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expedition. Rodriguez and Lopez decided to found a mission at Puaray, a Tigua town on the Rio Grande above Albuquerque, and there, with a few servants, the two friars made their abode. The soldiers returned to Santa Barbara. Chamuscado, the leader, became ill on the way and was carri on a litter of hides strung between two hor Before reaching his destination he died.

Three months later two servants from the sion fled to Mexico and reported that Lopez been killed by the Indians. A rescue expedit was hastened, for Fray Agustin might still alive. But the expedition was too late. On reac ing Puaray it was learned that Fray Agustin slain.

^e soldier-traders of this rescue party were led Jkntonio de Espejo, a merchant of Mexico, anj pfejo had other business in New Mexico. From Rio Grande he explored northwest to Jemez [ went to Acoma and Zufii. Here he left Father t, the Franciscan who accompanied him, and went on in .search of a lake of gold he had heard of. Arrived at the Moqui towns, in Arizona, he obtained four thousand cotton blankets and saw the snake dance performed by the Hopi Indianswho still raise cotton and still perform the famous dance, usually as a prayer for rain. Espejo now pushed westward and reached the region of Prescott, where he discovered rich veins, later to be known as mines of fabulous wealth. Then, retracing his steps to the Rio Grande, he returned by way of the Pecos River to Santa Barbara, whither Father Beltrdn had preceded him. Espejo's report of the mines, of course, set the frontier on fire.


The rumor that Drake, after raiding Spanish ships on the Pacific (1579), had found the Strait of Anian, and had sailed home through it, impelled the Spaniards to extend their power northward to the shores of that Strait. So Philip ordered the Viceroy of Mexico to make a contract with some one for the conquest and settlement of New Mexico. Several applicants came forward, including Espejo, who proposed at his own expense to colonize New Mexico with four hundred soldier-settlers and to ouild a port where the Strait of Anian entered the North Sea! So great was the excitement in Mexco that some adventurers did not wait for official sanction, but set out on their own authority, knowing that nothing succeeds like success. No result sime of these unauthorized ventures, and, what with red tape and jealousies and disputes, it was some years before a contract was concluded with any one. The King had his Armada on his mind and, for the time, was pinning all his hopes upon that. But, in 1588, his Armada was beaten and almost wholly destroyed. His command of the sea was gone. And he turned again to his subjects in Mexico for help to make his power in the New World secure. At last, in 1595, just when Vizcaino was commissioned to colonize and hold California, the contract for the conquest and settlement of New Mexico was awarded to Juan de Ofiate of Zacatecas. The two expeditions, indeed, were regarded as parts of the same enterprise.

Ofiate was the scion of a family distinguished for generations through service to the Crown in Spain and in Mexico; and he had married Isabel Tolosa Cortes Montezuma, a descendant of both Cortes and Montezuma II. He was granted extensive privileges in New Mexico, much like those conferred upon Menendez in Florida • thirty years before. His colonists were promised the rank of hidalgo — for themselves and their heirs. The expedition was prepared in feudal style. Men of means were made captains. They did homage and swore fealty to Ofiate, sounded fife and drum, set up standards, and raised companies at their own expense. Rich men staked their fortunes on the gamble.

Zacatecas was made the central rendezvous for t£e colony, which was recruited from far and near. Jealousies and underminings interfered so much in the preliminary stages that it was 1598 before Ofiate left Santa Barbara, the last important outpost on the frontier. In his train went one hundred and thirty soldier-settlers, most of them taking their families, a band of Franciscans under Father Martinez, a large retinue of negro and Indian slaves, seven thousand head of stock, and eighty-three wagons and carts for transporting the women and children and the baggage.

The baggage must have been ample indeed if all the officers were as well supplied as Captain Luis de Velasco with wardrobe and appurtenances suitable to a cavalier in the wilderness. Don Luis had one suit of "blue Italian velvet trimmed with wide gold paSsementerieTeonsisting of doublet, breeches, and green silk stockings with blue garters and points of gold lace," a suit of rose satin, one of straw-colored satin, another of purple Castilian cloth, another of chestnut colored cloth, a sixth and daintier one, of Chinese flowered silk. He had two doublets of Castilian dressed kid and one of royal lion skin gold-trimmed; two linen shirts, fourteen pairs of Rouen linen breeches, forty pairs of boots, shoes, and gaiters, three hats, one black, trimmed around the crown with a silver cord and black, purple, and white feathers, another gray with yellow and purple feathers, the third of purple taffeta trimmed with blue, purple, and yellow feathers and a band of gold and silver passementerie. He took four saddles “of blue flowered Spanish cloth bound with Cordovan leather,” three suits of armor, and three suits of horse armor, a silver-handled lance with gold and purple tassels, a sword and gilded dagger with belts stitched in purple and yellow silk, a broadsword, two shields, and - as a protection against weather and sneezes - a raincoat and six linen handkerchiefs. A bedstead and two mattresses with coverlet, sheets, pillows, and pillowcases and a canvas mattress-bag bound with leather completed his outfit — not forgetting servants, thirty horses and mules, and a silken banner. Instead of continuing down the Conchos, Oñate opened a new trail direct to the Río Grande. Early in April (1598) he reached the Médanos, the great sand dunes south of El Paso. On the twenty-sixth he camped on the river just below El Paso. Here on the thirtieth he took formal

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