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directors, thanking them for the essential country? Let him take the portrait as I am service they had thus rendered to their esta- able to sketch it from personal observation; blishment. A CORRESPONDENT. for I have traversed no small part of these in
teresting realms, so rich in all the gifts of bounCONSTANTINOPLE AND THE tiful nature, and so dispoiled by tyrant man. I TURKS.
have seen the pallid countenances and squalid It is now 380 years since the proud and per- forms of their wretched peasantry, worn to secuting followers of Mahomet became mas- the very bones by labour, want, and oppresters of one of the finest capitals in Europe; and sion—I have seen blows inflicted by wanton mosques usurped the place of churches, where authority, and borne with patient submission the meek followers of Christ poured forth - I have seen those, who, by commercial or their praise and thanksgiving to the throne any other fortunate speculations, had amassed of a beneficent Creator; the fine language wealth, either careful to hide it from their of Holy Writ gave way to the dogmas of the rapacious tyrants under the external garb of Koran ; and arts, sciences, and literature, to misery, or dissipating it in prodigality, in spoliation, rapine, and ignorance.
order that they might secure a few moments The Turkish empire, politically speaking, of happiness, and then live upon the recollecmay, however, be said to have expired since tion of the past, I have seen rich and amia. its occupation by the Russians; and, what- ble families turned out of houses and possesever may be the duration of their sway, it is sions, at the caprice of a Pacha, who desired to be hoped that some amelioration will be them for his favourites—I have seen whole speedily effected in the social condition of districts so appropriated, after the inhabitthe ill-fated people. Of their superstitious ants had been exposed to unheard-of persecharacter, the Rev. Mr. Hughes gives the cutions, in order to make them voluntarily following eloquent view, in his Travels in throw up their territory into the hands of a Greece :
tyrant-I have rode over the ruins of large " It is possible," says he, “that the people villages, scathed by the flames of destrucof England may be unacquainted with the tion,
because some reputable family had resuperstition of these barbarians, who are so fused to deliver up a beautiful son or daughzealously supported by Christian powers ! ter, as the victim of that tyrant's execrable They may not know that it is fiercely and lusts—I have seen part of the Turkish popu. implacably hostile to Christianity—that it lation, in a large city, armed against its was hatched and matured in falsehood, hypo- Frank inhabitants, cutting and maiming with crisy, and blood—that it addresses itself tɔ swords and ataghans every Christian they the sensual appetites and corrupt passions, met with, on account of a private quarrel that it cherishes inordinate pride, fanatic I have seen large towns professing the Mazeal, and is a pander to the most abominable hometan faith, whose inhabitants had all to impurities-that it degrades the dignity of a man apostatized from that of their forehuman nature, and depreciates the value of fathers, to escape the inordinate exactions human life-that it encourages ignorance, by and oppressive cruelties to which as Chrisrepresenting all arts, sciences, and literature, tians they were subjected—I have seen rich as unnecessary, or prejudicial to mankind, tracts of country turned into deserts, fields unless warranted by the Koran—that it pro- languishing without culture, and cities fallen duces mental torpor and apathy, chilling into decay, where misrule and injustice had every tendency to speculative exertion, or in combined with plague and famine against tellectual and moral improvement, by the de. the constitution of society; and, as public solating doctrines of predestination-finally, immorality flourishes most and grows up to that it establishes the horrid principle, that maturity, under the reign of despotism; I civil and political power shall depend exclu- have seen apostates, false witnesses, secret sively upon faith in the law of Mahomet, poisoners, open assassins, and all the other whilst it exposes every Christian to the un. agents of unlimited tyranny, clothed in the restrained brutality and irresponsible tyranny spoils and rioting on the property of their of the vilest wretch that wears a turban. If unhappy victims. In short, I have seen a the reader would learn what insults and hor. nation humbled, degraded, and abused; I rors the very ministers of the Gospel are sub- have seen man, made in his Maker's like. jected to in this vile land of abominations— ness, reduced below the standard of the brute if he has forgotten the public execution of the creation, living without civil or political Patriarch of Constantinople, hung like a dog existence, plundered without remorse, torat the gates of his own cathedral-let him tured without mercy, and slaughtered without peruse a narrative, which I have extracted commiseration !""* from the interesting work of my friend, M. # Our thanks are due to our zealous correspondent Pouqueville, formerly consul of France at the W. G. C., for pointing attention to these powerful court of Ali Pacha :
extracts. An outline of the taking of Constantino“Would the reader know more concern
ple by the Turks was printed iu The Mirror, vol. xii. ing the internal government of this wretched ourselves of W. G, Ci's obliging offer.
which circumstance will not allow us farther to avail
SHIPWRECKS AND DISASTERS AT SEA.
of dying with hunger. The allowance of
the general consent, until at length the food (These form the 78th and 79th volumes of was all eaten up, and only two gallons of Constable's Miscellany, the issue of which which was thick and dirty. The crew, while
water were left at the bottom of a cask, we are glad to see resumed with subjects
of they could obtain sustenance, were obedient such intense interest. The Editor, Mr.
to superior orders, but every thing being Cyrus Redding, observes in the Preface :]
consumed, their sufferings made them despeThese volumes may be regarded, in some
tate. respect, as a continuation of what has been became intoxicated, and mingled their cries
They drank the wine and brandy, already laid before the reader in the earlier of distress with oaths and imprecations. portion of this miscellany. The losses, of
The captain, to whom they abandoned the the Antelope, Pandora, and Medusa, as well as the perils of Madame Godin,
and the dregs of the water-cask, abstained from wine captivity of De Brisson, were published some
as much as possible, and husbanded the
wretched remnant of the liquid. In the The present narratives of the midst of this, their desperation, à sail was same nature have been drawn from valid
All beheld it with eager eyes, and authorities, British and foreign, and have been condensed, in order, while nothing They hoisted a signal of distress, and the
even their despair was for a moment hushed. material is omitted, to bring into the smallest stranger sail came so near them, about eleven compass as much interesting matter as pos- o'clock in the forenoon of the day she was sible. Thus they continue a record of the first seen, that they were able to communicate fortitude, patience, and suffering of gallaut their pitiable condition. The weather was
under perils, oftentimes beyond calm, and the captain promised them a example in human endurance. [The first of the volumes is occupied which he could spare. Yet even this the
supply of bread, but he had nothing more with Narratives of the Polar and Northern inhuman wretch delayed sending, coolly Suas, from 900, and Zeno, in 1380, (not 1830, occupying himself with taking an observation as printed in the Contents,) to the Loss of for the space of an hour, while the famishing the Lady Hobart in 1808.
crew of the Peggy, with wild and ravening The second volume contains disasters in different climates, chronologically arranged. could hardly hope to exist longer, and which
eyes, expected the food, without which they One of the most interesting of the narratives they made sure of ultimately obtaining: is that of-]
Captain Harrison was then so weak he was The Famine in the Peggy. obliged to leave the deck with hunger and From the following narrative it is probable faintness; a film came over his eyes, and Byron drew part of the shipwreck scene in suffering as well from rheumatism as hunger, Dón Juan. The sloop Peggy, commanded he went down into his cabin. by Captain Harrison, sailed from New York In a short time one of the crew came down in 1765, for the island of Fayal, and having to him, in an agony of despair, telling him discharged her cargo, weighed anchor upon the strange vessel was gone without sending her return, on the 24th of October. The them the scanty assistance which had been weather was fine until the 29th, when it promised. Captain Harrison again crept came on to blow hard, and so continued for upon the deck, and saw the ship standing a whole month till the 1st of December. The away with additional canvass: in five hours rigging was so much injured that the ship she was out of sight. could make but little way through the water, As long as the vessel of this inhuman and the provisions, except a small quantity commander was to be descried, the poor of bread, were all exhausted : a quarter of a fellows in the Peggy hung about the rigging, pound, a pint of wine, and a quart of water, and ran from one part of the ship to another, each man, were the daily allowance of those in frantic consternation. Their looks were
ghastly : their cries rent the air, and must The ship was also, from continual straining, have been plainly heard by the commander in a very bad condition, leaky and much of the vessel which had gone away when he injured. The sea still ran very high. Thun- had got under sail, coming louder and quicker der and lightning prevailed almost without upon his ear every yard the ships separated intermission, and the starving crew were in from each other. Their lamentations and great fear of the ship going down. While supplications were reiterated until despair the gale continued so strong, that there choked their voices, and they died away in could be no communication with another feeble groans. When they recovered the vessel, they had the disappointment to see cruel disappointinent a little, they were not two ships pass them without the possibility idle in studying means to preserve existencë of communicating their sufferings. They as long a possible. They had two pigeons had only the miserable prospect before them and a cat on board : the former they cooked
for their Christmas dinner; the cat was said it was indifferent to them, whether he killed on the following day, and divided into consented or not. They had paid him the nine parts by lot. The head fell to the compliment of consulting him, but he must share of the captain, who enjoyed it better take his chance with the rest, for the calamity than any food he had ever before tasted. The levelled all distinctions. On this they left day following they began to scrape the bottom him, and went into another part of the vessel, of the ship for barnacles; but most of these, from whence they returned in a few minutes, which had been within reach, were beaten off and told the captain that they had taken a by the waves, and the men were too weak to chance for their lives, and that the lot had hang long over the vessel's side to get at allen on the negro who was part of the them. The crew now got intoxicated again, cargo. They loaded a pistol, which the poor and they vented their sufferings in impreca- fellow seeing, flew to the captain, who, though tions and oaths.
he imagined the negro had not been fairly The captain continued eking out his treated by the rapidity of the proceedings, miserable pittance of dirty water, half a pint told him he could only lament he was unable of which, mingled with some drops of a to protect him. The negro was dragged medicinal balsam he found by him, made all upon deck and shot. his sustenance for twenty-four hours. The His life was scarcely extinct, when they crew, in the meanwhile, were heating wine made a large fire and began to cut up the in the steerage, reckless of every thing in body; as in order to make it last, they intheir frenzy. The captain quietly contem- tended only to dress the entrails that night. plated the doom which they now cared nothing One of the crew, James Campbell, was so about. The approach of the king of terrors ravenous, that he snatched the liver from the he could have beheld without the slightest body and devoured it without dressing. That emotion, but that he had a wife and children, night, until morning came, they were busy whom it would involve in difficulties. He at their loathsome meal. The next day they now and then flattered himself that some demanded from Captain Harrison, if they vessel might yet come in sight, and relieve should pickle the body. This proposal was them; but he was aware that unless it so shocking, that he took up a pistol, and appeared very quickly, from the weakness declared if they who made such an applicaand ebriety of the crew, and the leakiness of tion did not leave the cabin, he would send the vessel, they could hardly be expected to them after the negro. The crew then cut keep much longer a-float. The pumps they up the body, threw the head and fingers were too feeble to work. They had no light overboard, and duly preparing it, put it in during a night of sixteen hours but what the pickle. glimmering of their fire afforded. The Three days after, Campbell, who had eaten candles and oil had all been used for food. the raw liver, died mad." The crew became The vessel made a little progress, until the more sober from this circumstance, but for 28th of December, when their only remaining fear of contracting madness by using their sail was blown away, and she lay a wreck comrade's body, they threw it overboard. On upon the ocean. For sixteen days, until the the following day, the men said, “ though 13th of January, it is not known how the he would not give his consent, let us give crew subsisted, yet on that day they were the captain some of the meat.” A boiled still alive. In the evening the mate entered piece was taken to him in the cabin, but he the cabin, with the crew
at his heels, half refused it with horror, chid the messenger, drunk. They wore countenances of the and threatened him. His appetite went most frightful ghastliness. They told the away from nausea at the spectacle of human captain they could go on no longer; they had flesh. exhausted their tobacco, eaten up the leather The negro's body, which had been used from the pumps, and even the buttons from with the utmost economy, lasted from the their jackets, and that they had now no way 17th to the 26th of January. They were of averting death but by casting lots which then as badly off as before. They bore it should die to sustain the lives of their com- for three days, when the mate told the caprades. They trusted the captain would agree tain, they had delayed as long as they could to the proposal, and demanded his determi- sustain their hunger, that no help had come, nation. The captain tried to divert them and that they must cast lots a second time. from their purpose, by saying that if they It was better they said to die in detail, than would postpone until the morning the exe- all at once, as the remnant might still be cution of their scheme, and by that time saved. The captain, who could not move they were not relieved by an interposition of from his bed, tried unsuccessfully to reason Providence, he would confer with them fur- with them. He then considered that if the ther.
dots were not drawn in his presence he might This only made them more outrageous. not himself be fairly treated. He was just They with oaths and execrations declared able to raise himself up in bed, high enough what was done must be done at once. They tu cause the lots to be drawn equitably. The
fatal lot fell on one David Flat, a seaman The longings of the cannibal arise
every signal of distress they were agony of feeling. As the time drew near, able. The sight of the ship was enough for their reluctance increased. Friendship and this of itself, and could hardly give the humanity contended with famine and death stranger an idea that there was life on board in their hearts. They determined the devoted to preserve. The crew did the best they man should live until the next morning at could to fulfil the orders they received, and eleven o'clock, praying that God would inter- he soon heard from his bed, a sort of jumppose during the interval, to save his life. ing movement on the deck, and the cry, They begged the captain to read prayers to “She nears us! she nears us !” The truth them, which he had scarcely strength left to of this became every moment more clear, and do. When they were concluded, he felt the hopes of the crew were strong, of obtainready to faint, and fell back in his bed. The ing assistance. Yet amidst all their joy, seamen went to Flat, and were overheard by their generous hearts turned upon their comthe captain talking with great kindness to rade Flat. He could feel none of their grahim, and trusting God would yet preserve tification; they lamented his situation in him, they told him that they had been the midst of the eagerness with which they unable to catch a single fish, but they would contemplated their hope of deliverance. A put out their hooks, and try if heaven would can of wine was proposed, but the captain in that way relieve them. Poor Flat, how- resisted their application, assuring them that ever, was beyond their kind consolations, their deliverance must yet depend upon their already weak, he became so agitated, that being masters of their conduct, when their by midnight he was deaf, and in two or deliverers might come alongside. They had three hours more, raving mad. His com all the self-denial, in the midst of their rades then began to think it would be a mer- burning thirst, to refrain, except the mate, ciful act to dispatch him, but still having who retired by himself to drink, unable to promised to spare his life until eleven o'clock, resist the temptation. They continued to they resolved to abide scrupulously by their watch the ship for several hours, until, as it determination.
were to tantalize them, the breeze died away At eight o'clock in the morning, the cap- and she lay becalmed about two miles from tain whose weakness was increasing, but them. They were cheered notwithstanding who was still able to think more upon the by seeing the boat put off from her, and fate of his poor seamen, than his own suffer- come towards them, with all the dispatch ings, was surprised by two of the crew coming she could make. into the cabin in great haste. They eagerly During the progress of the boat, their seized his hands, and fixed their eyes on his anxiety after their previous disappointment face, but were unable to articulate. Still of relief may be imagined; joy, fear, hope, they looked at him so earnestly, that he was anxiety, were seen by turns on their emaciated unable to conjecture their meaning. He at and haggard faces. They were not sure first imagined that as they were afraid to until the boat was alongside, that they should eat the body of Campbell, and had thrown he saved. The conflict of the various pashim overboard, they were also in the same sions in bodies so enfeebled was scarcely fear with respect to Flat. He imagined he endurable by their enfeebled frames, until
doubt became certainty, and then for a time
they scarcely appeared to be animated. The published by Messrs. Boydell and Co. in the strangers påused with surprise at the cada- year 1818. Appended to the Print is the verous appearance of these unfortunate people, following note stating its authority :." A view when they came within a few yards of them. of London, from a painting in the possession They even rested on their oars, and looking of Mr. John Grove, of Richmond, was enat them with countenances which cannot be graved in 1754, and dedicated to Lord Hardpictured, asked, “Who are you-are you wicke and the Antiquarian Society; but the men ?” They came on board, but requested plate, (which was a private one,) was after. the crew to make haste in quitting their wards mislaid.” From this print the original wreck of a vessel, as they feared a gale of of the subjoined Cut was engraved. The wind was coming on, and they might be view is bird's eye, reaching from the Bridge prevented from regaining their own. The to St. Catharine’s. In it appears St. Paul's captain was so weak he could not move, and they conveyed him more like a corpse than a man to the deck, and then lowered him with ropes into the boat. The crew followed, the wretched man Flat, to whom joy and misery were the same, being among them. The mate was still missing, and was added to their number with no more strength, than just enough to crawl to the ship's side. The can of wine had produced an oblivion of everything preceding that moment. He was received into the boat, and in about an hour they were all safe on board the stranger vessel, the Susanna of London, of which Thomas Evers was master. She was on her return from Virginia to London. Evers received the miserable crew as might be expected from a noble-spirited British tar. He treated them with the utmost humanity and gentleness. He lay by the wreck in hopes to save some clothes for the captain the next morning, but it came on to blow hard, and he was obliged to carry sail the same night. They saw the Peggy no more.
The Susanna was scant of provisions, they were obliged to put all on board upon short allowance, and she was much shattered in the hull and rigging. They succeeded in making the Land's End on the 2nd of March, and proceeded at once to the Downs, whence Captain Harrison reached London by land. The mate, Doud the seaman, who shot the slave, and Warren, a sailor, died on the passage to England. Three only, besides the captain, survived, they were named Ashley, Wentworth, and Flat. Whether the last was ever restored to reason is unknown. (We shall return to this work in our next.]
(The oldest View of London extant.)