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and the less it is taxed for awhile after Nepean. An observer on the opposite side, eating, or by candle-light, the better.—Curtis. stript, and swam across, and took possession

Cause of Diseases of the Eye.-These of the white or striped pennant. During his affections most commonly arise from derange- absence, another had been equally as busy as ment of the digestive organs, acting on the himself, and had made as free with his shirt

as he had done with that of the man of ganglia and great sympathetic nerve, which has such an extensive influence on the whole Edenglassie. A third happened to have his system. It is from medical men not bearing eyes upon both of the shirt appropriators, and this in mind, that cases often seem incurable, took upon himself to see the trick and counterand are found so troublesome.--Ibid.

trick properly adjusted before the magistrates Omens.-When George III. was crowned, at Penrith.

FERNANDO. a large emerald fell from his crown: America Romish Miracle.—Marco Polo, who trawas lost in this reign.-When Charles X. velled in the East in the thirteenth century, was crowned at Rheims, he accidentally tells us, “ At a convent of monks, in Georgia, dropped his hat: the Duc d'Orleans, now dedicated to St. Lunardo, the following Louis Philippe, picked it up and presented miraculous circumstances are said to take it to him.-On the Saturday preceding the place. In a salt water lake, four days' jourpromulgation of the celebrated ordonnances ney in circuit, upon the border of which the by Charles X.'s ministers, the white flag church is situated, the fish never make their which floated on the column in the Place appearance until the first day of Lent, and Vendome, and which was always hoisted from that time to Easter Eve they are found when the royal family were in Paris, was in vast abundance, but on Easter day they observed to be torn in three places. The are no longer to be seen, nor during the retri-color waved in its stead the following mainder of the year.” week.—The morning of the rejection, by the Kings of Georgia.—“ In Gorzania, I was House of Lords, of the first Reform Bill, I told,” says the Venetian traveller, " that in never shall forget the ominous appearance of ancient times the kings of the country were the heavens; it might be truly said

born with the mark of an eagle on the right “ The dawn was overcast."

shoulder." By this pretended tradition it At the period of Napoleon's dissolution, on may be understood that they were, or affected the 4th of the month in which he expired, to be, thought a branch of the Imperial the island of St. Helena was swept by a family of Constantinople, who bore the tremendous storm, which tore up almost all Roman eagle among their insignia.—INNES. the trees about Longwood by the roots. The A sublime Prayer.-"0! Eternal, have 5th was another day of tempests, and about mercy upon me because I am passing away; six in the evening, Napoleon pronounced 0! Infinite, because I am but a speck;

0 tete d'armee, and expired. INNES.

most Mighty, because I am weak; O! source The Thames blown out.-Among the phe- of Life, because I draw nigh to the grave; nomena of the recent storm of wind, we find 0, omniscient! because I am in darkness ; the following noted in the Morning Herald: 0, all bounteous, because I am poor; 0, all “ The wind, as the sailors say, blew all the sufficient, because I am nothing ?” water out of the Thames, and persons were Flacourt, in his History of the Island of fording the river at Waterloo bridge. The Madagascar, gives the above sublime effutide had not been so low for many years. sion as emanating from the savages of that The shoal just below London bridge was island. Savages, quotha ! INNES. high out of water, and the Margate and

Epigram. Gravesend steam-boats were for a short time hard aground, and unable to get away. The

(From the French.) return of the tide was very remarkable, for,

On a French translation of Horace.

Let us devote this brace of Horaces without any previous indication whatever, (as

To two divinities ; between us, it appeared to be running down with great We'll give the Latin one to Venus, velocity the instant before,) it rose at once, nearly a foot, rolling in like a wave, and in

The other one, her spouse may claim, less than three minutes after, the persons on

For Vulcan like this version's lame.

LUIGI. the shoals took to their boats, the shoals

Epigrams. were under water, and the steam-boats afloat

Jack his own merit sees, this gives him pride and under way.”

That he sees more than all the world beside, Australian Thieves.-A ludicrous theft

Joe hates a hypocrite, this shows upon a thief, followed by an equally ludicrous Self-love is not a fault of Joe's. termination to the legerdemain of two thieves was practised some time back in the neigh- Printed and published by J. LIMBIRD, 143, Strand, ment of the chief-justice at Edenglassie, CHARLES JUGEL, Francfort ; and by all Newsbourhood of Penrith.. A man in the employ- Snear Somerset House, London , sold by G. G. hung out his shirt to air by the banks of the

men and Booksellers,

Since she is mistress of the Graces;

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AMSTERDAM was for nearly two centuries the of the Netherlands, as it formerly did of the
centre of exchange for Europe. Its history republic of the Seven United Provinces.
may be briefly told: it was unknown before “ The city extends in the form of a semi-
the latter end of the thirteenth century; it circle on the southern bank of the Y, which
first acquired a commercial character about is its diameter; on the land side it was sur-
the year 1370; its opulence and splendour rounded by a wall and bastions, with a broad
increased from its capture by the Hollanders, and deep fosse : the wall is dismantled, but
in 1578, until its invasion by the French in the bastions still remain, and are used as
1795; its importance then declined, till the sites for corn-mills. The Amstel, on entering
revolution of 1813, since which period its the city, divides into two branches, from each
commerce has increased very considerably. of which issue numerous canals, forming a
Nevertheless, it is again said to be on the collection of islands, connected with each
decline, owing to the more favourable cir- other by 290 bridges. That part of the river
cumstances of the rival cities Rotterdam, Y which forms the port of Amsterdam is
and Hamburg. No city in Europe, how- guarded by a double row of piles, with open-
ever, possesses so large a portion of dis- ings at intervals for the admission of vessels:
posable capital as Amsterdam, and hence, it these openings are always closed at night.
continues to be a place of the first commer- The deeply laden ships lie outside the piles,
cial consequence.

in a place called the Laag. During the Amsterdam is situate in Lat. 52° 25' N. period of Dutch prosperity, a hundred vessels Lon. 4° 40° E. at the confluence of the rivers have entered the port in one tide, and six or Amstel and Y, or Wye, near the south- seven hundred were to be seen there at anchor western extremity of the Zuyder Zee. It together. On the opposite side of the Y are ranks as the capital of the northern division the locks by which ships enter the great M

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10

VOL. XXII.

It was

con

to remove.

canal, which is carried thence, in a straight synagogues. The old church of St. Nicholas line, northwards to the Texel; thus prevent- has some fine painted windows. The new ing the risk and delay of a voyage through church of St. Catherine's contains a splendid the Zuyder Zee. This canal, which has been monument of white marble, erected to the recently finished, is 120 feet wide at the sur- memory of admiral de Ruyter. The Portuface, and twenty-five deep.

guese synagogue is said to have been built structed at an expense of 1,000,0001. sterling. in imitation of the temple of Solomon. The

“ The canals with which the city is inter- churches of the established religion, which sected, though extremely convenient and is the reformed or Calvinistic, are distin. ornamental, are attended with one very dis- guished by being the only places of worship agreeable consequence: from the stagnation which are allowed the use of bells. Many of the water, and the collection of offal of of these edifices are embellished with paintevery kind discharged into them, they send ings of great value. A recent tourist is inforth effluvia equally offensive and unwhole- clined to class the churches, in point of size some, which all the characteristic cleanliness and height, with the tower and spire of St. of the inhabitants has not been able wholly Martin's in the Fields, and in point of general

Mills have been erected on their appearance in the architecture, to St. Mary's, banks, to promote a circulation of air by ven- or the New Church, in the Strand. tilation; others, called mud-mills, from the “ The management of the penitentiaries purpose to which they are applied, are also is peculiarly worthy of notice. The number used to raise and remove the slime which the of convicts is great, not because crime is more river deposits largely.

common, but because the punishment of “ In consequence of the badness of the death is seldom inflicted ; imprisonment for foundation, the whole city is built on piles various periods, in most cases, supplies its driven endways into the mud; a circumstance place. In this place of confinement, no one which occasioned the witty remark of Erasmus, is suffered to be idle. on visiting it," that he was in a town where “ The workhouse is intended for minor the inhabitants lived, like rooks, on the tops offences; some of which are not recognised of trees.” This circumstance also occasioned by our laws. Husbands may send their the restriction of coaches to men of conse- wives thither on a charge of drunkenness or quence and physicians, who paid a tax for extravagance; and they are themselves liable the privilege of using them; the magistrates to punishment for the same offences. Young conceiving that the rolling of the wheels women, also, even of good families, are someproduced a dangerous concussion of the piles. times sent thither as to a school of rigorous

“ The streets in general are narrow, with reformation. the exception of a few which present a fine “ The charitable institutions are numerous, appearance, and are adorned with spacious and generally well conducted. The hospital mansions. The principal square is the Dam, for lunatics is among the earliest of those in in front of the palace; besides which there which gentler modes of treatment were subare three others, where markets and an annual stituted for severity and strict coercion.” fair are held. The palace, formerly the Stadt- Amsterdam boasts of a fair proportion of house, or town hall

, is considered to be the literary and scientific societies. The prinmost magnificent building in Holland. It cipal of these is the Felix Meritis. It has a forms an oblong square, 282 feet in length, public Botanic Garden, and a Royal Aca235 in breadth, and 116 in height, besides demy of Liberal Arts. It has also “ naval the tower, which is 67 feet high. Within schools, wherein children of common seamen is a spacious hall, 150 feet long, 60 broad, when properly recommended, are educated and 100 high.

gratuitously; as are the sons of officers, on “ The royal museum contains, besides the payment of a small pension. All are other curiosities, a fine collection of paint- treated alike; and almost every officer who ings, chiefly of the Flemish school. It is has elevated the naval character of his counsaid that the emperor Alexander offered the try has received his education here." sum of 30,0001. for one alone.

Amsterdam has an abundance of public “The exchange is a large but plain build- walks; for its canals are bordered by rows of ing, 230 feet in length and 130 in breadth : large trees of oak, elm, and linden, not infeit is capable of containing 4,500 persons ; rior to those of the Boombtjes of Rotterdam. and is divided into thirty-six compartments, Little can be said for the salubrity of these for the transaction of the various kinds of walks, from the consequences already excommercial business carried on there." plained.*

The places of public worship are not of The population of Amsterdam, by the striking architectural elegance. The total latest accounts, amounts to about 235,000 : number of churches is, 10 reformed Dutch, of these about 48,000 are Catholics, 24,000 22 Catholic, one French reformed, one Eng- Jews, and the rest Protestants of various sects.t lish presbyterian, three Lutheran, one Ana

# Cabinet Cyclopædia, vol. vii. baptist, one Walloon, one Greek, and seven

† Ency. Brit. 7th edit. 1832.

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THE EFFECT OF CRITICISM ON annoyed him—and he still meditated revenge, AUTHORS.

for“ vengeance is sweet;" adding to this, some

little provocation which Cibber soon gave, Sır Walter Scott declared (and who could made Pope usher out the fourth book of the suspect the Author of Waverley of telling an Dunciad, in which Cibber is sufficiently floguntruth) that, for the last thirty years, he ged and then rubbed down with gunpowder. never read a review of any of his works, and

The author of The Apology of course renever minded the “ toothy critics by the plies, and Pope's indignation is again aroused.

a jot. Criticism fell off Samuel John, Theobald is immediately taken off his place, son like rain off a duck's wing. The learned poor Colley is mounted on the vacant throne, Bentley felt not the sting of Pope. And and Osborne is made to contend for the prize Burns scarcely knew what criticism was: he

among the booksellers. The " shafts of cared not for it, he “rhymed for fun.”

satire were directed equally in vain against But there is another class of authors on Cibber and Osborne ;) Johnson observes, whom severe criticism has laid very frequently“ being repelled by the impenetrable imprutoo severe a blow: these were writers who dence of one, and deadened by the impassive were over sensitive,-the least thing which dulness of the other.” Pope confessed his would have merely twitched others, entered pain by his anger. into their hearts, the spear pierced “ helmet, This was the last paper war of Alexander man, and shield.”

Pope; who appeared content with the bruises Pope, when young, bore an immense en

he had given, and the pain which these blows mity against the critics; he saw the future had brought. pain he would receive, and soon commenced

The next criticism which occasioned the showing the world that he was never to be reply of a sensitive author was the review of brow-beaten.

Grainger's Tibullus, in the Critical Review, In 1711, was published the Essay on Cris conducted by Smollett: it led to nothing but ticism, in which several almost concealed

a mere paper controversy. allusions were made against John Dennis,

The tender mind of Kirke White felt hurt the celebrated critic of the day. Dennis was by the notice of his poems in the Monthly greatly annoyed, and called Pope affected hypocrite, who had nothing in his Review, for February, 1804. He wrote an

answer couched in pleasant terms to the mouth at the same time but truth, candour, reviewers, who, in their address to corresfriendship, goodnature, humanity, and mag. pondents, declared that they sympathized nanimity.”

The pamphlet, says Johnson, with his expostulations. is such as rage might be expected to dictate.

Keats had a mind in many respects similar Dennis was a cool, lashing critic, who to White's; he soared higher as a poet, but feared neither friend nor foe, and, when pro- in that lofty flight completely lost himself; vocation was given, laid about right and left his verses are unconnected, and almost every at will—with great judgment and knowledge, other ten lines are upon subjects not at all detecting errors, and exhibiting faults in such relating to the story ; in fact he seemed to a manner as must sadly have galled Pope, have no story, but wrote on endeavouring to who for ever after writhed under the lash of invent one, and in doing that was bewildered his enemy. Though, says Johnson, he pro- in his boundless imagery of glory and bliss. fessed to despise him, he discovers, by men

Keats's mind was of the sensitive kind: tioning him very often, that he felt his force the least poignant criticism galled and harassor his venom.

ed him. When his Endymion was published, Pope lifted now his mighty pen and deter- a lashing review made its appearance in the mined to chastise all critics, and all inca- Quarterly, undoubtedly written by a bitter pable of replying, with one severe blow-this critic, William Gifford, a man imbued with was about the year 1728_and not long after plenty of acrimony, and extensive learning, The Dunciad made its appearance. Every to which he added nothing of an original one has read the Dunciad, and so its plan kind, so that his knowledge became commonneed not be again repeated. The subject place without any of those redeeming points itself had nothing interesting: the poor which Warburton had to a high degree. This authors who were so bitterly lashed could not review, in many parts true and clever, was conceal their pain, but printed epigrams and nevertheless uncalled for, and moreover un. invectives in every newspaper, till the public civil. Keats felt it bitterly, and this anguish began to take a warm interest in the debate. brought on a disease which ended soon after Dennis printed a pamphlet, entitled Remarks with his life; the greatest injury criticism on the Rape of the Lock, written a long ever did to literature. On hearing of Keats's while before, intending it to come out when death, Shelley wrote the following: it should be required; the time was now, so it was immediately published.

Who killed Johnuy Keats,

I said the Quarterly, Pope now crowed aloud and exulted over

So savage and Tartarly his victims ; but the least thing vexed and

'T was one of my feats.

*

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The same whip which scourged Keats Mrs. Piozzi's account of her revenge is inte. served to chastise Hazlitt. But Hazlitt's resting : " I contrived to get myself invited mind was of a more vigorous nature, so that he to meet him at supper at a friend's house, replied, like Cibber of old, by means of a soon after the publication of his poem, sat pamphlet, of which he sold fifteen, (Charles opposite to him, saw that he was perplexed Lamb shrewdly observed), and the Quarterly in the extreme; and, smiling, proposed a sold some fifteen thousand.

glass of wine as a libation to our future good. Ten censure wrong for one who writes amiss. fellowship. Gifford (she adds) was suffiAuthors are partial to their works 'tis true, ciently a man of the world to understand me, But are not Critics to their judgment too. and nothing could be more courteous and We will now see how the critique in the entertaining than he was while we remained Edinburgh Review of the Hours of Idleness together.”** This was exceedingly well man. preyed on the mind of Lord Byron. This aged of Mrs. Piozzi, who was a cleverer and criticism, written by Lord Brougham, was shrewder woman than the world have allowed unjust, and, moreover, too severe on the her to be. writings of any beginner. Moore speaks The late review in the Quarterly of T—'s thus: “ The effect this criticism produced poems was sufficiently annoying to the author upon him can only be conceived by those, —who laid the severe notice to the critic's who, besides having an adequate notion of enmity and jealousy of the publisher !! what most poets would feel under such an (bravo.) attack, can understand all that there was in We shall only now take notice of a mean the temper and dispusition of Lord Byron way critics have of receiving presents, under to make him feel it with tenfold more the promise of giving a favourable notice, acuteness.”

A friend, who found nothing can be meaner than the conduct of him in the first moments of excitement after both parties. When Huggins had finished reading the article, inquired anxiously whe- his translation of Ariosto, he sent a fat buck ther he had just received a challenge? not to Smollett, who at that time conducted the knowing how else to account for the fierce Critical Review; consequently, the work defiance of his looks." Mr. Moore proceeds was highly applauded; but the history of to say,

It would, indeed, be difficult for the venison becoming public, Smollett was sculptor or painter to imagine a subject of much abused, and in a future number of the more fearful beauty than the fine countenance review retracted his applause. of the young poet must have exhibited in the

So critics are mean enough to receive, and collected energy of that crisis. His pride authors apparently, rich enough to give. had been wounded to the quick, and his

L. T. ambition humbled; but this feeling of humi. liation lasted but for a moment. The very

MADAGASCAR. reaction of his spirit against aggression roused him to a full consciousness of his

(Continued from page 71.) own powers; and the pain and the shame of The history of these singular islanders prethe injury were forgotten in the proud cer

sents a remarkable instance of the successful tainty of revenge.” Moore's Life, vol. i. resistance of a barbarous nation to the more p. 206. (Ed. 1832.)

barbarous attempts of civilized foreigners to Wrath was visible on the poet's forehead bring them under their yoke; and, it is, pertill he had relieved his mind in rhyme: haps, the only case, in the history of modern " after the first twenty lines,” he said, " he times, in which such resistance has been felt himself considerably better;" the day he attended with success. In general, the read the criticism he drank three bottles of means employed by the discoverers claret to his own share after dinner.

countries have been so superior in every reThe satire he produced was the English spect to those of the simple tribes, with whom Bards and Scotch Reviewers, which imme- they have had to contend, that the latter have diately silenced all his enemies and made fallen an easy prey to their cruel invaders. many of them his friends, without one tithe Such was the fate of the aborigines of Ameof the talent and venom of Pope. But Poperica, of the eastern nations of Asia, and of had to deal with more troublesome enemies; Southern Africa. But, in Madagascar, every the enraged Dennis was a legion himself attempt of Europeans to subjugate the natives, and the sensitive mind of Pope thought and to colonize their island, has been frustrumpery pamphlets hostile armies. Men trated, and the agents employed either sacri. did not feel the sting of Byron as critics had ficed by the islanders, or obliged to fly for felt that of Pope three quarters of a century their lives. This has been, in part, owing to before. One side surrendered at discretion, the meagre and inadequate means adopted; the other held their fortress, and played their but, chiefly, to the extreme jealousy of the almost silent guns, which did next to nothing. natives of their liberty as a nation, and their

Gifford’s Baviad and Mæviad produced superior intelligence as to the mode and the contrary effect on “Thrales' gay widow.”

* Piozziana, p. 4.

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