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and we have no ambition to tyrannize over any nacion. That you may understand the genius of the Scythians, we present you with a yoke of oxen, an arrow, and a goblet. We use these respectively in our commerce with friends and with foes. We give to our friends the corn, which we raise by the labour of our oxen. With the goblet we join with them in pouring drink-offerings to the gods; and with arrows we attack our enemies. We have conquered those, who have attempted to tyrannize over us in our own country, and likewise the kings of the Medes and Persians, when they made unjust war upon us; and we have opened to ourselves a way into Egypt. You pretend to be the punisher of robbers; and are yourself the general robber of mankind. You haye taken Lydia : you have seized Syria: you are master of Perfia: you have subdued the Bactrians; and attacked India. All this will not satisfy you, unless you lay your greedy and insatiable hands upon our flocks and our herds. How imprudent is your conduct! You grasp at riches, the poffeffion of which only increases your avarice. You increase your hunger by what thould produce fatiety; so that the more you have, the more you desire. But have you forgot how long the conquest of the Bactrians detained you? While you were subduing them, the Sogdians revolted. Your victories ferve no other purpose, than to find you employment by producing new wars. For the business of every conquest is twofold; to win, and to preserve. And though you may be the greatest of warriors, you must expect, that the nations you conquer willendeavour to Make off the yoke as fast as porfible. For what people chooses to be under foreign dominion? If you will cross the Tanais, you may travel over Scythia, and observe how extenfive a territory we inhabit. But to conquer us is quite another business. Your army is loaded I.

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with the cumbrous spoils of many nations. You will find the poverty of the Scythians, at one time, too.nimble for your pursuit; and at another time, when you think we are fled far enough from you, you will have us surprise you in your camp. For the Scythians attack with no lefs vigour than they fly. Why should we put you in mind of the valta ness of the country you will have to conquer the deserts of Scythia are commonly talked of in Greece; and all the world knows, that our delight is to dweil at large, and not in towns or plantations. It will therefore be your wisdom to keep with strict attention what you have gained. Catching at more, you may lofe what you have. We have a proverbial saying in Scythia, That Fortune has no feet, and is furnished only with hands, to diftribute her capracious favours, and with fins, to elude the grasp of those, to whom she has been bountiful. You give yourself out to be a god, the son of Jupiter Hammon. It suits the character of a god, 10 bestow favours on mortals; not to deprive them of what they have.

But if you are no god, reflect on the precarious condition of humanity. You will thus thew more wifdom, than by dwelling on those subjects which have puffed up your pride, and made you forget yourself. You see how little you are likely to gain by attempting the conquest of Scythia. On the other hand, you may, if you please, have in us a valuable alliance. We command the borders of both Europe and Asia. There is nothing between us and Bactria, but the river Tanais : and our territory extends to Thrace, which, as we have heard, borders on Macedon, If you decline attacking us in a hostile manner, you may have our friendship. Nations which have never been at war are on an equal footing. But it is in vain, that confidence is reposed in a conquered people. There can be no fincere

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friendship between the oppressor and the oppressed. Even in peace, the latter think themselves entitled to the rights of war against the former. We will, if you think good, enter into a treaty with you, according to our manner which is, not by signing, sealing, and taking the gods to witness, as is the Grecian custom; but by doing actual services. The Scythians are not used to promise; but to perform without promising. And they think an appeal to the gods superfluous; for that those, who have no regard for the esteem' of men, will not hesitate to offend the gods, by perjury. You may therefore confider with yourself, whether you had better have a people of such a character, and so situated as to have it in their power either to serve you, or to annoy you, according as you treat them, for allies, or for enemies.

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GALGACUS THE GENERAL of the CALEDONII

HIS ARMY, TO INCITE A G AINST THE ROMANS. When I reflect on the causes of the war, and the circumstances of our situation, I feel a strong perfuasion that our united efforts on the present day will prove the beginning of universal liberty to Britain. For none of us are hitherto debased by slavery ; and we have no prospect of a secure retreat behind us, either by land or fea, whilst the Roman fleet hovers around. Thus the use of arms, which is at all times honourable to the brave, here offers the only safety even to cowards. In all the battles which have yet been fought with various success against the Romans, the resources of hope and aid were in our hands; for we, the

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noblest inhabitants of Britain, and therefore stationed in its deepest receffes, far from the view of servile shores, have preserved even our eyes unpolluted by the contact of subjection. We, at the farthest limits both of land and liberty, have been defended to this day by the obscurity of our fituation and of our fame. The extremity of Britain is now disclosed ; and whatever is unknown becomes an object of importance. But there is no nation beyond us; nothing but waves and rocks; and the Romans are before us. The arrogance

of these invaders it will be in vain to encounter by obsequiousness and submission. These plunderers of the world, after exhausting the land by their devaftations, are rifling the ocean : stimulated by avarice, if their enemy be rich; by ambition, if poor: unsatiated by the East and by the West: the only people who behold wealth and indi. gence with equal avidity. To ravage, to laugher, to ufurp under false titles, they call empire ; and when they make a desert, they call it peace.

Our children and relations are by the appointment of Nature rendered the dearest of all things to us. torn away by levies to foreign servitude. Our wives and filters, though they should escape the violation of hoftile force, are polluted under the names of friendship and hofpitality. Our estates and possessions are consumed in tributes; our grain in contributions. Even the powers of our bodies are worn down amidst stripes and insults in clearing woods and draining marshes. Wretches born to slavery are first bought, and afterwards fed by their masters : Britain continually buys, continually feeds her own fervitude. And as among domestic slaves, every new-comer serves for the fcorn and derifion of his fellows; fo, in this ancient house, hold of the world, we, as the last and vileft, are fought

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out for destruction. For we have neither cultivated lands nor mines, nor harbours, which can induce them to preserve us for our labours, and our valour and unsubmitting spirit will only render us more obnoxious to our imperious masters; while the very remoteness and secrecy of our fituation, in proportion as it conduces to security, will tend to inspire fufpicion. Since then all hopes of forgiveness are vain, let those at length assume courage, to whom glory, to whom safety is dear. The Brigantines, even under a female leader, had force enough to burn the enemy's settlements, to storm their camps; and, if success had not intro. duced negligence and inactivity, would have been able entirely to throw off the yoke: and shall not we, untouched, unsubdued, and struggling not for the acquisition, but the continuance of liberty, declare at the very first onset what kind of men Caledonia has reserved for defence ?

Can you imagine that the Romans are as brave in war as they are insolent in peace ? Acquiring renown from our discords and dissentions, they convert the errors of their ene. mies to the glory of their own army; an army compounded of the most different nations, which as success alone has kept together, misfortuue will certainly dissipate. Unless, indeed, you can suppose that Gauls, and Germans, and (I blush to say it) even Britons, lavishing their blood for a foreign state, to which they have been longer foes than subjects, will be retained by loyalty and affection! Terror and dread alone, weak bonds of attachment, are the ties by which they are restrained ; and when these are once broker, those who cease to fear will begin 'to hate. Every incitement to victory is on our fide. The Romans have no

wives to animate them; no parents to upbraid their flight. · Most of m have either no habitation, or a distant one.

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