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tonishing, if the evening preced- ) into a state of salvation, before ing belongs to the day, and this they are called or regenerated. was the manner of reckoning es- 2. Lev. xxiii. 32, “ From even tablished by God in the beginning, to even shall ye celebrate your it is never followed in his word, Sabbath,” is adduced to prove that but the evening succeeding the the weekly Sabbath begins at sunday is called the evening of that set, though it has no reference to day. Thus the evening, on which the weekly Sabbath, but to the the passover was to be killed and great day of atonement. In this eaten, which succeeded the 14th chapter several solemn feasts are day of the month, is called the enjoined, which are called Sabevening of the 14th day, Lev. xxiii. baths. It is not said, “From even 5. The passover was to be killed to even shall ye celebrate your at the going down of the sun, Sabbaths,” but Sabbath, evidently Deut. xvi. 6, and to be eaten in referring only to the day of atonethe evening or night, Exo. xii. 6, ment, of which Moses was then 8. The children of Israel were speaking. In the third verse the to keep up the paschal lamb from weekly Sabbath is enjoined, and the 10th to the 14th day, and then nothing is said about the time of kill it and eat it in the evening its beginning. The tenth day was following that day, which is call- to be celebrated as the day of ed the evening of the 14th day; atonement, verse 27, the evening whereas, if the evening preceding preceding which belonged to the the day belongs to the day, it was ioth day, according to the arguthe evening of the 15th day. See ment, which I am now considerNum. ix. 5—11, Ruth ii. 17-19, ing. But in this 32d verse, it is I. Sam. xx. 5, xxx. 17.
called the evening of the 9th day. If in Gen. i.5, it had been said, As the day of atonement was a The morning and the evening were peculiarly solemn day, in which the first day, I presume no one the people were to afflict their would ever have thought of begin- souls," it is probable that both ning the day at sun-rise, and ex- evenings were observed, which is tending the morning to sun-set, the opinion of some commentaand then extending the evening tors, who say it was kept from from sun-set to sun-rise. But, sun-set of the 9th day to midnight they would have considered the of the 10th day. day as beginning at midnight, and 3. It is urged that the Jews the morning as extending from brought their sick to Christ to be midnight to noon, and the even healed, in the evening after the Sabing as extending from noon to bath, because they considered it midnight, as we all, whatever unlawful to heal on the Sabbath, evening we keep, reckon. All and brought them there because call the time from midnight to the Sabbath ended at sunset. See noon morning, and from noon to Matt. viii. 14-16, Mark i. 21midnight evening. And why should 34. But there is no intimation that so much stress be laid upon the they viewed it unlawful to heal on mentioning of the evening first, the Sabhath, but the contrary, and when the order of time is so often no intimation that that was the inverted in scripture? In II. Tim. reason of their bringing the sick i. 9, Paul mentions salvation be- to Christ in the evening. They fore calling. “Who hath saved knew that he healed on the Sabus and called us,” &c. But no bath, for he had healed two that presume,
would hence infer day; one in the synagogue, and that sinners are saved, or brought Peter's wife's mother in the house.
And when he went out of the syn- strictness than the evening. And agogue into Peter's house, where how could we be certain, that it she lay sick, “anon they tell him was not the case with the Jews? of her, and besought him for her," But they might not have time, that he should beal her. But did after the synagogue service, and they beseech him to do what they | Christ's fame reached them, to considered unlawful, and a breach bring their sick before evening. of the Sabbath? There was no one Or, which is more probable, as it is who made any objection, or com- said that in that hot country the plaint against Christ for healing air in the evening is more wholeeither of these on the Sabbath. some than in the heat of the day, On the contrary, " his fame spread they might bring them in the evenabroad throughout all the regioning out of regard to their comfort. round about Gallilee,” in conse- 4. It is said that it has been the quence. But would they have practice of the Jews to regard the spread abroad his fame for doing evening preceding, as belonging what was in their view a breach of to the Sabbath. I know of no rethe Sabbath? It is true that the cord respecting their practice,writScribes and Pharisees, knowing ten before their rejection of Christ, that by his miracles, Christ was
except what is in the bible, which gaining credit and influence, not
we ought principally to regard, in from conscientious scruples, but deciding the question. After they from hatred and the hardness of had crucified the Lord of glory, their hearts," Mark ii. 5, con- their enmity to Christians might demned him for healing on the lead them to observe a different Sabbath. But it is equally true, evening, as well as a different day that when he told them that each from the Christians, as the Sabone of them would on the Sabbath bath. And after all their disper6. loose his os or his ass from the sions and changes, it is hardly stall, and lead him away to water- worth while for us Christians, ing,” “all his adversaries were who have the whole scriptures of ashamed.” They did not even the Old and New Testament in our attempt to prove that it was unlaw: hands, to go to them to learn gosful to heal on the Sabbath. “ And
pel institutions. all the people rejoiced.” None
I now proceed to examine the of them thought he had done wrong, evidence in favour of regarding or broken the Sabbath.
And yet the evening after the Sabbath as on another occasion, when he had holy time. healed two on the Sabbath, and no My first argument I shall adone made any objection, it is sup- duce from Neh. xiii. 16—19. At posed the people were afraid to that time " the men of Tyre bring their sick to Christ to be brought fish and all manner of healed on the Sabbath, and waited ware, and sold in Jerusalem on the till sun-set, because the Sabbath Sabbath." To prevent this prowas then ended!
fanation of the Sabbath, " when But even admitting that they | the gates of Jerusalem began to be deferred bringing them in the day dark before the Sabbath, Nehemitime, because they considered it ah commanded that the gates inconsistent with the holy rest of should be shut.” It could not bethe Sabbath, it would not prove gin to be dark before sun-set; and that the Sabbath ended at sun-set. therefore the gates were not shut For in Christian countries, many before sun-set; and consequently observe the day with much more were not shut before the Sabbath, if the Sabbath begun at sun-set., fifteenth day. And yet Matthew And yet it is expressly said that and Mark both call the fourteenth they were shut before the Sabbath. day the first day of unleavened And is it not evident, that such a bread. zealous reformer as Nehemiah 3. The circumstances attending would command the work of shut- the crucifixion, burial and resurting the gates to be done before rection of Christ, afford strong, the Sabbath, and not after the Sab- and I conceive decisive evidence, bath began, as must have been the that the Sabbath did not begin at case, if the Sabbath began at sun- sun-set. It was three o'clock in set:
the afternoon when Christ cried If it be enquired why the gates the first time, and expired some were shut at dark, if the Sabbath time, though probably not long, were not begun till midnight, I after. And when " the even answer, if the Tyrians had been was come, Joseph of Arimathea permitted to enter after dark, they came to Pilate and begged the could not have sold their wares body of Jesus." The even here that night, and would have lodged could not be the first evening, in the city, and sold them on the which began at noon, but the secSabbath ; consequently the evil ond evening, which began at sunwhich Nehemiah designed to rem-set. For 1. Jesus had been palai, edy would still exist.
a long time dead. Mark xv. 46. 2. In Matt. xxvi. 17 and Mark That this is the meaning of palai, xiv. 12, speaking of Christ's send-see Matt. xi. 21, Luke x. 13, II. ing two of his disciples to prepare Pet. ii. 3. 2. The expression, the passover, the evangelists call" When even was come,” in oththe fourteenth day of the month er places means at or after sun-set. the first day of unleavened bread, Matt. viii. 16, compared with which it could not be, if it ended Mark i. 36, Matt. xx. 8, 9, 11; at sun-set. The passover was to Matt. xxvi. 20, compared with be eaten in the evening of the Deut. xvi. 6; John vi. 16, 17. fourteenth day of the month. And 3. The evening generally means no leavened bread was to be eaten at, or after, sun-set. Josh. X. 26, afterwards for seven days. Ex. 27, II. Chron. xviii. 34, Ezek. xii. 28. The fifteenth day was xii. 7, Ps. civ. 23. 4. If the extherefore properly the first day of pression, “ When the even was unleavened bread. But as leaven come," does not mean the second was put away, and they began to evening, or sun-set, I am confieat unleavened bread after, or dent, no one can tell what it does with, the passover; that evening, mean, or what time had come. if the fifteenth day did not begin It is therefore manifest, that it at sun-set, was a part of the four- was sun-set, when Joseph “ took teenth day. Hence the fourteenth the body of Jesus.” And then he day might be called the first day and Nicodemus, having “a mixof unleavened bread. But if the ture of myrrh and aloes, about an fourteenth day, which was the day hundred pounds weight,” embalmon which the passover was killed, ed the body, “as the manner of the ended at sun-set, it could not, with Jews was to bury.” John xix. 39, any propriety, be called the first 40: which must have taken till day of unleavened bread, because some time in the evening. And leaven was not put away till it as it was full moon, it was suffiended, and unleavened bread was ciently light to do all that they did not eaten till the beginning of the without inconvenience. And af
ter the body was put in the tomb, | the disciples were assembled for ** the women which came with him fear of the Jews, came Jesus and from Galilee, and beheld how his stood in the midst.” John xx. 19. body was laid, returned, and pre- This was the evening succeeding pared spices and ointments, and the first day of the week, or the rested the Sabbath day according Christian Sabbath. And yet it, to the commandment.” Luke xxiii. belonged to the first day of the 55, 56. Can any one, in the face week, or the Sabbath. For the of so much evidence, believe that same day at evening, being the it was not after sun-set when they first day of the week, being then had prepared their spices and oint in the evening the first day of the ments: It must have been a long week, consequently the day had time after sun-set. And yet they not then ended. And that it was afterwards " rested the Sabbath really in the evening, and some day, according to the command time after sun-set, when Christ ment,” which required that no appeared to them, will be manifest work should be done on the Sab- | by comparing this passage with bath. And therefore the Sabbath Luke xxiv. 13, 29, 36, giving did not begin at sun-set. And if an account of the two disciples it had begun at sun-set, Christ's who went to Emmaus. It was prediction respecting the time of “ toward evening, and the day his being in the earth, or tomb, was far spent,” when they arrived would have failed. He declared at Emmaus. And they stopped that he should be " three days and there, and took supper, and then three nights in the heart of the walked back seven miles to Jeruearth,” i. e, a part of three days salem, which probably took as and three nights, according to the much as two hours. And Christ Jewish manner of reckoning. But did not appear to the disciples till if the day began at sun-set, he after they had returned, and told was in the earth or tomb, no part what things were done in the way, of three days. For being buried and how he was known to them in after the Jewish Sabbath began, breaking of bread,” when the evand rising the next day, he was ening must have been considerably in the tomb only a part of two advanced.
advanced. And yet the first day days. But if the day began at of the week, or Christian Sabbath, midnight, then he was in the earth, had not then ended, but it was according to his prediction, three then the first day of the week. days and nights, or a part of three The primitive Christians used days. For he was buried on the to partake of the Lord's supper evening of Friday, before the Jew- every Sabbath. And when the ish Sabbath, and was all the next disciples at Troas came together day, or Saturday, and a part of to break bread, or celebrate the the first day of the week, in the Lord's supper øn the first day of earth or tomb.
the week, Paul preached to them 4. The apostles and primitive in the evening of that day, and Christians met for religious wor
then administered the holy supper: ship on the evening succeeding, from which we may infer that that and not preceding the day which evening was considered as belongwas called the first day of the ing to the Sabbath.
We have no week.
account that they met in the day “ Then the same day at evening, time. And Scott thinks they did being the first day of the week, not. Paul tarried there seven when the doors were shut where days. If, then, the evening pre
ceding the first day of the week, many worldly cares, from which belonged to the Sabbath, as it was it is difficult immediately to disno doubt their practice to cele- engage their attention. But if the brate the Lord's supper on the Sabbath does not begin till midSabbath, why did not the disciples | night, people will have time to get meet to celebrate it on that even- their business out of the way, to ing, and not on the succeeding | banish worldly cares, to compose evening, which did not belong to their minds and to prepare for the the Sabbath ? Paul undoubtedly Sabbath. And on the evening of meant to administer the holy sup- the Sabbath they will be more per on that evening, which he view likely to reflect upon what they ed as holy time, though he was so have heard and read, and derive greatly engaged that he continued benefit from it, than if they felt přeaching till midnight. Hence that the Sabbath was ended, and from this account we may infer | they were at liberty to think and that the evening succeeding the talk about, and attend to, the first day of the week was regarded world. Such a persuasion would by the primitive Christians as be- have a natural tendency to divert longing to the Christian Sabbath. the attention from serious things, All the evidence, therefore, afford- and to permit the “ cares of the ed by these examples, is in favour world to choke the word.” of keeping Sabbath evening as ho- Where Sabbath evening is not ly time. And even those, who considered as holy time, young consider this evening as belonging people and others, being already to Monday, and consequently be- dressed in their best clothes, will ing Monday evening, do neverthe-| find it a very convenient season less all call it Sabbath evening. for visiting and amusement, where
5. It is more convenient and the conversation and employments better calculated to promote the will be such as will be directly spiritual good of men, to observe calculated to divert the attention the evening succeeding the day. | from the solemn truths which they It is extreinely difficult, and some have heard the past day, and to times impossible, to get business banish all serious reflection. If out of the way by sun-set, so as then " the Sabbath was made for to enter on the duties of devo- | man,” for his benefit, it is rational tion. There is so much to be done to conclude that that evening would in families to prepare for the Sab- be appointed to be kept, which bath, that when they profess to would be most convenient, and keep Saturday evening, they are conducive to bis spiritual interest apt to trespass upon what they and improvement view as holy time. They have
FOR TIL HOPKINSTAX MAGAZINE,
Two constructions have been
put on this verse. Some have unBIBLIOAL ORITIOISM.
derstood the import to be, Shall II. Kings v. 17-And Naaman not two mules' burden of earth be said, Shall there not, then, I pray 1 given to me your servant? In acthee, be given to thy servant two cordance with this, various have mules' burden of earth? for thy been the fancies of men concernservant will henceforth offer neither ing the use of this earth. The burnt-offering nor sacrifice unto popular opinion has been, that he other gods, but unto the Lord. designed to build an altar. But