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BOOK IV.

ARGUMENTATIVE PIECES.

С НАР. І.

ON

A N G E R.

QUESTION. WH

HETHER Anger ought to be suppressed entirely; or only to be confined within the bounds of moderation.

Those who maintain that resentment is blameable only in the excess, support their opinion with such arguments as these.

Since Anger is natural and useful to man, entirely to banish it from our breast, would be an equally foolish and vain attempt: for as it is difficult, and next to impossible, to oppose nature with success; so it were imprudent, if we had it in our power, to cast away the weapons with which she has furnished us for our defence. The best armour against injustice is a proper degree of spirit, to repel the wrongs that are done, or designed against us: but if we divest ourselves of all resentment, we shall perhaps

prove

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prove too irresolute and languid, both in resisting the at. tacks of injustice, and inflicting punishment upon those, who have committed it. We shall therefore fink into con. tempt, and by the tameness of our spirit, shall invite the malicious to abuse and affront us. Nor will others fail to denyus the regard which is due from them, if once they think us incapable of resentment. To remain unmoved at gross injuries, has the appearance of stupidity, and will make us despicable and mean in the eyes of many

who not to be influenced by any thing but their fears.

And as a moderate share of resentment is useful in its ef. fects, so it is innocent in itself, nay often commendable. The virtue of mildness is no less remote from insensibility, on the one hand, than from fury on the other. It implies, that we are angry only upon proper occasions, and in a due degree; that we are never transported beyond the bounds of decency, or indulge a deep and lasting refentment; that we do not follow, but lead our passion, governing it as our servant, not submitting ourfelves to it as our master. Under these regulations it is certainly excusable, when moved only by private wrongs : and being excited by the injuries which others suffer, it bespeaks a generous mind, and deserves commendation. Shall a good man feel no indignation against injustice and barbarity? not even when he is witness to shocking instances of them when he sees a friend basea ly and cruelly treated; when he observes

Th' oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The insolence of office, and the spurns

That patient Merit of th’ unworthy takes. Thall he still enjoy himself in perfect tranquillity ? Will it be a crime if he conceives the least resentment: Will it not rather be somewhat criminal, if he is deftitute of it? In such cases we

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are commonly so far from being ashamed of our anger, as of something mean, that we are proud of it, and confess it openly, as what we count laudable and meritorious.

The truth is, there seems to be something manly, and we are bold to say, something virtuous, in a just and well-conducted resentment. In the mean time, let us not be suspected of endeavouring to vindicate rage, and peevishness, and implacable resentment. No; fuch is their deformity, fo horrid and fo manifeft are the evils they produce, that they do not admit of any defence or juftification. We condemn, we detest them, as unnatural, brutish, unman!y, and monstrous. All we contend for, is, that it is better to be moderate in our resentment, than to suppress it altogether. Let us therefore keep it under a strict discipline, and carefully restrain it within the bounds which reason prescribes, with regard to the occasion, degree, and continuance of it. But let us not presume to extirpate any of those affections, which the wisdom of God has implanted in us, which are so nicely balanced, and so well adjusted to each other, that by destroying one of them, we may perhaps disorder and blemish the whole frame of our nature.

To these arguments, those who adopt the opinion that anger should be entirely suppressed, reply :

You tell us, anger is naturai to man; but nothing is more natural to man, than reason, mildness, and benevolence. Now, with what propriety can we call that natural to any creature, which impairs and opposes the most effential and distinguishing parts of its constitution ? Sometimes indeed we may call that natural to a species, which being found in most of them, is not produced by art or custom. That anger is in this sense natural, we readily grant; but deny that we therefore cannot, or may not lawfully extinguish it. Nature has committed to our management the faculties of

anger

the mind, as well as the members of the body : and, as when any of the latter become pernicious to the whole, we cut them off and cast them away; in like manner, when any of our affections are become hurtful and useless in our frame, by cutting them off, we do not in the least counteract the intention of Nature. Now, such is anger to a wise man. To fools and cowards it is a necessary evil; but to a person of mo. deråte sense and virtue, it is an evil, which has no advantage attending it. The harm it must do him is very apparent. Ic muft ruffle his temper, make him less agreeable to his friends, disturb his reason, and unfit him for discharging the duties of life in a becoming manner. By only diminishing his paffion, he may lefsen, but cannot remove the evil; for the only way to get clear of the one, is by entirely dismissing the other.

How then will anger be so useful to him, as to make it worth his while to retain it in any degree? He may defend his own rights; affift an injured friend ; prosecute and punish a villain; I say his prudence and friend thip, his public spirit and calm resolution, will enable him to do all this, and to do it in a much more safe, proper, and effectual manner, without the aslistance of anger, than with it. He will be despised and neglected, you say, if he appears to have no resentment. You should rather say, it he appears to have no fedate wisdom and courage ; for these qualities will be sufficient of themselves to secure him from contempt, and maintain him in the possession of his just authority. Nor does any thing commonly lesien us more in the eyes of others, than our own passion. It often exposeth us to the.contempt and derision of those who are not in our power; and if it makes us feared, it also makes us proportionably

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hated, anger, with

hated, by our inferiors and dependents. Let the influence it gives us be ever so great, that man must pay very dear for his power, who procures it at the expence of his own Franquillity and peace.

Besides, the imitation of anger, which is easily formed, will produce the same effect upon others, as if the paflion was real. If therefore to quicken the slow, to rouse the inattentive, and restrain the fierce, it is sometimes expedient that they be. lieve you are moved, you may put on the outward appearance of resentment. Thus you may obtain the end of out the danger and vexation that attends it; and may preserve your authority, without forfeiting the peace of your mind.

However manly and vigorous anger may be thought, it is in fact, but a weak principle, compared with the fedate resolution of a wife and virtuous man. The one is uniform and permanent like the strength of a person in perfect health; the other, like a force, which proceedeth from a fever, is violent for a time, but it soon leaves the mind more feeble than before. To him therefore who is armed with a proper firmness of soul, no degree of passion can be useful in any respect. And to say it can never be laudable and virtuous, is indeed a fuffici. ently bold assertion. For the most part we blame it in others, and though we are apt to be indulgent enough to our own faults, we are often ashamed of it in ourselves. Hence it is common to hear men excusing themselves, and seriously declaring, they were not angry, when they have given unquestionable proofs to the contrary. But do we not commend him, who resents the injuries done to a friend or innocent person? Yes, we commend him; yet not for his passion, but for that generosity and friendship of which it is the evidence. For let any one impartially consider, ,

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