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what kind of altar could be formed and gold are represented as stones. from the earth, which two mules One objection to this may occur. could carry: Others have suppos- 6 Could his silver and gold be a ed, that he wished to strew this load for two mules?" Yes. Acearth on the floor where he per- cording to a recent calculation of formed his devotions that he might a learned European, the amount of seem to be in Israel, that holy the silver and gold brought for this land, where he had experienced present was 1374 lbs. 5 oz. 5$ such miraculous relief. A learned dwts. Troy. Half of this would European has suggested another be a load for two mules. Is not use of this “ earth.” He supposes this, then, the natural, the rationit was intended for purification, al, and true meaning of the pasinstead of the water of Jordan. It sage? “As you have refused my. is a fact unquestionable, that earth donation for yourself, may not a or sand is used by the Eastern part of it, without offence, be givnations, instead of water, for cer- en to your servant, a part of this emonial abl ions. Travellers earth and dust?” Here is no mystell us, that the Arabs of the des- tery no absurdity. All is proper ert now often use sand; making and beautiful. the same ceremonies, as if water In this thing the Lord pardon were present. So in a Mahome- thy servant, that when my master tan treatise of prayer, it is said, goeth into the house of Rimmon to "Where water is not to be had, worship there, and he leaneth on that defect may be supplied by my hand, and I bow myself in the earth.But this savors strongly house of Rimmon: when I bow of his heathenish notions, and its down myself in the house of Rimuse has the air of weakness and mon, the Lord pardon thy servant folly. I will then examine the in this thing.-II. Kings v. 18. second opinion. Inspired with This verse has been pressed gratitude and rapture for the mer- into the service of hypocrisy and cy, which he had experienced pious fraud. It has been supposthrough the instruction of the ed that Naaman was asking par

prophet, Naaman must have been don, not for sins, which he had a ardently desirous of making some committed; but for those, which TH

offering in return, corresponding he intended to commit; that he with his glowing affections. The was bargaining for indulgence in prophet himself had utterly refus- that idolatry, which he had that ed to receive any gift. Naaman moment promised, that he would then most naturally says, “ Shall never repeat. What is worse, if there not then be given thy servant worse can be, the prophet is supGehazi two mules' burden of this posed, by these sage men, to alearth, this silver and gold, which low, or at least to connive at this are dirt and dust"? This was civil proposed idolatry.

From mere and polite, thus to depreciate his ignorance, pious commentators own gift, as of little consequence: have invented excuses, for the this manifested the refinement and posed indulgence of the prophet. delicacy of his mind. We may be Mr, Henry here says, Young confirmed in this construction, converts must be tenderly treatwhen we recollect that Habakkuk ed,” implying that they must be calls silver and gold thick clay; allowed in their former prejudices and Zechariah calls silver, dust, and habits. and fine gold, the mire of the All these difficulties are avoidstreets; and in Chronicles, silver | ed by simply giving a correct

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ceding the first day of the week, many worldly cares, from which belonged to the Sabbath, as it was it is difficult immediately to disno doubt their practice to cele- engage their attention. But if the brate the Lord's supper on the Sabbath does not begin till midSabbath, why did not the disciples night, people will have time to get meet to celebrate it on that even- their business out of the way, to ing, and not on the succeeding | banish worldly cares, to compose evening, which did not belong to their minds and to prepare for the the Sabbath ? Paul undoubtedly Sabbath. And on the evening of meant to administer the holy sup- the Sabbath they will be more per on that evening, which he view- likely to reflect upon what they ed as holy time, though he was so have heard and read, and derive greatly engaged that he continued benefit from it, than if they felt preaching till midnight. Hence that the Sabbath was ended, and from this account we may infer they were at liberty to think and that the evening succeeding the talk about, and attend to, the first day of the week was regarded world. Such a persuasion would by the primitive Christians as be- have a natural tendency to divert longing to the Christian Sabbath. the attention from serious things, All the evidence, therefore, afford- and to permit the “cares of the ed by these examples, is in favour world to choke the word.” of keeping Sabbath evening as ho- Where Sabbath evening is not ly time. And even those, who considered as holy time, young consider this evening as belonging people and others, being already to Monday, and consequently be- dressed in their best clothes, will ing Monday evening, do neverthe-| find it a very convenient season less all call it Sabbath evening. for visiting and amusement, where

5. It is more convenient and the conversation and employments better calculated to promote the will be such as will be directly spiritual good of men, to observe calculated to divert the attention the evening succeeding the day. from the solemn truths which they It is extreinely difficult, and some have heard the past day, and to times impossible, to get business banish all serious reflection. If out of the way by sun-set, so as

then 6 the Sabbath was made for to enter on the duties of devo- man,” for his benefit, it is rational tion. There is so much to be done to conclude that that evening would in families to prepare for the Sab- be appointed to be kept, which bath, that when they profess to would be most convenient, and keep Saturday evening, they are conducive to his spiritual interest apt to trespass upon what they and improvement. view as holy time. They have

MIKROS.

FOR THE HOPKINSIAX MAGAZINE.

Two constructions have been BIBLIOAL CRITICISM.

put on this verse. Some have un

derstood the import to be, Shall II. Kings v. 17And Naaman not two mules' burden of earth be said, Shall there not, then, I pray given to me your servant? In acthee, be given to thy servant two cordance with this, various have mules' burden of earth? for thy been the fancies of men concernservant will henceforth offer neither ing the use of this earth. The burnt-offering nor sacrifice unto | popular opinion has been, that he other gods, but unto the Lord. designed to build an altar. But

what kind of altar could be formed and gold are represented as stones. from the earth, which two mules One objection to this may occur. could carry. Others have suppos- “ Could his silver and gold be a ed, that he wished to strew this load for two mules?" Yes. Acearth on the floor where he per-cording to a recent calculation of formed his devotions that he might a learned European, the amount of seem to be in Israel, that holy the silver and gold brought for this land, where he had experienced present was 1374 lbs. 5 oz. 55 such miraculous relief. A learned dwts. Troy. Half of this would European has suggested another be a load for two mules. Is not use of this " earth.” He supposes this, then, the natural, the rationit was intended for purification, al, and true meaning of the pas. instead of the water of Jordan. It sage? “ As you have refused my. is a fact unquestionable, that earth donation for yourself, may not a or sand is used by the Eastern part of it, without offence, be givnations, instead of water, for cer- en to your servant, a part of this emonial ablutions. Travellers earth and dust?" Here is no mystell us, that the Arabs of the des- tery no absurdity. All is proper ert now often use sand; making and beautiful. the same ceremonies, as if water In this thing the Lord pardon were present. So in a Mahome- thy servant, that when my master tan treatise of prayer, it is said, goeth into the house of Rimmon to "Where water is not to be had, worship there, and he leaneth on that defect may be supplied by my hand, and I bow myself in the earth.” But this savors strongly house of Rimmon: when I bow of his heathenish notions, and its down myself in the house of Rimuse has the air of weakness and mon, the Lord pardon thy servant folly. I will then examine the in this thing.-II. Kings v. 18. second opinion. Inspired with This verse has been pressed gratitude and rapture for the mer into the service of hypocrisy and cy, which he had experienced pious fraud. It has been supposthrough the instruction of the ed that Naaman was asking parprophet, Naaman must have been don, not for sins, which he had ardently desirous of making some committed; but for those, which offering in return, corresponding he intended to commit; that he with his glowing affections. The was bargaining for indulgence in prophet himself had utterly refus- that idolatry, which he had that ed to receive any gift. Naaman moment promised, that he would then most naturally says, “ Shall never repeat. What is worse, if there not then be given thy servant worse can be, the prophet is supGehazi two mules' burden of this posed, by these sage men, to alearth, this silver and gold, which low, or at least to connive at this are dirt and dust"? This was civil proposed idolatry. From mere and polite, thus to depreciate his ignorance, pious commentators own gift, as of little consequence: have invented excuses, for the supthis manifested the refinement and posed indulgence of the prophet. delicacy of his mind. We may be Mr, Henry here says, confirmed in this construction, converts must be tenderly treatwhen we recollect that Habakkuk ed,” implying that they must be calls silver and gold thick clay; allowed in their former prejudices and Zechariah calls silver, dust, and habits. and fine gold, the mire of the All these difficulties are avoidstreets; and in Chronicles, silver led by simply giving a correct

Young

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translation of the verse. Dr. Ed - vant in this thing." This is the wards (of England) says, these translation of Dr. Lightfoot, the words in other places are translat- greatest Hebrew scholar of his ed in the preterperfect tense, Psa. time in Christendom. To remove li. 1, He went. "II. Sam. i. 6, He all doubt, I will only add the transleaned. Exod. xxxiii. 10, He bow-lation of Martin Luther. “ In ed. “The Lord pardon thy ser- this thing the Lord pardon thy vant, when my master went into servant, that when my master went the house of Rimmon to worship into the house of Rimmon to worthere, when he leaned-when he ship there; and he leaned on my bowed,” &c. So the learned Dr. hand, I bowed myself in the house Adam Clarke observes, " The ori- of Rimmon; the Lord pardon thy ginal may legitimately be read, servant in this thing, that I bowed and ought to be read in the past, | myself in the house of Rimmon.” and not in the future tense. “For Here all difficulties vanish, and this thing the Lord pardon thy ser- we plainly perceive that this pasvant, for that when my master sage, so long misunderstood, and hath gone into the house of Rim- so often perverted, affords no counmon to worship there; and he hath tenance to hypocrisy, to mental leaned on my hand, that I also reservation, or the contrivances have bowed myself in the house of of expediency in the concerns of Rimmon, the Lord pardon thy ser- | religion.

EUSEBIUS.

FOR THE HOPKINSIAN MAGAZINE.

of their words and phrases, de

clare that their future punishment ANSWER

will be without end. So fully was TO THE QUESTION OF ROGANS. Dr. Huntington, the noted Univer(See No. for August, page 190.)

salist, convinced of this, that he

wrote thus: “Does the Bible plainRogans states his question thus: ly say, that sinners of mankind How does it appear, that those of shall be damned to interminable mankind, who die impenitent, de- punishment? It certainly does, as serve an endless punishment?

plainly as language can express, This is a question of great im- or any man, or even God himself, portance, in which every child of

can speak.” Calv. Ins. p. 47. Adam is deeply interested. That Consistently with this acknowlmankind are all sinners, is a fact, edgment, the Doctor admits the asserted in sacred scripture, evi- | justice of endless punishment. He dent to universal observation, and

says, “ To argue, as some do, that denied by none, who make any it is not just for God to punish us just pretensions to reason, and, eternally for transient sins in this much less, by any, who have the world, is the perfection of absurdleast claim to religion. It is, at ity." And absurd, indeed, it the same time, scarcely more evi- must be, to talk of the necessity of dent that all men are sinners, a Saviour to deliver men from end. than it is, that many leave the less punishment, and of the grace world with impenitent, unsancti- of God in saving them from it, if fied hearts. Concerning these, they do not deserve such a punishthe sacred writers, according to ment. Unless, therefore, it can the obvious and natural, if not the be made to appear, that sinners do necessary and unavoidable import deserve to be punished forever, it

will be difficult to convince men, man, is an infinite crime, or comthat the scriptures denounce, or prises in it infinite moral evil. that God will inflict an endless This, I know, has been maintainpunishment upon the finally im-ed; and, on this ground, attempts penitent.

have been made to vindicate the Sin is moral evil. It consists, justice of endless punishment. It essentially, in that selfish affec- has been said, that the tendency of tion, which is opposite to the love sin, is, to do infinite mischief in which the Divine law requires. | the universe. This I freely grant. “ Sin is the transgression of the But, the intention of the sinner, law.” From supreme self-love, and not the tendency of his sin, flow all the vices and crimes of is the measure of his desert of punwhich mankind are guilty.

ishment. The sinner is not acThe proper punishment of moral countable for the destructive conevil, is natural evil. Pain, dis- sequences of his crime, any farther tress, misery, are the terms, which than he foresees and intends them. express the punishment of sin. And as the minds of men are “ The wages of sin is death.” By finite, and their views circumscribthe wages of sin, is meant, thated by narrow limits; it is not conwhich sin deserves, its proper pun-ceivable, that they should foresee ishment. This the apostle says, and intend infinite evil, and so is death; by which he doubtless, commit an infinite crime. Bemeans, eternal death. But, should sides, if the tendency of sin were we even suppose, with some Uni- the measure of its desert; it would versalists, that temporal death only follow, that all sins are equally is meant; still, this is a natural criminal, and that all sinners deevil, painful in itself, and the king serve a punishment equal in degree, of terrors to men. Sin deserves as well as in duration: for it is the misery

tendency of every sin to produce The degree of misery, which sin-infinite natural evil. ners deserve, is greater or less, in Again, it has been said, that sin proportion to the number and mag- is an infinite moral evil, or crime, nitude of their sins. Those, who because it violates an infinite obsin against the clearest light and ligation. Those who take this are suffered to commit the greatest ground, say, that the obligation, number of sins, deserve the great which men are under to obey the est degree of misery.

Divine law, is great, in proportion Having premised these things, to the greatness and excellence of I now proceed more directly to the Lawgiver: and, as the greatanswer the question, How it ap- ness and excellence of the Supreme pears, that the finally impenitent Lawgiver are absolutely infinite; deserve endless punishment ? In so the obligation, which men are doing which, I shall proceed grad- under to love and obey him, must ually, and observe,

be infinite. But, this does not 1. That their desert of endless follow. The natural greatness punishment, does not appear, from and moral excellence of the Divine either the greatness or number of Lawgiver, do not bind men to their sins. The sins of men are obedience beyond their capacity to great, and deserve a great degree perceive and appreciate his greatof punishment. “ It is an evil ness and glory. And, as their and bitter thing to sin against capacity is finite; so is their obliGod.". But, it is not admitted, gation. But, if the dignity and that any one sin, committed by worth of the Lawgiver were the

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