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woman! But once only treated as a Nave, me thought life no longer to be endured. Lucretia, a woman, disdained a. life that depended on a tyrant's will; and Mall we, fhall men with such an example before our eyes, and after five andtwenty years of ignominious fervitude, shall we, through a fear of dying, defer one single instant to assert our liberty ? No, Romans: now is the time;, the favourable moment we have so long waited for is come. Tarquin is not at Rome, The Patricians are at the head of the enterprize. The city is abundantly provided with men, arms, and all things ne. cessary. There is nothing wanting to secure the success, if our own courage does not fail us.. And all those warriors, who have ever been so brave when foreign enemies were to be. subdued, or when conquests were to be made to gratify the. ambition and avariçe of Tarquin, be then only cowards , when they are to deliver themselves from slavery? Some of you are perhaps intimidated by the army which Tarquin now commands. The soldiers, you imagine, will take the part of their general. Banith fo groundless a fear. The love of liberty is natural to all men. Your fellow-citizens in the camp feel the weight of oppression with as quick a sense as you that are in Rome : they will as eagerly seizei the occasion of throwing off the yoke. But let us grant there may be fome among them, who, through baseness of spirit, or a bad education will be disposed to favour the tyrant. The number of these can be but small, and we have means fufficient in our hands to reduce them to reason. They have left us hostages more dear to them than life. Their wives, their children, their fathers, their mothers, are here in the city.. Courage, Romans! the gods are for us; those gods whose temples and altars the impious Tarquin has profaned by


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facrifices and libations made with polluted hands, pollated with blood, and with numberless unexpiated crimes committed against his subjects. Ye Gods, who protected our forefathers ! ye Genii, who watch for the prefervation and glory of Rome ! do you inspire us with courage and unanimity in this glorious cause, and we will to our last breath defend your worship from all profanation.



SOLDIERS. I KNOW not, foldiers, whether you or your prisoners be encompassed by fortune with the stricter bonds and necessities. Two seas inclose you on the right and left; not a ship to flee to for escaping. Before you is the Po, a river broader and more rapid than the Rhone ; behind you are the Alps, over which, even when your numbers were undiminished, you were hardly able to force a passage. Here then, foldiers ! you must either conquer or die, the very first hour you meet the enemy. But the fame fortune which has thus laid you under the necessity of fighting, has fet before your eyes those rewards of victory, than which no men are ever wont to wish for greater from the immortal Gods. Should we, by our valour, recover only Sicily and Sardinia, which were ravished from our fathers, those would be no inconfiderable prizes. Yet what are these? The wealth of Rome, whatever riches the has heaped together in the spoils of nations, all these, with the masters of them, will be yours. You have been long enough employed in driving the cattle upon the vast mountains of Lu. fitania and Celtiberia ; you have hitherto met with no. reward worthy of the labours and dangers you have under


gone. The time is now come to reap the full recompense of your toilfome marches over so many mountains and rivers, and through so many nations, all of them in arms. This is the place which fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labours; it is here that you will finish your gloriońs warfare, and receive an ampte recompense of your completed service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult as the name of a Roman war is great and founding. It has often happened that a defpifed enemy has given a bloody battle, and the most renowned kings and nations have by a small force been overthrown. And if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there, wherein they may stand in competition with you? For to say nothing of your service in war for twenty years together, with so much valour and success, from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? And with whom are you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an undisciplined army, beaten, vanquilhed, besieged by the Gauls the very last summer, an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with him.

OR shall I, who was born, I might almost say, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general, sħall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but, which is greater yet, of the Alps themselves, shall I compare myself with this half-year captain! A captain, before whom should one place the two armies without their enfigns, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consul? I efteem it no fmall advantage, soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits


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in war; not one of whose valour I myself have not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achievements; that with soldiers whom I have a thousand times praised and rewarded, and whose pupil I was, before I became their general. I fall march against an army of men, strangers to one another.

On what fide foever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of courage and strength; a veteran-infantry; a moft gallant cavalry; you, my allies, moit faithful and valiant ? you, Car-, thaginians, whom not only your country's cause, but the justeft anger impels to battle. The hope, the courage of affailānts, is always greater than of those who act upon the defensive. With hostile banners displayed, you are come down upon Italy; you bring the war. Grief, injuries, indignities fire your minds, and fpur you forward to revenge! ---First they demanded me; that I, your general, should be delivered up to them : next, all of you, who had fought at. the siege of Saguntum: and we were to be put to death by the extremelt tortures. Proud and cruel nation! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal! You are to prescribe to us with whom we fall make war, with whom we shall make peace! You are to let us bounds; to shut'us up within hills and rivers ! but you-amyou are not to observe the Jinits which yourselves have fixed! País not the Iberus., What next? Touch not the Saguntines; Saguntum is upon the Iberus, move not a step towards that city. Is it a small matter then, that you have deprived us of our ancient possessions, Sicily and Sardinia; you would have Spain too ! Well, we shall yield Spain, and then--you will pass into Africa. Will país, did I say?- This very year they ordered one of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, Soldiers ! there it nothing left for us but what we can


vindicate with our swords. Come on then! Be men. The Romans may with more safety be cowards; they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to filee to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither ; but for you, there is no middle fortune between death and victory, Let this be but well fixed in your minds, and once again, I say, you are conquerors.




T is but too common, my countrymen, to observe a material difference between the behaviour of those, who stand candidates for places of power and trust, before, and after their obtaining them. They solicit them in one manner, and execute them in another. They set out with a great appearance of activity, humility, and moderation; and they quickly fall into sloth, pride, and avarice. It is, undoubtedly, no easy matter to discharge, to the general satisfaction, the duty of a fupreme commander in troublesome times. I am, I hope, duly sensible of the importance of the office I propose to take upon me, for the service of my country. To carry on, with effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of the public'money; to oblige those to ferve, whom it may be delicate to offend; to conduct, at the same time, a complicated variety of operations; to concert measures at home, answerable to the state of things abroad; and to gain every valuable end, in spite of oppo. fition from the envious, the factious, and the disaffected; to do all this, my countrymen, is more difficult, than is geneem


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