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possession "of all the Kingdoms and provinces of New Mexico, on the Rio del Norte, in the name of our Lord King Philip." The day was given up to a celebration beginning with artillery salutes, Mass, and a sermon, and concluding with the presentation of a comedy written by Captain Farfan. On the 4th of May Onate crossed the Rio Grande at El Paso. Then with sixty men he went ahead in person "to pacify the land." Two months later, at the present Santo Domingo, a pueblo west of Santa Fe, he received the submission of the chiefs of seven provinces. Continuing north a short distance, on July 11,1598, he established headquarters at the pueblo of Caypa, then renamed and ever since known as San Juan. With the aid of fifteen hundred natives he began the construction of an irrigation ditch. His colonists came up with him early in August; and, on the 8th of September, they celebrated the completion of the first church erected in New Mexico. On the next day chiefs from all the explored territory assembled to do honor to their Spanish super-chief and to receive their rods of office as lieutenants of King Philip. A tone of solemnity was given the scene by holding the ceremony in the kiva, or sacred council chamber, of the pueblo. There, on bended knee, the chiefs swore allegiance to God and the King of Spain, and sealed the oath by kissing the hands of Ofiate and Father Martinez.
The ceremony over, Ofiate gave his mind to plans for exploration. He wished to explore the Buffalo Plains, discover the Strait of Anian, open t/"j a land route to the Pacific, and take a look at the country northeastward beyond Quivira.
Sixty men went to the plains to procure meat and tallow and to capture buffalo to domesticate. After a few tilts the plan to tame the ugly beasts was given up, but more than two thousand pounds of tallow were obtained. Ofiate went to Moqui, and from there Marcos Farfan led a party to the gold-fields of Arizona which Espejo had discovered, and staked out claims. On their way to join Ofiate, Juan de Zaldivar and fourteen companions were slain at Acoma, by the rebellious People of the White Rock. To punish the offenders Ofiate sent out an expedition which captured Acoma (./ after two days of terrific fighting on its stone stairs, laid the pueblo waste by fire, and exterminated most of its inhabitants. Shortly afterward Ofiate led eighty men down the Canadian River, crossed Oklahoma, and entered Quivira at Wichita, Kansas; but he was forced to retreat by Indian hostility. Another golden dream had a prosaic awakening.
Meanwhile disaster had befallen the colony, which by this time had moved its headquarters across the Rio Grande to San Gabriel, near Chama River. A dry season had made food scarce and, when Oflate returned, he confiscated the supplies in the pueblos, leaving the Indians destitute. The friars, whose first thought was for their missions, were now in conflict with Oflate. One of them wrote of him: "In all the expeditions he has butchered many Indians, human blood has been shed, and he has committed thefts, sackings, and other atrocities. I pray that God may grant him the grace to do penance for all his deeds." Hunger drove most of the settlers and all the friars but one back to Santa Barbara. Among those who withdrew, ruined in fortune, was Captain Luis de Velasco, the erstwhile Beau Brummel of the satin coats. Oflate sent soldiers after his faint-hearted colonists to arrest and bring them back. Some of them returned, and Father Escobar came north as the new superior of the missionaries, bringing six new friars.
Finally, in 1604, Oflate carried out his intention >f reaching the South Sea. It was his last throw of the dice. By this time he and his friends were ruined in fortune, and his reputation was under a cloud as a result of charges made by his rivals and enemies. New Mexico was already a white elephant on the royal hands. Ofiate must make a hit somewhere, and Vizcaino had just focused attention on California. Westward, therefore, Ofiate again turned. With thirty men he followed the footsteps of Espejo and Farfan and went on to the Colorado, down the Colorado to the Gulf of California; explored the shore of the Gulf, found no pearl fisheries, and returned to San Gabriel convinced that California was an island. On the way he had heard from an Indian wag of a land to the north where people slept under water and wore golden bracelets; of a race of unipeds; of giant Amazons on a silver island to the west; of a tribe with long ears trailing on the ground, and of another nation which lived on smells. And, as Father Escobar indited of these matters, since God had created greater wonders and "since they have been affirmed by so many and different tribes . . . they cannot lack foundation."
New Mexico was an expense. It had not led to discovery of the Strait of Anian; the distant mines ot Arizona could not be worked without Indian
labor, which could only be procured by keeping a large and costly military force in the country. The new Viceroy of Mexico reported on the province unfavorably to the King and urged that all efforts now be concentrated on California. The colonists were as disheartened as the Viceroy. They threatened to leave if ample supplies did not arrive within the year. At the same time, in August, 1607, Ofiate asked for his release, unless sufficient aid was to be sent to him. This may have been a bluff. If so, it was called. His request was granted and early in 1609 Pedro de Peralta arrived in San Gabriel as the new Governor with instructions to find a better site and move the capital and colony thither. Thus Peralta founded the town of Santa Fe. Ofiate returned to Mexico, where the charges against him were pending for more than a decade. The rewards for his services were poverty, enemies, and disappointment. Nevertheless, he had founded a permanent outpost for Spain and a colony which after three centuries gives character to one of our commonwealths.
Hopes of finding rich minerals in New Mexico having failed, the province remained chiefly a missionary field, with its principal secular settlement at Santa Fe. But as a missionary province