against the pontifical authority of Clement, that it is not from the simplicity of women, but from the proud science of men, that heresies and perversions of the Scripture have arisen. Women, it is true, are too often seen to follow strange doctrines, being swayed by the eloquence, or resting upon the learning and authority, of those to whom they look up as spiritual guides; but they are seldom or never themselves the originators of the delusion. And much are they to be pitied when thus perplexed and led astray by those who ought to have known better; by grave divines to whom with amiable "simplicity," rather than sound judgment, they have deferred as well-instructed expounders of the word of God. In a late outburst of folly and fanaticism, in which several ladies took a conspicuous part, and some of whom have confessed and lamented their delusion, who, we would ask, are most blameable; these misguided individuals, or their wandering guides? We distinctly lay the blame at the right door; agreeing with Quesnel, that it is not the simplicity of a few godly women that originated the delusion, but the elaborate science of speculative divines, the arguments of our Erskines, and Irvings, and M'Neiles, and Boys's, and Armstrongs, which these good women, dazzled with the novelty, thought for the moment to be more spiritual and instructive than the old-fashioned representations of sacred truth. They believed that they were honouring God, and there was a confiding "simplicity" in their adoption of these vanities, which under better instruction might have led them to embrace and hold fast essential truth. Let us not then deny to women the reading of the Bible, because some women, following false guides, have gone into error: we have nothing to fear from the book; rather by means of it, under the blessing of God, they will discover the way to heaven, and be kept from delusive vanities, if they are not led into them by the false logic of speculative expositors.

The Roman Index of 1758, not only condemns books and authors, but subjects. This was a new stride of the retrograde march of mind. We are not only not to think wrong, but not to think at all.

"The first section of this Index condemns all heretical books, all apologies, Bibles, calendars, martyrologies, catechisms, dictionaries. The second condemns tracts for or against the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary, the controversies between the seculars and regulars in England, in which the bishop of Chalcedon bore a part, Jansenism, the doctrine of a bicepital origin of the Roman Church, or uniting, without subordinating St. Paul to St. Peter, &c. The third condemns images of a different form and dress from the Catholic, &c. &c. Indulgencies of various sorts and ages by wholesale; but those of Leo X. to St. Birgit are spared. The fourth condemns unorthodox forms of exorcism, all Litanies but the most ancient, all alterations of the Missal after the edict of Pius V., particular Rites, and modern Rosaries in derogation of the authentic Rosary sacred to God and the blessed Virgin Mary, without the authority of the Roman see." pp. 244, 245.

Some of the Indexes are of very recent dates, and allude to local books and controversies, the knowledge of which we might have supposed had never reached other countries. Who would have expected to find in a proscriptive list from Rome, in 1822, seven controversial pamphlets published in North America? "An Address to the Congregation of St. Mary's Church, Philadelphia "-" Continuation of an Address," &c.-"The Opinion of the Rt. Rev. D. John Rico on the Difference," &c.-"The Opinion," &c."Address of the Committee," &c.-" Address of the Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Pennsylvania," &c.-"This," says Mr. Mendham, "is a sufficient proof that his Holiness of Rome does not consider the transatlantic regions as aliene from his charge, and that neither does he despair of finding his censures respected in the western world."

English books in general are not specially named; our literature, unless translated, not being so much known in Roman-Catholic countries as to do the pope's cause much mischief. They, however, of course come under

the general prohibitions against the works of heretical authors: and many are specially marked out. The works, for example, of Bacon, Beveridge, Burnet, Cave, Locke, Milton, Gibbon, and Brian Walton (the Polyglot) are still retained; but our literature, from its extent, is now beyond the compass of the most voluminous catalogue, nor could even a censor on the spot, with nothing else to do, keep up with it. The stigmatizing a work here and there is therefore as farcical as it is bigotted and overbearing. The long controversy on the Roman-Catholic disabilities in Ireland turned the attention of Rome to our literature, and may perhaps have procured us the honour of a few additions to the black list.

Mr. Mendham states, that he has not discovered that death was ever formally pronounced as the penalty for reading or possessing prohibited books, except by that brutal bigot Philip II. of Spain; but it must be remembered that the possession of such books frequently constituted the overt act upon which the charge of heresy was sustained, so that it too often led to the dungeons of the Inquisition, to torture, and a cruel death. This inquisition upon books, thus followed up by a more fearful inquisition upon their authors, readers, and possessors, led to the suppression of the incipient reformation in Spain and Italy, and other places. Let any reader peruse the horrible massacres called "acts of faith," in Lisbon, and he will not wonder that persons under the pressure of such terrors durst not inquire into the claims of Protestantism, or venture to suspect the truth of their own superstition. One cannot read without horror, of the shouts of joy raised by the bigotted populace at these diabolical spectacles, more particularly when the blazing furze was thrust into the face of the victim, or the flame applied to the slowly consuming pile. Even so lately as 1826, the newspapers detailed an account of a schoolmaster hanged, and a Jew burned, for alleged heresy in Spain; and the secret prisons, both in that country and in Portugal, are stated still to witness many a scene of barbarity inflicted by those to whom the priest-ridden Miguel and Ferdinand have resigned the spiritual sway of their ill-fated countries. The extent of the Papal tyranny in unenlightened and bigotted lands, may be inferred when it is added, that even in France, in Paris itself, the priests had the audacity as recently as 1826, to publish the Roman Index. Another edition was published at Belgium still later, and almost on the very eve of the revolution.

But enough we have followed our author's details till our head and our heart ache at the recital. Yet it is useful; it is monitory: it is a lesson on human nature; a comment on the heart of man, as described in the word of God; a lesson of warning against the corrupt and cruel Church of Rome, and against that desire for pomp and power, and that bigotry, intolerance, and setting up our own infallibility, which led to these excesses. In particular, let Protestants remember what are the doctrines against which the fulminations of Rome are, and ever have been, issued. We have already presented several specimens, but a short additional one may not be unedifying. The following propositions are from the only expurgatorial Index ever issued in the capital of the papal dominions, and which is a copy from a Spanish one of 1584. Under the head of R. Stephens's Bible, the following, among other heads of matters, are directed to be expunged.

"Civitas abducta a fiducia in Deum comburenda, & cives occidenda; Credendo in Christum remittuntur peccata; Credens Christo non morietur in æternum; Dierum delectus nullus apud fideles; Fide accipitur Spiritus Sanctus; Fide purificantur corda; Imagines prohibet Deus fieri ut adoremus, & coram eis incurvemur; Propter justitiam cordis nihil tribuit Deus; Justitia in nobis nulla; Justificamur fide in Christum ; Justitia nostra Christus; Justitia ex operibus nulla; Justus coram Deo nemo; In requiem ingressuri credentes; Non propter opera liberati sumus; Resipiscere omnes desiderat Deus? Resipiscentia donum Dei."

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In some of these condemned propositions is contained the very letter and spirit of the Gospel: what therefore can be more awful than the condition of a church calling itself Christian, yet denying them? Alas! the best, the highest, emancipation is wanting to the members of that communion, while they remain thus enslaved under papal bondage, and deprived of the free use of the words of eternal life. They may value civil liberty; but the glorious liberty of the children of God is a boon infinitely higher, and this they reject as long as they submit their conscience to human controul. One is our Master, even Christ; to Him we stand or fall: men may proscribe books or recommend books, but there is but one supreme standard of appeal; and if we make that our daily companion, with constant prayer to Him who indited it, to teach and apply to us its sacred contents, so that we may become wise unto salvation, we shall not go far or fatally astray. And well may the Church of Rome not approve of the popular reading of the word of God, since to that, from the day when Luther discovered a New Testament in his monastery to the present moment, must be attributed most of the defections from her pale ;—that is, Protestant defections; for the superstitions of Popery have driven not a few of its subjects, including the Jesuit Voltaire himself, to the ranks of infidelity. We have before us some recent intelligence respecting the remarkable conversions from Popery at Carlshold, a miserable village, unknown to maps or gazetteers, in the Donau Moos (fen of the Danube), in Bavaria, but which has become holy ground by a remarkable revival of religion, which has resulted in the rejection of Popery, and the formation of a pure evangelical church. The narrative is so singularly interesting that we shall lay it before our readers (see page 495); but it is much too long to affix to the present article. Our reason for alluding to it now is as an illustration of the preceding remarks; for the devoted pastor who, with his flock, has just left the Church of Rome, distinctly attributes the late events in his parish to the popular reading of the word of God, which he procured through the agency of Bible Societies. It was the New Testament," he remarks, "that chiefly contributed to vivify and strengthen the hearts of the people." The pastor having himself, he says, "loved it from his infancy, and experienced in various ways its powerful influence, to enlighten, support, and elevate the soul, neither could nor would deprive his flock of this treasure." He was, however, so far swayed by the spirit of the Roman-Catholic communion, which he had not yet renounced, as to restrain the perusal to the more devout and religious members of his parish, accompanied with prayer that God would bless it to their souls; and the result has been, that God has done "exceeding abundantly above all that he asked or thought." They have suffered persecution, and are now a reformed church.

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THERE has been formed at Kiel in Holstein, under the name of " Lovers of Truth," a religious society, which demands absolute liberty in religious matters, and which professes pure Deism. This society is governed by a spiritual president, or head, and two elders, who are assisted by a committee of ten members. The supreme power belongs to the community. They have a temple without ornaments, and without images. Their worship consists of a prayer, which is offered by the president, and of some hymns, which are sung by all the members: it is performed every seventh day of the week, and on certain holidays. These holidays are, that of conscience, or of penitence, new-year's day; the festivals of nature, at the commencement of the four seasons; the anniversary of the foundation of the society, and the political holidays ordered by the state. The society further consecrates, by particular rites, certain events occurring in private life; as the giving of a name to a newly born infant, admittance into the community, marriage, divorce, burial,and the oath of allegiance to the state.

The king of Holland has given 150 florins to the New College at Geneva, and has issued an ordinance stating that he takes a warm interest in its advancement. The address of M. Gaussen at opening it was very impressive, and truly Evangelical. M. Gaussen is professor of dogmatic theology; M. Merle d' Aubigné, of Christian antiquity; M. Galland, of practical divinity; and M. Steiger, of whom Professor Tholuck says that "if circumstances are favourable he will create an epoch in the learned world," of exegetical theology.

The Darmstadt Gazette states, that in Hanover, if a clergyman wishes to assist in conducting a periodical work, either domestic or foreign, he must first submit his articles to the censorship of the consistory to which he belongs. Surely this is somewhat intolerant under a government professing to be constitutional and Protestant. It is essential to the interests of truth, that literature should not be subject to censorship. If an editor has not conscience and independence enough to speak what he believes to be wholesome truth, at whatever personal loss or inconvenience, he is not fit for his office. Should he offend against religion or propriety, his readers, if his work profess to be religious, will soon prove the best censors, and it will drop: for other offences, the law will or should repress

the evil; but to make men write in manacles, is the way to extinguish all truth and honesty. Hanover is the very focus of European neology; but what clergyman of that kingdom can duly oppose it if he must first have the censorship of a consistory, the majority of whom may be addicted to that Anti-Christian system. Let them deprive him if they will of preferment, he is bound to bear that for conscience sake; but let them not muzzle his pen. We might have thought that starvation would do without censorship, but the friends of neology probably think that prevention is more hopeful than


The Bible has been translated into Polish, for the use of Protestants, four different times. The first version is very rare; the copies of the second were burned by the Papists; three copies only are known to exist of the third; of the fourth, seven editions have been printed; the first six together were but seven thousand copies, of which the Jesuits destroyed nearly half; the seventh was printed by the London Bible Society, and contained 8000 copies, but even this large number is not equal to the wants of the people.

We some time since mentioned, that the Rev. Dr. Murdoch, of Newhaven, Connecticut, has announced a new and correct translation of Mosheim's Institutes of Ecclesiastical History. Scholars have long since complained of the loose paraphrase of Dr. Maclaine, published about seventy years since, and of which numerous reprints are now in circulation. Dr. Murdoch professes to have made his version as literal as the idioms of the two languages will admit; and proposes to enhance the value of his labours by the addition of numerous notes, drawn from primary authorities. As Mosheim's history terminates with the year 1700, Dr. Murdoch proposes (should he receive sufficient encouragement) to continue the history, in two additional volumes, down to the present time.

H. Dwight tells us in his travels, that the discipline in Germany a hundred years ago, both in the Reformed and Lutheran church, was very strict. For various sins the offender was obliged to go to the clergyman, and confess his transgression, and then to appear in church, and publicly to answer interrogatories respecting his faults, and to express deep humiliation; after which, he was re-admitted to communion. Frederick, misnamed the Great, abolished public confessions, on the


ground that it only caused scandal, and hardened the offender. As a substitute, he directed that the clergyman, with a friend, should remonstrate with offenders in private, and exhort them to repent


Bishop Chase says, in one of his journals: " Having witnessed the most pernicious effects of spiritous liquors, the bishop thought himself justifiable, if not obliged, to form a resolution, when he first entered on the college grounds, to suppress to the utmost of his power and influence, the use of this greatest enemy of the human race. Accordingly, the rule was made, and has been most faithfully adhered to, that no ardent spirits, but in case of wounds or sickness, should be used upon the college grounds. most thankful is he in stating, that the test of three years has proved, not only that the rule is practicable, but that it is in the highest degree useful. The legitimate result has appeared in the reign of peace, order, and harmony, among our workmen health sits upon their cheeks, and prosperity accompanies them home to their families."



We do not recollect having mentioned in our pages, the magnificent bequests to a variety of religious charitable institutions in the United States, chiefly those of the Protestant Episcopal Church, by the late Mr. Kohne; and which amounted to more than a third of a million of dollars. Mr. Kohne was a native of Germany; but had been for many years a citizen of South Carolina.

The Rev. Mr. Wheaton, in his travels in Europe, published in America, has the following passage, which shews that Temperance Societies were not introduced into Scotland before they were wanted :

"In the party on Loch Lomond were a number of Englishmen, who, by their dress and manners might have been taken for gentlemen, had not their devotion to the bottle given the lie to their pretensions. On our disembarking at Balloch some of them were unable to get to the carriages without assistance; and before we arrived at Glasgow they were stowed away in a state of most beastly intoxication. Much as intemperance prevails in the United States, I have never witnessed such scenes on board any of our steam-boats, and am confident that they would not be per


We reached Glasgow in the evening, and took lodgings at the Star Inn, a spacious establishment in Ingram Here we found the same disStreet. gusting custom prevailing which I have observed in all the public-houses in Scotland. The first care of a traveller is to seat himself in the public room, and call for a mutchkin of whiskey, with hot water and sugar. He goes on sipping over his newspaper till the contents of the mutchkin, which holds a gill or more, are exhausted. I am confident no American constitution could resist the effects of this fiery drink for more than a year or two; it would end in apoplexy or delirium. In the public room of the inn, I counted ten or twelve engaged in the manner I have described, and as they retired to their lodgings their places were supplied by others. Whiskey is the favourite beverage; and a more wretched and corrosive liquor was never distilled, unless it be the cyder-brandy of Connecticut."

A late convention of the diocese of Georgia, recommended to the general episcopal convention to adopt a canon that no clergyman shall be permitted to settle in any populous town, till he has served at least two years as a missionary in some destitute place, or been instrumental in building up some new church. This discipline, it is suggested, would be useful to a young clergyman in many ways, and among others in allowing him more leisure for thought and study than he could enjoy in a town pastoral life.

We have often complained of the mutilations of tracts in American reprints; as, for instance, in the excision of Mr. Legh Richmond's episcopalian references in some edition of his tracts. A tract entitled Anna Ross, has been abridged and Socinianized.

The law of Virginia denounces the killing a person in a duel as murder, and attaches severe penalties to all parties concerned, even where the issue is not fatal.

All candidates for public offices, civil or military, are obliged to make oath that they have not been, and will not be, concerned in a duel. This state of the law, and corresponding public sentiment, have wholly abolished this absurd and wicked practice.



WE alluded in a former page to the little
colony of Carlshold, of which we now

proceed to detail some interesting particulars. It is situated in the Donau Moos (fens of the Danube), in the kingdom of Bavaria, between Newburgh and Ingolstadt. Till the year 1790, the whole

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