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!” FLORIDA 163 St. Augustine by Drake, and, finally, the persecution of the Jesuits in England, at last spurred Philip to combat. By the Pope, who had issued a Bull of Deposition against Elizabeth, he had long been urged to conquer renegade England; and Mary Stuart had bequeathed to him her “rights” as sovereign of that kingdom. And Philip had seen that his distant colonies could not be defended

unless he were sole King of the Ocean Sea.
So the destiny of North America was decided

the Spanish Armada by Sir Francis Drake.)The X mastery of the ocean passed from Spainto England. The waterways were open now for English colonists to seek those northern shores which Spain had failed to occupy. In time the sparse settlements in the Spanish province of Florida came to be hemmed in on the north by the English colonies in Georgia and South Carolina and Alabama, and stopped on the west by the French colony of Louisiana. * Jamestown, 1607; Charleston, 1670; Savannah, * 1733; thus the English advanced relentlessly. And in 1763, following the Seven Years' War, in which Spain fought on the side of France, the English expelled Spain from Florida entirely. Spain’s

recovery of her foothold there during the American Revolution, and her struggle afterwards to hold back the oncoming tide of the now independent Anglo-Americans, profited her nothing in the end; for in 1819, two hundred and twelve years after Jamestown, all that remained to Spain of her old province of Florida passed to the United States.

CHAPTER VI

* .

NEW MEXICO - ■

Castafieda, who wrote a belated chronicle of ironado's expedition, gave Coronado a black eye nd at the same time encouraged new flights of fancy. He made it appear that for some man of mdestiny the north held prizes. From the resemflblance of the Pueblo to the Aztec dwellings the flregion came to be called New Mexico. It was, Rafter all, the "otro Mexico," which so many had {bought. For nearly four decades after Coronado's day the Pueblo Indians were not revisited; but. during the interval the frontier of settlement in the central plateau of Mexico pushed northward, and the post of Santa Barbara was set up at the head of the Conchos River, which led to the Rio Grande. This opened a new highway to New Mexico. Coronado's roundabout trail by way of the Paciiie slope, made dangerous by hostile Indians xizmg poisoned arrows, was now no longer necessary. In the course of slave-catching and prospecting raids down the Conchos, frontiersmen crossed the trail of Cabeza de Vaca and from the Indians heard new reports of the Pueblo country. Some one at Santa Barbara had a copy of Vaca's Narrative, and the marvelous tale of adventure was read again M with keen attention. To the friars, newly heraldeen Cibola appeared a virgin field in which to saD souls; to the soldiers and miners, a new world adventure and treasure.

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New Mexico was again the scene of exploration. But, by the ordinance of 1573, military expeditions among the Indians were forbidden, and as a consequence any new enterprise go in missionary guise. An expedition was sed at Santa Barbara in 1581, led by Fray stin Rodriguez, with whom went Fray FranLopez, Fray Juan de Santa Maria, nine-" Indian servants, and nine soldieistraders. soldiers were led by Francisco ChamuScado, They were equipped with ninety es, coats of mail for horse and rider, and six idred cattle, besides sheep, goats, and hogs, barter with the natives they carried merchanWhile the primary purpose of the stock was to provide food on the way, the friars were

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prepared to remain in New Mexico if conditions were propitious. Leaving Santa Bárbara on the 5th of June, the party descended the Conchos River to its mouth and proceeded up the Río Grande. They were followed by a retinue of Indians who regarded them as children of the sun – so the chronicler thought. Theypassed through the Piros towns and continued the Tiguas above Isleta, and on to the Tanos on anta Fé River. Here Father Santa María set out alone to carry reports to Mexico, against the wishes of his companions, whose fears were justified, for he was killed three days later by Indians east of Isleta. he two friars and their party continued to Taos, ear the Colorado line, and crossed to the Buffalo Blains, east of the Pecos River. Returning westyard, they were obliged to fight a band of hostile natives in the Galisteo valley. Then they crossed the Río Grande and visited the Indian towns of Acoma and Zuñi. On the way some of the men, boylike, or with an historical sense, carved their names on El Morro Cliff, now called Inscription Rock, where they are still visible. At Zuñi they found three Mexicans who had come with Coronado, and after forty years had nearly forgotten their native tongue. Back eastward came the

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