his heart his boy, -

Then fainted on the deck.”

In fervent admiration the median stress may be given with the · tremulous swell.'

Examples of full and lively median stress.'
1. “O young Lochinvar is come out of the west,

Through all the wide border his steed was the best,
And save his good broadsword he weapon


He rode all unarmed, and he rode all alone.
So faithful in love, and so dauntless in war,
There never was knight like the young Lochinvar.”

2 “ But thou, O Hope ! with eyes so fair,

What was thy delighted measure ?
Still it whispered promised pleasure,
And bade the lovely scenes at distance — hail.
Still would her touch the strain prolong;
And from the rocks, the woods, the vale,
She called on Echo still through all her song!
And, where her sweetest theme she chose,
A soft responsive voice was heard at every close ;
And Hope, enchanted, smiled, and waved her golden hair.”

Rapturous joy, like Romeo's, should have the longest and smoothest and happiest tremulous median stress.'

“But soft! what light through yonder window breaks ? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun!

" She speaks:
O, speak again, bright angel! for thou art
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head,
As is a winged messenger of Heaven
Unto the white-upturned, wond'ring eyes
Of mortals, that fall back to gaze on him,
When he bestrides the lazy-pacing clouds,
And sails upon the bosom of the air.”

“O blessed, blessed night! I am afear'd, Being in night, all this is but a dream Too flattering-sweet to be substantial.”

With very long slides,' and loud force,' and · high pitch,' the tremulous vanishing stress' is natural and most effective in the following example of impassioned fear and entreaty.

“Oh! save me, Hubert, save me! my cyes are out
Even with the fierce looks of these bloody men!
Alas! what need you be so boist'rous-rough?
I will not struggle ; I will stand stone-still.
For Heaven's sake, Hubert ! let me not be bound !
Nay, hear me, Hubert! drive these men away
And I will sit as quiet as a lamb;
I will not stir, nor wince, nor speak a word,
Nor look upon the irons angerly;
Thrust but these men away, and I 'll forgive you,
Whatever torment you do put me to.”

Quality of voice is 'pure' or ' impure.'
It is 'pure' when all the breath used is vocalized.

It is impure' or aspirated when only a part of the breath is vocalized.


Pure quality' should be used to express all pure ideas ; that is, all good and agreeable ideas.

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