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NATIONAL EDUCATION.

away like gunpowder. In the chamber, entertaining, and unpretending a manner, as eight feet from the chimney, it came out in this pamphlet. Here is none of the mysover the corner of a looking glass in three tification or pedantry of science, but cause places, the largest like a gimblet-hole-split and effect are traced in such plain writing, The back-board of the glass into three parts, that “all who run may read.”] melted the gilding, and went off at an opposite corner in one large place and nine small

The Public Journals. ones, through the wall to a window in the room beneath, splintered the casement by a nail into five or six small pieces, and killed a rose-bush which was tied to a nail on the (The number (24) of the Foreign Quarterly outside of the house. Opposite, and fifteen Review, just published, is perhaps the most feet from the chimney, hung a piece

of em- valuable, attractive, and interesting, yet broidery; three small holes were left in the issued. Its leading subjects are National wall over one corner of it; two thirds of the Education - Egyptian Antiquities—Animal top of the frame, which is of mahogany, is Magnetism – and Mirabeau, the French split up to a corner; where it appears as if Revolutionist. These form masterly papers, the fluid ran down the back of the glass, to full of unwearied research and scholarly ease. a basket wrought with gold thread, and, Dry and uninviting to the general reader as blackening it, passed off at another corner, the first and second subjects appear, they are through three small places in the wall

, and rendered even entertaining from the manner came out in five points, like nail marks, in in which they are handled; and the third the ceiling over a looking glass in the first and fourth articles yield all the interest their story, ran all over the gilding, and went off titles promise. What a relief are subjects through the wall by the nails which support such as these to the Road and the Turf of the glass. The paint in the chamber was the English Quarterly Review, and the politurned of a very dark colour with a metallic tical bile of its blue and yellow contemporary. cast: the paper was red and blue, the red, We shall probably quote from more than excepting near the floor, had entirely disap- one of the above papers ; but the first on the peared. There was no lightning-rod on the list has correspondent claims to our notice. house."

The extract explains the character, objects, The preceding description of the effects of and operation of the Prussian system of edulightning is very interesting, and, conjoined cation, as reported by M. Victor Cousin, or with what I have detailed in another place, rather that portion of it which relates to the reads an instructive lesson to us. Here is primary or elementary instruction, destined ample evidence of the division of the meteor for children of the lower and middle orders, into various ramifications or streams, a curious which are managed as follows:] selection of metallic materials and their fusion, Every circle (or subdivision of a regency oxydation, and vaporization, when insulated or county) is divided into communes (or either partially or entirely, (being thus dis- parishes); and each commune is provided continuous conductors) wherever they stood with a school, of which the pastor or curate in the way of its progress; and its leap to of the place is inspector, together with a non-conducting substances which were de- committee of the principal persons of the stroyed, or fractured, or burnt up, together commune, called Schulvorständ. In the with the non-electric if in contact with them. city communes, where there are several priIt seems to me highly probable that the mary schools, there is a higher board, comlightning, when it scorches or vaporizes, car. posed of the magistrates, which exercises a ries with it part of the materials on which it general superintendence over the several comhas been occupied ; and that its momentum mittees. Moreover, in the chief place of the is increased partly by the opposition it meets circle there is another inspector, whose authowith in its progress to the earth, by the non- rity extends over all the schools of the circle, conducting media and materials that obstruct and who corresponds with the local officers. its path.

This as well as the local inspector is almost (The extent of our extracts reminds us that always an ecclesiastic, but after these two we must draw to a close.

officers the authority of the civil administraWe are unable to follow Mr. Murray tion commences. The school-inspector of further in his closely narrated facts and well each circle corresponds with the government drawn inferences, and ingenious theories : or council of each regency or department among the latter we especially notice his through the medium of its president. One views of a geographical distribution of colour of the members of this council is an officer

the surface of the globe, which he terms called Schulrath, paid as well as his colthe geography of colour. We can only add 'leagues, and specially charged with the that it is long since we have seen the most superintendence of the primary schools. He astounding phenomena of nature illustrated also inspects the schools

; awakens and stimuand explained in so intelligible, familiar, lates the zeal of the inspectors, the commit

tees, and the schoolmasters: all the inferior certificate of ill health by a medical man, the and superior inspectors correspond with him, absence of the children with their parents, and he carries on, through the medium of or the want of clothes. If all remonstrances the president of the council of the depart fail, the children may be taken to school by ment, all the correspondence relative to the a policeman, or the parents, guardians, or schools, with the higher authorities: he is masters, brought before the committee, and in fact the real manager of the primary in- fined, or imprisoned in default of payment, struction in each department. It will be or condemned to hard labour for the benefit observed, therefore, that the details of the of the commune. These punishments may primary schools are, in Prussia, left to the be increased up to a certain limit for succesmanagement of the local authorities, while sive infractions of the law. Whenever the the central government exercises everywhere parents are condemned to imprisonment or a general superintendence.

hard labour, care is to be taken that their [The following passage is a descriptive children are not abandoned during the term outline of the schools :]

of their punishment. Parents who neglect All parents in Prussia are bound by law to this duty to their children are to lose all send their children to the public elementary claim to pecuniary relief from the public, schools, or to satisfy the authorities that their except the allowance for instruction, which, education is sufficiently provided for at home. however, is not to pass through their hands. This regulation is of considerable antiquity; They are likewise declared incapable of filling it was confirmed by Frederick the Great in any municipal office in their commune. If 1769, and was introduced into the Prissian all punishinents fail, a guardian is to be Landrecht, or code, in 1794, and finally it allotted to children, and a co-guardian to was adopted in the law of 1819, which forms wards, in order specially to watch over their the basis of the actual system of Prussia. education The obligation in question extends not only In order to enable parents to comply with to parents and guardians, but to all persons the terms of this law, it is necessary that who have power over children, such as manu- there should be schools which their children facturers and masters of apprentices, and can attend without difficulty. Accordingly, applies to children of both sexes from their every commune is required by law to have a seventh to their fourteenth year complete. complete elementary school, and every town Twice a-year the school committee and the containing more than 1,500 inhabitants to municipal authorities make a list of the chil- have at least one town school; the difference dren in their district whose parents do not between which schools will be explained preprovide for their education, and equire the sently. In order to carry this law into effect, attendance of all who are within the pre- it is enacted that the inhabitants of every scribed age. This attendance is dispensed rural commune shall, under the direction of with, if satisfaction is given that the children the public authorities, form themselves into a will be properly instructed elsewhere; but society (called Landschulverein), composed the parents are nevertheless bound to contri- of all the landed proprietors, and all the bute to the school to which their children fathers of families not landed proprietors, would naturally belong. Lists of attendance resident in the commune. A society of this kept by the schoolmaster are delivered every kind may likewise be formed by a single fortnight to the school committee. In order village, or even by a collection of remote to facilitate the regular attendance of the farm-houses. In general every village is children, and not altogether to deprive the required to maintain its school; several vilparents of their assistance, the hours of lessons lages, however, may have one in common, if in the elementary schools are arranged in each is unable to support the expense of a such a manner as to leave the children every separate school ; provided that the distance day some hours for domestic labours. The from the common school is not greater than schoolmasters are prohibited by severe penal two miles, in a flat country, or one mile in a ties from employing their scholars in house. hilly country; that the communication is not hold work. The schools are closed on Sun- interrupted by marshes or rivers impassable days ; but the evenings, after divine service at certain seasons of the year; and that the and the catechism, may be devoted to gym. number of children to be instructed is not nastic exercises. Care is taken to enable too large, that is, more than 100 for one poor parents to obey the law, by providing master. their children with books and clothes. If, In order to make a complete primary school however, the parents omit to send their chil. the following things are necessary. ). A dren to school, the clergyman is first to ac- sufficient income for the schoolmasters and quaint them with the importance of the duty mistresses during their service, and a main. which they neglect; and if his exhortation tenance for them after their retirement. 2. A is not sufficient, the school committee may building for exercises and instruction properly summon them and remonstrate with them constructed, maintained, and warmed. 3. severely. The only excuses admitted are a Furniture, books, pictures, instruments, and

all things necessary for learning and bodily divided among the masters, in order to stimu. exercise. The first of these points is declared late them to the proper performance of their by the Prussian law to be the most important duties. In places, however, where there is of all; as without sufficient salaries it is no charity school (Armenschule), the public impossible to have good masters. No general school is bound to furnish gratuitous instrucrule as to the amount is laid down, as the tion to the children of indigent parents; some circumstances of different places differ; but favour is likewise to be shown to parents who the provincial consistories are directed to have several children attending at the same appoint a minimum for the salaries of school- time. masters in towns and in the country for each Having thus explained the duty of parents province, which is to be revised from time to to send their children to the elementary time. With regard to the second point, it is schools, and the manner in which these laid down that the school-house ought to schools are established and maintained, we belong to the school; but if it is hired, a now come to the object and nature of the house ought to be taken which stands in an instruction communicated in them.

66 The open space. It is absolutely required that principal object of every school (says the law) every school should be in a wholesome situa- is to bring up the youth in such a manner as tion, should have rooms of sufficient size, to create in them, together with a knowledge well floored and ventilated, and kept with of the relation of God to man, the power and the utmost cleanliness, and should, as far as desire of regulating their lives according to possible, contain a good lodging for the master. the spirit and principles of Christianity." Where there are several masters, one at least With this view the masters are directed to ought to reside in the school. Every school form the children to habits of piety; to begin in a village or a small town is required to and end the day's lessons with a short prayer; have a garden, where the scholars may learn and to instil religious sentiments into their the art of gardening, and a yard for the exer- minds at the time of the communion. They cises of the children. As to the third point, are likewise enjoined to inculcate in the chil. every school is to have a collection of books dren obedience to the laws, and fidelity and sufficient for the use of the masters, and, as attachment to the king and state, in order to far as possible, for that of the scholars. Other animate them with the love of their country. things used in education, such as maps, The inferior public schools are of two kinds models for drawing, instruments and collec- -the elementary schools in villages and tions for teaching natural history and mathe- country places, and the civic or town schools matics, implements for teaching trades, &c. in the towns. Every complete elementary are to be furnished to the different schools, school is required to teach the Christian reliaccording to a scale fixed by the provincial gion, the German language, the elements of consistories.

geometry, and the general principles of drawThe next subject to be considered is the ing, arithmetic, the elements of natural science, fund from which the expenses incured in geography, general history, and particularly establishing and maintaining these schools the history of Prussia, singing, writing, are to be defrayed. This fund is of three gymnastic exercises, and the simplest kinds kinds—1. Endowments of private benefactors. of manual labour. No elementary school is 2. A rate imposed on the inhabitants of the complete which does not embrace all these town, commune, or department. 3. The subjects; in every school, however, it is absopayment of the scholars. With regard to lutely necessary that at least religion, reading, the first of these sources, the law enacts that writing, arithmetic, and singing, should be wherever there is a school maintained by the taught. Every town school is required to gifts of private benefactors, it shall be used teach religion and morality, the German as the public school of the place; and shall, language, reading, composition, and the if necessary, be assisted or augmented at the study of the national classics, the elements of public cost. Wherever the private funds are Latin and of mathematics, a sound knowinsufficient, the duty of maintaining the ledge of arithmetic, physical science, geograinferior schools is imposed on all the fathers phy and history, and especially the history, of families in the town or commune, that is, laws, and constitution of Prussia; the prinall married persons having an independent ciples of drawing, singing, chiefly for reliestablishment; the rate of payment being gious purposes, and gymnastic exercises. proportional to the income of each. If à No particular books are appointed to be read town or commune should from poverty be in the schools; but the masters are left to unable to maintain a proper school, the funds choose the best on each subject as they may of the department are to be called in aid, so successively appear. Every scholar is bound long as the inability shall continue. In to go through the entire course on every subaddition to these resources, all children at- ject forming a part of the prescribed education, tending the school are required to pay a nor are the parents at liberty to exclude their certain sum to be fixed by the school com- children from any particular branch of knowmittee; the chief part of which is to be ledge. The children are to be examined be

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fore they pass from one class to another ; and and the address with which she managed
once a-year, in every boys' school, there is to his escape appears to have made a consider-
be a public examination, at which, moreover, able impression on the fugitive king.
the master is required to give a written ac-

P. T. W.
count of the progress and actual state of the
school. Every child at his departure from

Copy of the Letter. school is furnished with a certificate of his “ Mrs. LANE,--I have hitherto deferred acquirements and character.

writing to you, in hope to be able to send The Prussian law justly lays great stress you somewhat else besides a letter; and I on the respectability and competency of the believe it troubles me more that I cannot yett masters: it is not, however, satisfied with doe it, than it does you; though I doe not mere injunction and exhortation, but esta- take you to be in a good condition longe to blishes a system by which a succession of expect it. The truth is, my necessities are well-qualified masters is insured.

greater than can be imagined; but I am It should be added, that the Prussian law promised they shall be shortlye supplyed: if does not permit any person to open a private they are, you shall be sure to receive a share; school without having obtained permission for it is impossible I can ever forgett the from the proper authorities, which may be great debte I owe you, which I hope I shall refused in case of immorality or improper live to pay, in a degree that is worthy of me. conduct on the part of the applicants. Unmar. In the mean time, I am sure all who love me ried men are absolutely prohibited from keep- will be kind to you, else I shall never think ing a girls' school. After private schools them so to your most affectionate friend have been established, they are subject to the

CHARLES Rex. inspection of the public officers of education,

Paris, Nov. 23, 1652.” who have power, if they find that bad books

* Now in the possession of a gentleman at Manor masters are employed, to report the school chester. to the provincial consistory, which may withdraw the permission from the school. Such is a general outline of the national

The Gatherer. system of elementary instruction for the middling and poorer classes, established, by the law of 1819, in Prussia.

Countess of Desmond.-Catherine Fitz[We have not space to quote the reviewer's Gerald, Countess of Desmond, was born clever remarks on the character of the Prus- about the year 1464, was married in the sian system, and his suggestions for the reign of Edward IV., lived dnring the entire adoption of certain of its laws in this coun

reigns of Edward V., Richard III., Henry try instead of “ the 20,0001. now proposed to VII., Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and be granted for the building of schools in Elizabeth, and died in the latter end of England, and the large sums of money reign, at the great age of 162 years, as is

James I., or the beginning of Charles I.'s annually granted for many years to private societies in Ireland, of being expended and generally supposed. For an account of this often wasted by irresponsible persons, on Tours in Scotland.

remarkable character, see Mr. Pennant's schools which do not become the property of the public.”

There is a print of this lady, taken from The following facts, however, bespeak the

an original family picture of the same size well-working of the Prussian system, and the painted on board in the possession of the fairness of the reviewer's concluding remark

Right Honourable

Maurice Fitz-Gerald, is self-evident: “ Prussia with a revenue of chased at Mr. Evans's, No. 1, Great Queen

Knight of Kerry, &c.; which may be purless than eight millions (7,590,4761.), educates street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. P.T. W. her entire population (nearly as large as that of England), at an expense of about 360,0001. Magna Charta.—This document was read a-year, of which sum the state contributed, in Westminster Hall, in the presence of King in 1831, about 48,0001. (Cousin, Rapport, Henry III., the nobility, and bishops, with P. 268, Supplément P: 15). How small a lighted candles in their hands; the king all part of the sum annually raised in England the while laying his hand on his breast, and as poor rates fof corrupting the poor, would at last swearing solemnly, faithfully, and be sufficient to educate them in knowledge inviolably, to obey all things therein containand in virtue!”]

ed, as he was a man, a christian, a soldier,

and a king; then the bishops extinguished
Retrospective Gleanings.

the candles, and threw them on the ground;
and every one said, “ thus let him be extin-
guished and stink in Hell, who violates this

charta," upon which the bells were set on This lady greatly assisted in the preservation ringing, and all persons by their rejoicing of Charles II., after the battle of Worcester; approved of what was done.

LETTER OF KING CHARLES II. TO MRS. LANE.

now?'

Pyrrhus* and his minister Cyneas.- laid a grain of wheat. This done, a cock Cyneas asked the king what he proposed to was turned loose in the circle, and careful do when he conquered the 'Romans? He observation was made of the grains he pecked. answered, “ Pass into Sicily." “ What The letters corresponding to those grains then ?” said the minister. * Conquer the were afterwards formed into a word, which Carthaginians,” replied the king. “ And word was to be the answer desired. what follows that?" says the minister. ' "Be

P.T. W. sovereign of Greece, and then enjoy ourselves,” said the king. “ And why,” replied

Swimming Stone.--In a copper mine near the sensible minister, can we not do this last Redruth, in Cornwall, a curious substance,

called the swimming stone, is found. It

consists of right-lined laminæ, as thin as Snake-charming.–The Manitou of the paper, which intersect one another in all Osages (says Mr. Carne) was a serpent of an directions, leaving, however, unequal cavities enormous size, which the priestess had the between them. In consequence of this holpower of charming, though to every other its low texture, the stone is so light that it bite was mortal. Some of the more super. swims in water.

W. G. C. stitious Indians had a Manitou, or evil genius, in their dwellings, to keep them from harm; Amphipolis,

offered his services to Philip 11.

A King without his right eye.-Aster of conduced to this practice. To the wandering king of Macedon, telling

him that he was so Indian, whose eye often followed with desire excellent a marksman that he could bring the rapid fight of the eagle and the deer, it down birds in their most rapid Aight. “Well, was, no doubt, sweet to believe that his

soul service when I make war upon starlings.”

“ I will take you into my after death should roam through the regions Stung with the reply, Aster resolved upon of the air, and over the plains, without ever being, wearied. I remember, (says M. Bossu,) revenge. Having thrown himself into the in a village of the Illinois, one of our soldiers city, he let Aly an arrow, on which was written went into a hut and found a live snake which

To Philip's right eye." It hit the king, he killed; the master arriving quickly after, exactly in his right eye. Philip ordered the fell into a terrible passion to find his deity label: If Philip takes the city, he will hang

arrow to be sent back, with the following dead, and uttered a wild lament; he said it Aster," and he was as good as his word. was the soul of his father, who died about a year before;

P. T. W. that the old man had loved to pursue and kill the serpents, having envied Encoring with a vengeance-Andronicus their rapid movements by which they glided Livius, one of the ancient Roman poets, was from rock to tree, and swam over wide rivers; the first who attempted to compose a drama and when his limbs were stiff, and his frame in verse, which he himself sung and acted, bowed, he longed that he might be a serpent while a player on the flute accompanied him after death.

W. G. C. in unison to keep him in tune. He was Lord Bacon, when first appointed judge encored and obliged to repeat his pieces so on the northern circuit, had to pass sentence often, that he lost his voice and became of death on several malefactors, by one of unable to sing or declaim any longer. He whom he was strongly importuned to save

was then allowed a slave to sing, while he only his life. The culprit,' finding all he could acted the part behind him. Hence the cussay to be of no avail, at length desired mercy declamation or melody of the piece, with

tom (says his biographers) of dividing the on account of kindred. his lordship,“ how came that in ?", " Why, which the Roman people were extremely if you please, my lord, your name is Bacon,

delighted. and mine is Hoy, and in all ages hog and bacon have been so near a kindred, that they are not to be separated.". Ay, but,” reo plied the judge, you and I cannot be kin.

With the next Number, dred unless you be hanged: for Hog is

THE SECOND SUPPLEMENT not Bacon until it be well hanged.” H. B. ANDREWS.

Spirit of the Annuals for 1834:

With a fine “ Landscape" Engraving; and Tales and Ancient Divination.-This art was in use unique Extracts from the Landscape Annual, Keepamong the Greeks; and the usual manner sake, Amulet, Hood's Comic Annual, &c. of it was this. A circle was made on the Engraviug from the Oriental Annual.

No. 633, the First Supplement, coutaius a splendid ground, and

livided into twenty-four equal spaces, or proportions: in each of which spaces was written one of the letters of the (near Somerset House, London; sold by 6. 6.

Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD, 143, Strand, alphabet, and upon each of these letters was BENNIS, 55, Rue Neuve St. Augustin, Paris;

CHARLES JUGEL, Francfurt; and by all NewsKing of Epirus.

THE ANNUALS.

66

OF THE

men and Bucksellers.

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