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The Normans wished to detain him, repre- queathed to me; I acquired it by force and senting to him that it would not be well for at the cost of blood. I leave it in the hands them to be left without a chief. Robert of God-only wishing that my son William, replied that he would not leave thein without who has been submissive to me in all things, a lord, and offered them his little son as his may obtain it, if he please God and prosper." successor. The Normans dià as the Duke William Rufus did not wait for the death of proposed, because (says the chronicler,) they his father, but started for England, to endea. found it convenient; they swore fealty to the vour to get himself named king. At sunrise, child, and placed their hands in his. But on Sep. 10, King William was awakened by several chiefs, and especially the relations of the sound of bells, and asked what it meant. the former dukes, protested against this elec- He was told that they were ringing for the tion, saying that an illegitimate was not morning service at the church of St. Mary. worthy to command the sons of the Danes. He lifted up his hands, saying, “ I commend The friends of William made war upon them, myself to my lady, Mary, the holy mother of and conquered them, with the assistance of God,” and almost instantly expired. Mark the King of France.
the revolting sequel, in accordance with times William, as he advanced in age, grew in when might triumphed over right. The at
favour with his partisans; and some inte- tendants who had passed the night with the i resting traits of his youth are recorded. The king, seeing that he was dead, hastily mount
day when he for the first time put on armour, ed their horses, and rode off to take care of be and mounted a war-horse, was an occasion of their property. The serving men and vassals
rejoicing in Normandy. He occupied himself of inferior rank, when their superiors had fled, with military concerns from his boyhood, and carried off the arms, vessels, clothes, linen, in his youth made war upon Brittany and and other movables, and fed likewise, leaving Anjou. What a presage was this of his the corpse naked on the floor. Alas! then
future life of tyrannical cruelty; though it indeed was “the desolater desolate." Lid may be said that the soldier boy was flattered The incidents of the funeral of the Con
by the indiscreet applause of a feudal age. queror having been already quoted in our William was passionately fond of fine horses, Miscellany,* need not be repeated here. The especially those which bore proper names to royal corpse, as the reader may recollect, was distinguish their genealogy; and had them conveyed to the church of St. Stephen's, at brought (say his contemporaries,)
from Gas. Caen, and placed in a sarcophagus tomb. cony, Auvergne, and Spain. The young Rufus likewise raised a superb monument to son of Robert and Arlette was ambitious and his father's memory. But the tomb was twice vindictive to excess. He impoverished his violated, and the son’s tribute despoiled, and father's family to enrich his relatives by his razed to the ground; the coffin was dug up, mother's side. He often punished, in a san- and the bones of the Conqueror were, for a guinary manner, the railleries which the dis- time, kept in the Abbey of St. Stephen, but honour of his birth drew upon him. One eventually lost, save a thigh-bone, over which day when he was attacking the town of the monument represented in the subjoined Alençon, the besieged were imprudent enough Cut, was erected in the choir of the church of to shout to him from the walls, “ La peau! St. Stephen, in the year 1642. It was, how. la peau! à la peau!” at the same time ever, considered an incumbrance, and rebeating some hides, in allusion to the trade moved in 1742, when a flat stone was placed of the citizen of Falaise who was William's in front of the high altar, with a Latin in, grandfather. William immediately had the scription of two-and-twenty lines: part of feet and hands of all the prisoners he had which was composed by Thomas, Archbishop taken cut off and thrown by his slingers into of York, and was engraved upon the original the town.
monument, as well as upon a plate of giltThe life of William, to the battle of Hast- copper, which was found within the sepulchre ings, Sep. 28, 1066, presents too many inte, when it was first opened: the latter part of resting incidents to be crowded into our the inscription describes the removal of the columns; as do the next twenty-one years, to tomb in 1642, which led to the present stone his death, at Rouen, Sep. 10, 1083. This being laid. William had been a liberal beneevent was hastened by circumstances which factor to the foundation of St. Stephen's; but happily have few parallels in history; but the occurrence of the word “clementissimi," remorse overtook " the Conqueror” in his in the first line of the inscription on the last moments.
He sent money to the con. monument of 1642, is a specimen of servility vents and the poor of England, to purchase to kingcraft
, which has scarcely been exceeded remission (says an old poet,) for all the rob
# See Mirror, vol. xx. p. 13. By the way, it is beries he had committed ; and, on his death- but late justice to mention that the article to which bed, when disposing of the ill-gotten spoils we refer
, entitled Funeral of William the Conqueror, of his cruel career, he is reported to have copied verbatim from Mr. Dawson's Letters from
received from our Correspondent I. S. R. has been said: “ As for the kingdom of England, I Normandy, and that without a line of acknowbequeath it to no one; for it was not be- ledyment.
by any monumental Aattery within recol. mother by his attentions to the daughter, lection.*
who was a pretty, lively lass, the old lady
raised an accusation against the French of MADAGASCAR.
having violated the sanctity of her husband's (Concluded from page 167.)
tomb for the sake of the treasure it contained. NOTHING particular transpired on the island True or, false, this charge so incensed the until about the beginning of the eighteenth natives, that they doomed them to destruccentury, when the pirates who had long in- tion; and so secret and certain was their fested the seas, formed an establishment at revenge, that on Christmas eve, 1754, when the isle of St. Mary, on the north-east coast of the French were unsuspectingly at their Madagascar. Here they rendered themselves devotions, the islanders rose in a body and so formidable to the India trade by their massacred every man. daring attacks and the valuable prizes which When this event became known at the they took, that the merchants determined to Isle of France, the governor sent a force to put a stop to their depredations and a combi- lay waste the Isle St. Mary with fire and nation was entered into in Europe to scour sword, which was executed to the letter. The the seas of those depredators. The enter- old queen was killed, and Betie taken priprise was successful—and, being pursued to soner—but she fully exculpated herself from their haunts by a large armament, the pirates all share in the massacre.
The French had set fire to their ships and fled to the main now wreaked their vengeance, but the conseland. Here they were protected by the quences were nearly as disastrous to them. natives, with whom they had ingratiated selves as to the natives. All the supplies at themselves by the trade they carried on with the isle of France, as well as those required their prize goods—avoiding at the same time by the East India'ships, were derived from all interference with political affairs. Being Madagascar; and such was the terror inspired thus driven upon their resources, they intro in the inhabitants that they fled to the inteduced a system which has entailed upon rior, and trade was completely at a stand. Madagascar evils of the most frightful nature. They, therefore, employed Betie and one This was the slave trade. Many previous Bigorne, a soldier in the Company's service, attemp!s had been made by the colonists to and who possessed considerable influence induce the natives to sell the prisoners taken with the natives, to bring about a reconin war, but without effect. But in a war ciliation, which, after many delays, was between two of the provinces, instigated by effected. A cabar, or conference, was held, the pirates, one of the contending parties the usual ceremonies gone through, and having expended their ammunition, they were trade once more resumed its accustomed prevailed on to exchange their prisoners for a channel. fresh supply. This principle, once adopted, In 1767, another attempt was made by led to retaliation, and thus that dreadful M. Maudave to establish a colony upon difféscourge became the constant practice in rent principles, namely those of conciliation Madagascar, and fresh wars were continually and mutual advantage; but these did not engaged in for the express purpose of obtain- suit the spirit of the French government; ing slaves. The pirates themselves felt the they denounced them as “ false principles immediate effects of it. They who a few which they could neither support nor sanction," months before were the curse of the mer. and M. Maudave, relinquished the underchants were now courted by Europeans of all taking and returned to Europe. A proponations; being employed as agents in this sition was soon after made to the celebrated infernal traffic, which has nearly ever since Count Benyowsky to make another attempt. desolated that beautiful country and deluged Bold and speculative, Benyowsky possessed it with the blood of its infatuated inhabitants. much of that talent which was calculated to
The next attempt of the French to colonize inspire awe and command respect amongst Madagascar was in 1745, when the East the uncivilized natives; and had he been India Company sent M. Gosse to take pos- supported by the French government in a session of Isle St. Mary, in their name. John suitable manner, it is probable that during Harre was the chief of that place, and of his life, at least, the enterprise would have Foule Point, on the opposite coast. The been very advantageous to France. But that former he had left to the care of his mother narrow and jealous policy upon which the and sister Betie. Gosse having offended the governinent invariably acted towards its colo
*This inscription is given at length in the second nies, together with the positive hostility of volume of Mr. Dawson Turner's Letters from Nor- the authorities at the Isle of France, renmandy, to wlich valuable work we are indebted for the original of the annexed view of the Castle of
dered the undertaking abortive as far as Falaise, and part of the description. In our brief France was concerned. Benyowsky, finding notices of the Conqueror's early life and death we he could neither obtain the needful supplies, have also been assisted by Mr. Turner's valuable work, and by the History of the Conquest of Eng
nor satisfy the French court, and that the land by the Normans, from the French of A. Thierry, jealousy of the merchants at the Isle of France a work of unwearied research.
induced them to thwart him in all his plans,
threw off his allegiance to France and de. Mauritius; the principal object of which was clared himself Souzeraine of Madagascar, to extend to that island the abolition of the having, as he pretended, discovered that he slave trade, which had taken place, wherever was descended from the wife of one of their British influence extended. The following kings, who had been carried to the Isle of year, an unfortunate accident took place France. The chiefs of the country appear to which occasioned the massacre of a party of have acquiesced in this arrangement, and had British who had_fixed an establishment at he remained on the island, it is probable he Pont Louquez. But the chiefs were so far would have succeeded to his wishes. But from being accessory to this massacre, that he sailed to Europe, and the charm that snp- they soon after apprehended the one conported his pretensions was thus dissolved ; and cerned in it; and having put him on his upon his return, in 1786, a vessel was sent trial, he was convicted and executed. out from the Isle of France with troops and It may be supposed that the intercourse orders to take him dead or alive. They soon which had for so long a series of years existlanded, and before he could get the natives end between these islanders and Europeans, to rally round him, in the first skirmish he had gradually produced an effect upon the was shot through the heart. With this manners of the former. In those parts immeevent ended the last attempt of the French to diately in the neighbourhood of the trading colonize Madagascar.
establishments, civilization was beginning to After Benyowsky's death, the intercourse extend itself, as far as the arts and convewith the island was confined to commercial niences of life were concerned ; and a channel transactions, chiefly the slave trade, which was thus prepared for the more important continued to be carried on to a large extent, alterations resulting from British influence. by the French and other nations. France, A large proportion of the island was, in fact, however, had not lost sight of this valuable under the dominion of Radama, whom we island, for the possession of which, as a de- have mentioned in a former part of this sketch. pendency, she was still ambitious. In 1792, This chief, or king, was a man of extraordinary the National Assembly sent M. Lescallier to as- strength of mind and perseverance. About certain whether it was possible to re-establish 80 years of age, he was cheerful, intelligent, their influence and authority. He found the and active. Determined to effect the civilichiefs friendly, and appeared to think that a zation of Madagascar, he seized every opporcolony on liberal principles would succeed. tunity afforded by his connexion with the The events in Europe, however, occupied the British; and perceiving that the slave trade attention and resources of France, to the presented insuperable difficulties, he prevailed exclusion of so distant an object at that period. on his people to yield to the wishes of the But in the short peace of 1801, Bory de St. British government expressed by their agent Vincent was sent by Buonaparte on a similar Mr. Hastie, and agree to abolish the trade errand, Napoleon being desirous of supplying for ever, on condition that ten Madagassee the loss occasioned by the emancipation of youths should be educated in England, and St. Domingo from the French yoke. In his that artisans, mechanics, and missionaries, memoir, Bory de St. Vincent expatiates were sent from thence to Madagascar to largely on the superiority of Madagascar over instruct the natives in the civil arts of life, to St. Domingo, and on the uselessness of re- teach them Christianity, and to introduce a taining Bourbon and Mauritius without it; general system of education. All these obhe also talks as coolly of distributing the jects were happily accomplished about the lands of this independent island among those year 1821, and civilization is now rapidly Americans who had lost their property by the spreading throughout the island. The mise revolution and were dependent on the French sionaries, who have been sent out by the government for support, as if Madagascar London Missionary Society, have succeeded was in their possession. A better fate, how- in gaining the respect and confidence of the ever, began to dawn upon that island. The people. Schools have been established, and war in Europe again broke out, and the notwithstanding the death of Radama, sub British succeeding, in 1810, in taking pos- sequent political changes are multiplying session of the isles of France and Bourbon, in every quarter of the island. At this time, which gave them a direct influence at Ma- thousands of natives, young and old, are dagascar, detachments were sent to take under instruction, and 'native teachers are possession of the trading posts previously continually sent into fresh districts, so that occupied there by the French. The English the beneficial effects of education will in a had long been in favour with the natives, few years he felt throughout the whole island. and on this occasion they were received with These changes will be hailed with pleasure great satisfaction by the chiefs. At the by every philanthropist, while the political peace of 1814, a proclamation was issued by economist will see a sure foundation laid for Governor Farquhar, taking possession of the future operations of commerce, on an Madagascar in the name of his Britannic island rich in the extreme in almost every Majesty, as one of the dependencies of the commodity common to both hemispheres.
fectly at ease, for he would apologize for him in a way that would avert auy unpleasant
result. Accordingly, when the name of the The following curious anecdote is told, in delinquent was called, John Clerk rose and the Negaristun,* of a famous lawyer of Bag
coolly addressed the assembled tribunal: dad, called Abu Joseph: it marks several friend has so far forgotten himself as to treat
“ I am very sorry, my lords, that my young peculiarities in the Mohammedan law, and displays some casuistical ingenuity in adapt- your honourable bench with disrespect; he ing them to the views of his clients. The ascribe his unintentional insult to his igno
is extremely penitent, and you will kindly Caliph, Haroun Al Raschid, had taken a
You must see at once that it did fancy for a female slave belonging to his brother Ibrahim ; he offered to purchase her, originate in that. He said he was surprised but Ibrahim, though willing to please his he had not been
very ignorant of what takes
at the decision of your lordships! Now, if sovereign, had sworn that he would neither sell nor give her away. As all parties wished place in this court every day-had he known to remove this difficulty, Abu Joseph was
you but half so long as I have done, he would consulted, who advised İbrahim to give his
not be surprised at anything you did.” brother one-half of the slave, and to sell him
Lord Chief Justice Holt, when a young the other. Happy to be relieved from this embarrassment, the Caliph ordered 30,000
man was very dissipated, and belonged to a dinars for the moiety of the slave, which club of wild fellows, most of whom took an Ibrahim, as a mark of his acknowledgment,
infamous course of life. When his lordship presented to the lawyer. But a second diffi: convicted of a highway robbery, whom the
was engaged at the Old Bailey, a man was culty now arose. The Moslem law prohibits judge reinembered to have been one of his all commerce between a man and the wife or concubine of his brother, till she has been thinking the prisoner did not know him,
old companions. Moved by curiosity, Holt, re-married and divorced by a third person. asked what had become of his old associates? Abu Joseph advised the Caliph to marry her The culprit, making a low bow, and fetching to one of his slaves, who, for a sum of inoney, would be easily induced to repudiate her on
a deep sigh, replied, " Ah, my lord, they are the spot. The ceremony was performed; but
all hanged but your lordship and I!” the slave, falling in love with his handsome spouse, could not be persuaded to consent of England, observes Baker, in his Chronicle,
Sir Thomas More being Lord Chancellor to a separation. Here was a strange and unexpected dilemma; for, despotic as the of the King's Bench, he would always,
at the same time that his father was a judge Caliph was, he durst not compel him. But his going to Westminster, go first to the Abu Joseph soon discovered an expedient: he desired the Caliph to make a present to King's Bench, and ask his father's blessing the lady of her new husband, which virtually
before he went to sit in Chancery.-W.G.C. dissolved the marriage; as no woman, by the Mohammedan law, can be the wife of her
The Naturalist. own slave. Overjoyed that the gordian kuot was thus so ingeniously unloosed, the Caliph
HABITS OF THE JACK DAW, gave him 10,000 dinars; and the fair slave,
By Charles Waterton, Esq. receiving a considerable present from her This lively bird is the constant friend and royal lover, presented him with 10,000 more; companion of the rook, in our part of York; so that Abu Joseph, in a few hours, found shire, for nine months out of twelve; and, I his fees amount to 50,000 dinars, or nearly think, there is no doubt but that it would re25,0001.
main with the rook for the other three if it only had that particular kind of convenience
for incubation which its nature, for reasons WHEN Mr. John Clerk (afterwards Lord totally unknown to us, seems to require. Eldin) was at the bar, he was remarked for Though the jackdaw makes use of the the sang froid with which he treated the same kind of materials for building as those judges. On one occasion, a junior counsel, which are found in the nest of the rook ; on hearing their lordships give judgment though it is, to all appearance, quite as hardy against his client, exclaimed that he was a bird ; and though it passes the night, exsurprised at such a decision.” This was posed to the chilling cold and rains of winconstrued into a contempt of court, and he ter, on the leafless branches of the lofty elm; was ordered to attend at the bar next morning. till, when the period for incubation arrives, it Fearful of the consequences, he consulted his bids farewell to those exposed heights where friend John Clerk, who told him to be per- the rook remains to hatch its young, and be. * Or Gallery of Pictures, consisting of historical
takes itself to the shelter which is afforded anecdotes in prose and verse,
in the holes of steeples, towers, and trees.
Perhaps there is no instance in the annals of The shrill and quickly repeated notes of ornithology which tells of the jackdaw ever the jackdaw, especially during incubation, building its nest in the open air. Wishing are far from being unpleasant to the ear to try whether these two congeners could not which is accustomed to rural sounds; but be induced to continue the year throughout very few people have an opportunity of paying in that bond of society which, I had observed, attention to them, as this bird is by no means was only broken during incubation, I made a general favourite with man. It is coma commodious cavity in an aged elm, just at monly accused of sucking eggs : but eggs the place where it had lost a mighty limb, form no part of its diet, otherwise it would be some forty years ago, in a tremendous gale a bad neighbour here; and ringdoves, houseof wind which laid prostrate some of the doves, wagtails, fowls, and ducks would wish finest trees in this part of Yorkshire. At the it far away. It is vastly fond of peas and approach of breeding-time, a pair of jack- cherries. When these are done, the jackdaw daws took possession of it, and reared their repairs to the pastures, where it devours an young in shelter; while the rooks performed incredible number of insects. a similar duty on the top of the same tree, After the young have left the nest, they exposed to all the rigours an English join the rooks, and roost with them in the spring. This success induced me to appro- surrounding woods till near the autumnal priate other conveniences for the incubation equinox; when both rooks and jackdaws of the jackdaw : and I have now the satis- regularly retire at nightfall to the eastward of faction to see an uninterrupted fellowship this place, in iinmense flocks, and return to exist, the year throughout, between the jack. the westward every morning for the ensuing daw and the rook.
Those who are of opinion that birds are The jackdaw lays from four to six eggs, gifted with a certain portion of reasoning, varying very much in colour, and often in superior to that which is usually denominated size and shape. When protected, it will instinct, will have cause for reflection, should build its nest in holes not above six feet they ever examine the materials of a jack- from the ground, where people are passing daw's nest, or pay any attention to the mode and repassing every hour of the day. If you by which the bird tries to introduce those take away the eggs, and substitute those of materials into the hole. The jackdaw inva- magpies, the bird will hatch them, and rear riably carries into it a certain quantity of the young ones with great care and affection, sticks, fully as thick as those which are made The plumage of the jackdaw is black, with use of by the rook. Now, it always occurs to shining silvery gray behind the head, changing us that the rook conveys sticks up to the when exposed to the different rays of light, branches of a tree in order to make a kind of A jackdaw once appeared here with a reframe which may support the inner parts of markable portion of white in one of the the nest. But why should the jackdaw de- wings; it tarried with us for two years, and posit a large heap of strong sticks in the then disappeared for ever. Probably the sinhole which is already calculated to support gularity of its wing had attracted the fatal every kind of material proper for a nest ? notice of some experienced gunner, in its Then, again : how the act itself of introducing peregrinations beyond this vale of safety. those apparently useless sticks causes us to The jackdaw, like the rook, collects insects suspend our judgment, before we finally con- in its mouth, to feed its young; and this clude that the bird is endowed with any sort gives it the appearance of a pouch under the of reasoning superior to what is commonly de- lower mandible. nominated the instinct of brutes! You may I know not how far naturalists will agree see the jackdaw trying, for a quarter of an with me in the speculation that these birds hour, to get a stick into the hole; while every remain in pairs the year throughout. When attempt will be futile, because, the bird hav- November's winds have stripped the sycaing laid hold of it by the middle, it is neces- more of its every leaf, I see the daws sitting sarily thrown at right angles with the body; in pairs, side by side, upon the naked branches. and the daw cannot possibly perceive that They seem fond of preening each other's the stick onght to be nearly parallel with its heads; and, as they mostly leave the trees in body, before it can be conveyed into the hole. pairs, and in pairs return, I am led to conFatigued at length with repeated efforts, and jecture that their union is not dissolved at completely foiled in its numberless attempts the period when the young no longer need to introduce the stick, it lets it fall to the parental aid. ground; and immediately goes in quest of He who is fond of rural scenes, and lover another, probably to experience another dis- to rove appointment on its return. When time and “ On a mountain's lonely van, chance have enabled it to place a quantity of Beyond the noise of busy man, sticks at the bottom of the hole, it then goes
Painting fair the form of things,
While the yellow linnet sings, to seek for materials of a more pliant and a Or the tuneful nightingale softer nature
Charms the forest with her tale,