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means of defence. We shall now proceed From a careful consideration of these with a short outline of their history.
opinions, and the history of these islanders, The source, or origin, from whence the we feel inclined to think that the real aboriaborigines sprang, is involved in much ob- gines are those of an olive complexion, and scurity, and has occupied the attention of also the Zafe Ibrahim; the former, who con. many learned men. Some have supposed stitute the bulk of the population, being that they are descended from the Jews after descended from the family of Ham, and the their dispersion ; others, from those Israelites latter descended collaterally from Abraham ; who were left in Egypt after the departure of and that both these having arrived on the that people with Moses. Others carry their island about the same time, kept themselves origin further back, and maintain them to be separate, and so constitute different tribes. the descendants of Ham, or some of the Two circumstances concur to give them a Patriarchs immediately after the time of very remote antiquity: one is that, notwithNoah. Many circumstances tend to strengthen standing the numerous herds of cattle they the latter opinion. Their mode of life and possess, they have never used them for the system of religion are more analogous to purpose of bearing burthens: the other is those of the patriarchal ages than of the that the aborigines had no idea whatever of Jews. Like the former, every man is a priest carriages on wheels. Now, both these are in his own house; there being neither tem- modes of lessening the labours of husbandry ples nor stated periods of worship; and all so obvious and direct, that had they at any their religious rites and numerous sacrifices period of their history been acquainted with being purely spontaneous, and like their them, they could not have forgotten them, pastoral mode of life, partaking of the sim- and would not have discontinued them. And, plicity of patriarchal times. Flacourt, who had they descended from the Jews subsequent had an opportunity of judging of their customs to the captivity in Egypt, their ancestors and manners before these were in any degree must have been acquainted with them, and altered by an intercourse with Europeans, consequently would have availed themselves makes the following remarks: “ These people of them. having had no communication or commerce After the discovery of Madagascar by the with the inhabitants of the main land of Portuguese, they, as well as other Europeans, Ethiopia, on account of their
ignorance of continued to touch at the island for supplies. navigation, have not been affected by the In 1540, an attempt was made by the former changes of laws and customs that have been to establish a colony in the province of Anossi. introduced there from time to time; but have They continued but a short time, for the adhered to those which were in use in the natives became jealous of their settlement, country from whence they originally came, and massacred every one of them. Soon and which they brought with them when after, the Dutch made a similar attempt at they first landed in Madagascar. Those the Bay of Antougil, but they too were driven whom I consider to be the aborigines are the out in a very short time. The next attempt Zafe Ibrahim, or descendants of Abraham, was made by the French, in 1642, when Carwho inhabit the island of St. Mary, and the dinal Richelieu granted a patent to Captain adjacent lands ; inasmuch as, retaining the Rivault, giving him an exclusive right to usage of circumcision, they have no other send ships and forces, to establish a colony, rites in common with the Mahometans, and plantation, and commerce, at Madagascar. are so far from acknowledging Mahomet and Other merchants having joined him, the first his Caliphs, that they look upon them as no East India Company was established. Pronis better than Caffres and lawless men, with and Fouquenburg were appointed governors, whom they will neither eat, associate, nor con
and sent with twelve men to await the arrival tract any alliance. They keep the Sabbath of further reinforcements. They landed at on Saturday and not on Friday like the Moors, St. Lucia, where they found 18 Frenchmen, and they have no names amongst them similar part of the crew of a vessel that had been to those of that people : which makes me wrecked. In April following, 70 more joined think that their ancestors arrived in the isle them, who arrived very opportunely to prevent about the time of the first transmigration of an attempt planned by the natives to cut off the the Jews, or that they are descended from the colony. They now endeavoured to maintain more ancient families of the Ishmaelites, or terms with the islanders by presents to the from those who might have remained in chiefs, but their suspicions were excited, and Egypt after the departure of the children of the settlers found it impossible to keep them Israel
. They have retained the names of permanently in good humour. Every opporMoses, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, and Noah. Of tunity of annoying the invaders was eagerly the rest, some may have come from the coast embraced : six of them were destroyed in of Ethiopia ; but the whites called Zafe crossing a river ; seven more in collecting Ramini, arrived about 500 years since, and ebony; and, to complete their discomfiture, å their learned men came there only about 150 fever broke out, which in one month destroyyears since.” (A. D. 1500.)
ed a third of the garrison, and drove the re
mainder to the peninsula of Tholangare, saw with mean jealousy the estimation in about ten leagues from St. Lucia. Here, which he was held by the natives, induced they built a fort
, called Fort Dauphin. It him to quit the fort in disgust, and he soon stood in a healthy situation, 150 feet above after married Dian Nong, the daughter of the level of the sea, and commanded a fine Dian Rossitate, chief of the province of roadstead; and this spot formed the chief set- Amboule, who, approving of the match and tlement of the French in their various attempts being old, in a little time ceded to La Case to colonize Madagascar.
the whole of the district. His valour and Fouquenberg soon after returned to France, good conduct obtained for him the name of leaving Pronis governor;
a weak-minded Dian Pouss, after that of one of their most man, who neither won the good will of the celebrated chiefs. The withdrawal of La natives, nor maintained his authority over Case from Fort Dauphin was the signal for his own troops. The latter rebelled and laid revolt on the part of the chiefs, who entered him in irons. He remained a prisoner six into a combination to starve the garrison by months, when he was released by the arrival cutting off their supplies. The effects were of a French ship. His first act was to sell soon felt, and they were reduced to the last to the governor of the Isle of France, a great extremity of distress, when a French ship number of the natives in the service of the fortunately arrived and relieved them. As colony, amongst whom were sixteen women soon as the real state of the case was made of the Lehavohitz race, esteemed sacred in known to the captain, he remonstrated with Madagascar. This act rendered the French Chamargou on the folly of being at variance so unpopular, that the East India Company with La Case, and threatened, if an amicable found it necessary to supersede Pronis, and arrangement was not immediately made, he Flacourt was appointed to succeed him. He should feel it his duty to represent the affair arrived at Fort Dauphin in 1648, and was to Marshal Meilleraye, who at that period well received by the chiefs; but by aiming possessed great influence in France. This at the subjugation of the whole island he menace had the desired effect, and a reconci. soon lost their affection and confidence. He liation took place between La Case and Chadispatched eighty Frenchmen and a large margou, which was followed by a peace with number of armed natives to lay waste the the chiefs; and the usual supplies were obmost beautiful districts in the neighbourhood tained for the garrison. This peace, however, of Fort Dauphin. He also sent detachments lasted little longer than the stay of La Case to explore the interior of the island, and at the fort. On his return to Amboule, Chaobtain a knowledge of the customs and margou began to levy contributions in the manners of the inhabitants. His narrative province of Anossi, while the priests attached was published on his return to France, in to the colony made an attempt to convert 1655, and is full of valuable and interesting some of the chiefs to the Catholic faith. details. He was recalled to give an account They began by commanding them to repuof his conduct, and having satisfied the diate all their wives, but one, although the cusCompany he set sail again in 1658; but in tom of polygamy was general throughout the doubling the Cape, a storın arose, which island. Dian Manaugue, a powerful chief, wrecked the vessel, and Flacourt, and all on who was attached to the French, having board, perished. His fate would not have relused to accede to this arrangement, Father been much preferable had he reached Mada- Stephen, the superior of the mission, threatgascar, for it appears that after he left the ened him with the old Popish doctrines of island the natives formed a plan for delivering fire and sword, and actually assaulted the of themselves from their troublesome guests; fending chief and pronounced the sentence of and, so effectually did they succeed, that they excommunication upon him. This conduct destroyed every Frenchman and burnt Fort so incensed him that he instantly ordered Dauphin to the ground.
the whole party, consisting of seven priests The news of Flacourt's misfortune reached and a few attendants, to be massacred: he France, and the Company, being unconscious then declared interminable war against the of the greater disaster at Madagascar, ap- French. Forty of these, being ignorant of pointed Chamargou to succeed him. He ar- the transactions with Father Stephen, were rived in 1660, and only then learned the fate of surprised, and only one escaped to the fort the colony. He, however, set about rebuild- to tell the fate of his companions. Upon ing the fort, and, having received considerable this, Chamargou ravaged the whole country, reinforcements, began to explore the country. and spared neither age nor sex, which, in The party sent on this expedition was com. its turn, reflected upon the garrison — for manded by Le Vacher, who went by the a famine succeeded, and they were again name of La Case. He was a man of great driven to the last extremity, when La Case courage and prudence, and by his address came to their relief; and having overcome the obtained for the French a degree of reputa- hostile chiefs, supplied the French with protion they never before enjoyed. But the ill visions. Such was the valuable nature of treatment he received from Chamargou, who his services on this and other occasions, that the East India Company saw the policy of adding to the elderberry juice a small portion keeping terins with him; they sent him a of super-tartrate of potash. Dr. Macculloch lieutenant's commission, he continued to observes, “ that the proportion of this salt serve the colony during his life, and was their may vary from one to four, and even six per principal safeguard against the hostile chiefs. cent.” The cause of this admissible laxity
Chamargou was, in 1667, removed from the will appear, when it is considered that the governorship by the Marquess of Monde- greater part of the super-tartrate of potash is vergue, who arrived at Fort Dauphin with a again deposited in the lees. I may also convoy of ten vessels, having on board two remark, that from two to four per cent will directors, an attorney-general, four companies be found a sufficient dose, in proportion to of infantry, ten chiefs of colonies, eight mer- the greater or less sweetness of the fruit, the chants, and thirty-two women. The mar. sweetest requiring the largest quantity of this quess, who was appointed governor-general salt, and vice versa. The dose of it ought of all the French settlements south of the also to vary in proportion to the added sugar, line, appears to have acted with great mode- increasing as it increases. ration; and, during his stay, peace was main- To every two quarts of bruised berries, put tained with but little interruption. In 1670, one quart of water; strain the juice through the French government assumed the sove- a hair sieve, and add to every quart of the reignty of the island, and a fleet of ten more diluted juice one pound of lump sugar. Boil ships arrived, under the command of M. de the mixture for about one quarter of an hour, la Huye, who was appointed viceroy. On and suffer it to ferment. his arrival, Mondevergue chose the alternative Or, bruise a bushel of picked elder-berries; offered to him, of returning to France, where dilute the mass with ten gallons of water, he fell a sacrifice to his enemies, La Huye and having boiled it for a few minutes, strain having secretly impeached him to the court : off the juice, and squeeze out the husks. he was never brought to trial, but died a Measure the whole quantity of the juice, and prisoner in the Castle of Saumur.
to every quart put three-quarters of a pound La Huye seems fully to have adopted the of lump sugar; and, whilst still warm, add spirit which prevailed amongst the colonists to it half a pint of yeast, and fill up the cask of former ages, when it was
thought impos- with some of the reserved liquor. sible to do good by conciliation, and that an When the wine is clear, it may be drawn enemy could only be trusted when dead. off from the lees, (which will be in about Having now nearly a thousand troops on the three months,) and bottled for use. island, he determined to get rid of those For flavouring the wine, ginger, allspice, or chiefs who were hostile, comprising a large any other aromatic substance, may be used; majority of them; but treachery on the part the flavouring materials may be inclosed in a of Chamargou, who commanded a body of bag, and suspended in the cask, and removed troops, and who envied La Huye his power, when the desired flavour is produced.occasioned a defeat. Upon this, La Huye Accun, on Wine Making. left the island in disgust, and taking a large [We do not quote this as the most econopart of the forces, retired to Surat. La Case mical receipt for making elder wine, since died shortly after, which completed the mis- unrefined sugar is generally used, which fortunes of the French. Their yoke had long reduces the cost. But, it is reasonable to been insupportably heavy to the natives, and conclude that, by Mr. Accum's mode, may be fresh combinations were formed against produced a more perfect wine than by the them, which, about the year 1675 came to a common method. At all risks, the hint is head; when a general massacre of the French in season. took place, with the exception of a few who escaped to a ship lying in the harbour. Thus
The Naturalist. was Madagascar once more free from a foreign yoke.
In " the Palace Garden," Enfield.
In some account of the manor-house of
Mirror, vol. xiv., we incidentally noticed this This fruit is excellently calculated for the stupendous cedar. The mansion was one of production of wine. Its juice contains a the palaces of Queen Elizabeth, and this considerable portion of the fermentative mat- record is upon more substantial authority ter which is so essential for the production than that upon which many other mansions of a vigorous fermentation, and its beautiful near London are stated to have been occupied colour communicates to the wine a rich tint; by her Majesty. but, as the fruit is deficient in saccharine This cedar was planted by Dr. Uvedale; matter, this substance must be liberally sup- who, about the year 1670, took the palace plied. This wine is much ameliorated by premises for a school. The Doctor was much
(Large Cedar-Tree, in the Palace Garden, Enfield.) attached to the study of botany, and had a specimen at Enfield is far from the largest very curious garden here. In an account of in this country. A cedar at Hendon Place, the most remarkable gardens near London which was destroyed by a hurricane in 1729, in 1691, written by J. Gibson, and printed was 70 feet high, and the greatest circumin the twelfth volume of the Archeologia, ference of the trunk was 20 feet. The garDr. Uvedale is said to have had “ the greatest dener is stated to have cleared from 151. to and choicest collection of exotics that was 501. a-year by sale of the cones. The pair of perhaps any where in this land.”
cedars in Chelsea Gardens must be known to The dimensions of this tree were given thus most Londoners. The cedars at Whitton in a letter from Sir John Cullum to the Gen. Place, planted in 1724, hy Archibald, third tleman's Magazine, in 1779: height, 45 ft. duke of Argyle, have flourished exceedingly; 9 in., eight feet having been broken off by a so that rooms have been wainscotted with high wind; girth at the top, 3 ft. 7 in.; their timber. second girth, 7 ft. 9 in.; third girth, 10 feet; In the park of Juniper Hall, in the valley fourth girth, (supposed near the ground,) between the village of Mickleham and Box 14 ft. 6 in. These dimensions were taken Hill, Surrey, are several fine cedars, whose by Mr. Lilley, a schoolmaster at Enfield, at sombre, spreading branches have been one of the desire of Mr. Gough. An account of this the delights of many a morning and eventide cedar was also printed in 1788, in four pages walk in the halcyon days of our boyhood; folio. The loss of the leading branch is and these trees form, we believe, one of the attributed to the memorable high wind in finest groups of cedars in England. 1703. In 1809, the girth at 3 ft. 10 in. from the ground, (it could not be taken at three
fine arts. feet, in consequence of a seat having been fixed round it,) was 13 ft. 1 in. The northern branch was 49 ft. 10 in. in length; the southern, 44 ft. 9 in. The distance from the Few places in Great Britain are richer in extreme of each branch, 98 ft. 9 in. This architectural antiquities than the city of information was communicated by the Rev. Norwich. Time has not, however, spared H. Porter, rector of Enfield to the Rev. Mr. the curious structure represented in the anLysons, for his Environs of London, 1811. nexed Cut. It was the market-cross, and In 1820, the girth of this fine tree was 16 ft. appears to have been a useful as well as at 1 ft. 6 in. from the ground.
embellished structure. Its form was octan. The cedar at Enfield is the famed Lebanon gular, and within were apartments approspecies, distinguished by its strong, spreading priated to the transaction of public business. branches, from all other trees of the same Its enrichments were not of the most pictugenus. The general character of the shoot, resque character, but, altogether, with the even when the tree is young, is singularly clustered columns of its portico, and the bold and picturesque, and quite peculiar to pinnacles and ornaments of the upper porthe species. This tree is supposed to have tion, it must have been an edifice of no mean been introduced into England in 1683. The pretensions to architectural distinction.
hand, she was not always on her feet. Towards the close of the day, she laid down upon her bed-a
- a wise precaution when a person can no longer stand. The fact was, that my honour. ed mother, although her virtue was unimpeachable, was frequently seduced by liquor ; and, although constant to my father, was debauched and to be found in bed with that insidious assailer of female uprightness—gin. The lighter, which might have been cum. pared to another garden of Eden, of which my mother was the Kve, and my father the Adam to consort with, was entered by this serpent who tempted her; and if she did not eat, she drank, which was even worse. At first, indeed, and I mention it to prove how the enemy always gains admittance under a specious form, she drank it only to keep the cold out of her stomach, which the humid atmosphere from the surrounding water appeared to warrant. My father took his pipe for the same reason; but at the time that I was born, he smoked and she drank, from morning to night, because habit had rendered it almost necessary to their existence. The pipe was always to his lips, the glass incessantly to hers.
I would have defied any cold ever to have penetrated into their sto
machs ;-but I have said enough of my (Norwich Cross.)
mother for the present, I will now pass on to The Public Journals.
My father was a puffy, round-bellied, longarmed, little man, admirably calculated for
his station in, or rather out of, society. He (By the Author of Peter Simple.)
could manage a lighter as well as any body;
but he could do more. He had been brought “ Bound 'prentice to a waterman, I learnt a bit to row;
up to it from his infancy. He went on shore And, bless your heart, I always was so gay." for my mother, and came on board againGentle reader, I was born upon the water, the only remarkable event in his life. His not upon the salt and angry ocean, but upon whole amusement was his pipe; and, as there the fresh, and rapid-flowing river. It was in is a certain indefinable link between smoking a floating sort of box, called a lighter, and and philosophy, my father, by dint of smoking, upon the river Thames, and at low water, had become a perfect philosopher. that I first smelt the mud. This lighter was My father's pipe, literally and metaphormanned (an expression amounting to bullism, ically, was never put out. He had a few if not construed kind-ly) by my father, my apothegms which brought every disaster to a mother, and your humble servant. My father happy conclusion; and as he seldom or ever had the sole charge—he was monarch of the indulged in words, these sayings were deeply deck; my mother of course was queen, and I impressed upon my infant memory. One was, was the heir apparent.
“ It's no use crying; whaťs done can't be Before I say one word about myself, allow helped.” When once these words escaped me dutifully to describe my parents. First, his lips, the subject was never renewed. then, I will portray my queen mother. Report Nothing appeared to move him; the adjusays, that when first she came on board of the rations of those employed in the other lighters, lighter, a lighter figure and a lighter step barges, vessels, and boats of every description, never pressed a plank; but as far as I can who were contending with us for the extra tax my recollection, she was always a fat, foot of water, as we drifted up or down with unwieldy woman. Locomotion was not to the tide, affected him not, further than an her taste-gin was. She seldom quitted the extra column or two of smoke rising from the cabin; never quitted the lighter-a pair of bowl of his pipe. To my mother, he used shoes may have lasted her for five years, for but one expression, “ Take it coolly ;" but it the wear and tear that she took out of them. always had the contrary effect with my moBeing of this domestic habit, as all married ther, as it put her more in a passion. It was women ought to be, she was always to be like pouring oil upon flame; nevertheless, found when wanted; but although always at the advice was good, had it ever been fol