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The Naturalist.

wood fires, afterwards to the rays of the sun. When first gathered, they are of a reddish colour, but by drying they assume a deep brown cast. When fresh gathered, cloves will yield, on pressure, a fragrant, thick, and reddish oil; and by distillation, a limpid, essential oil; the latter being that common in the shops of druggists. The use of cloves in domestic economy is too well-known to need description.

The clove pink, gilliflower, or July flower is of the same genus of plants with the spice clove, which it resembles in its pleasant aromatic smell. These flowers were used by our forefathers in the form of syrup, and as a pleasant vehicle for other medicines.

Notes of a Reader.

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THE CLOVE.

EXECUTION OF LORD PERRERS, IN 1760. [In the third volume of the recently published Correspondence of Horace Walpole, we find a long letter occupied by a narrative of this memorable scene, or we should say, event; for, happily, such occurrences are but

rare in the history of crime. We abridge The clove is the unexpanded flower-bud of the paper, by omitting a few unimportant an East Indian tree, somewhat resembling passages.] the laurel in its height, and the shape of its What will your Italians say to a Peer of leaves, which are in pairs, oblong, large, England, an earl of one of the best families, spear-shaped, and of a bright green colour. tried, for murdering his servant, with the The flowers grow in clusters, which terminate utmost dignity and solemnity, and then the branches, and have the calyx divided into hanged at the common place of execution four small and pointed segments. The petals for highwaymen, and afterwards anatomized ? are small, rounded, and of a blueish colour. This must seem a little odd to them, espe

The culture of the clove-tree was formerly cially as they have not lately had a Sixtus a very important labour of the Dutch colo- Quintus. I have hitherto spoken of Lord nists in the Molucca or Spice islands; and, Ferrers to you as a wild beast, a mad assassin, it has even been asserted, that, in order to a low wretch, about whom I had no curiosity. monopolize the trade in cloves, the Dutch His misfortunes, as he called them, were destroyed all the trees growing in other dated from his marriage, though he has islands, and confined the propagation of been guilty of horrid excesses unconnected them to that of Ternate. But, in 1770 and with matrimony, and is even believed to 1772, both clove and nutmeg-trees were trans- have killed a groom who died a year after planted from the Moluccas into the islands receiving a cruel beating from him. His of France and Bourbon, and subsequently wife, a very pretty woman, was sister of Sir into some of the colonies in South America.

William Meredith,* had no fortune, and he At a certain season of the year, the clove. says, trepanned him into marriage, having tree produces a great profusion of flowers, met him drunk at an assembly in the country, When these have attained the length of and kept him so till the ceremony was over. about half an inch, the four points of the -As he always kept himself so afterwards, calyx being prominent, and having, in the

one need not impute it to her. middle of them, the leaves of the petals folded other respect, and one scarce knows how to over each other, and forming a small head blame her for wishing to be a countess, her about the size of a pea, they are fit to be behaviour was unexceptionable. He used gathered. This operation is performed be- his wife so ill, always carrying pistols to bed, tween the months of October and February, and threatening to kill her before morning, partly by the hand, partly by hooks, and

* Sir William Meredith, Bart. of Hanbury, in partly by beating the trees with bamboos.

Cheshire. The title is now extinct.-D. (the late The cloves are either received on cloths Lord Dover.) spread beneath the trees, or are suffered to † She afterwards 'married Lord Frederick Campfall on the ground, the herbage having been beli, brother of the Duke of Argyll, and was an

(She was unfortunately burned previously cut and swept. They are subse

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to death at Lord Frederick's seat, Combe Bank, in quently dried by exposure to the smoke of Kent.-D.),

excellent woman.

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beating her, and jealous without provocation, was told that he had disposed of it, he said that she got separated from him by act of to be sure he may before conviction. parliament, which appointed receivers of his Dr. Pearce, Bishop of Rochester,* offered estate in order to secure her allowance. This his service to him: he thanked the Bishop he could not bear. However, he named his but said, as his own brother was a clergysteward for one, but afterwards finding out man, he chose to have him. that this Johnson had paid her fifty pounds On the last morning he dressed himself in without his knowledge, and suspecting him his wedding-clothes, and said, he thought of being in the confederacy against him, he this, at least, as good an occasion of putting determined, when he failed of opportunities them on as that for which they were first of murdering his wife, to kill the steward, made. He wore them to Tyburn. This which he effected. Having shot the steward marked the strong impression on his mind. at three in the afternoon, he persecuted him His mother wrote to his wife in a weak, till one in the morning, threatening again to angry style, telling her to intercede for him murder him, attempting to tear off his band- as her duty, and to swear to his madness. ages, and terrifying hiin till in that misery But this was not so easy: in all her cause he was glad to obtain leave to be removed to before the Lords, she had persisted that he his own house; and when the earl heard the was not mad. poor creature was dead, he said he gloried in His courage rose where it was most likely having killed him. You cannot conceive the to fail, ---an unlucky circumstance to prophets, shock this evidence gave the court-many of especially when they have had the prudence the lords were standing to look at him-at to have all kind of probability on their side. once they turned from him with detestation. Even an awful procession of above two hours, The very night he received sentence, he with that mixture of pageantry, shame, and played at picquet with the wardours and ignominy, nay, and of delay, could not diswould play for money, and would have conti- mount his resolution. He set out from the nued to play every evening, but they refused. Tower, at nine, amidst crowds, thousands. Lord Cornwallis, governor of. the Tower, First went a string of constables; then one shortened his allowance of wine after his of the sheriffs, in his chariot and six, the conviction, agreeably to the late strict acts horses dressed with ribands; next Lord on murder. This he much disliked, and at Ferrers, in his own landau and six, his coachlast pressed his brother, the clergyman, to man crying all the way; guards at each side; intercede that at least he might have more the other sheriff's chariot followed empty, porter; for, said he, what I have is not a with a mourning coach-and-six, a hearse, and draught. His brother represented against the Horse Guards. Observe, that the empty it, but at last consenting (and he did obtain chariot was that of the other sheriff, who it)—then said the earl, “ now is as good a was in the coach with the prisoner, and who time as any to take leave of you-adieu!” was Vaillant, the French bookseller in the A minute journal of his whole behaviour has Strand. How will you decipher all these been kept, to see if there was any madness strange circumstances to Florentines ? A in it. Dr. Munro, since the trial, has made bookseller in robes and in mourning, sitting an affidavit of his lunacy. The Washing as a magistrate by the side of the earl ; and tons were certainly a very frantic race, 'and

I in the evening, everybody going to Vaillant's have no doubt of madness in him, but not of shop to hear the particulars. Lord Ferrers a pardonable sort. · Two petitions from his at first talked on indifferent matters, and mother and all his family were presented to observing the prodigious confluence of people, the King, who said, as the House of Lords (the blind was drawn up on his side, he had unanimously found him guilty, he would said,—" But they never saw a lord hanged, not interfere. Last week my Lord Keeper and perhaps will never see another.”. One very goodnaturedly got out of a gouty bed to of the dragoons was thrown by his horse's present another : the King would not hear leg 'entangling in the hind wheel: Lord him. “Sir," said the Keeper, “ I don't Ferrers expressed much concern, and said, come to petition for mercy or respite; but “I hope there will be no death to-day but that the 4,0001. which Lord Ferrers has in mine," and was pleased when Vaillant told India bonds, may be permitted to go accord- him the man was not hurt. Vaillant made ing to his disposition of it, to his mistress, excuses to him on his office.

« On the conchildren, and the family of the murdered trary,” said the earl, “ I am much obliged to man.” “ With all my heart,” said the King, • Zachariah Pearce, translated from the See of I have no objection; but I will have no Bangor in 1756. He was an excellent man, and message carried to him from me.”. However, infirm, he presented to the world the rare instance of

later in life, in the year 1768, finding himself growing, this grace was notified to him and gave him

disinterestedness, of wishing to resign all his pieces great satisfaction; but unfortunately it now of preferment. These consisted of the Deanery of appears to be law that it is forfeited to the Westminster and Bishoprick of Rochester. The sheriff of the county where the fact was com.

Dennery he gave up, but was not allowed to do so

by the Bishoprick, which was said, as a peerage, to mitted; though when my Lord Hardwicke be inalienable.-D.

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you. I feared the disagreeableness of the much to desire.” He replied, he was satis-
duty might make you depute your under- fied, adding, -" Then I must be content
sheriff. As you are so good as to execute it with this," and took some pigtail tobacco out
yourself, I am persuaded the dreadful appa- of his pocket. As they went on, a letter was
ratus will be conducted with more expedition.” thrown into his coach; it was from his mis-
The Chaplain of the Tower, who sat back. tress, to tell him, it was impossible, from the
wards, then thought it his turn to speak, and crowd, for her to get up to the spot where he
began to talk on religion ; but Lord Ferrers had appointed her to meet and take leave of
received it impatiently. However, the Chap- him, but that she was in a hackney-coach of
lain persevered, and said, he wished to bring such a number. He begged Vaillant to
his lordship to some confession or acknow. order his officers to try to get the hackney-
ledgment of contrition for a crime so repug- coach up to his. My Lord,” said Vaillant,
nant to the laws of God and man, and wished you have behaved so well hitherto, that I
him to endeavour to do whatever could be think it is pity to venture unmanning your
done in so short a time. The earl replied, self.” He was struck, and was satisfied
“ He had done every thing he proposed to without seeing her. As they drew nigh, he
do with regard to God and man; and as to said, “ I perceive we are almost arrived ; it
discourses on religion, you and I, sir," said is time to do what little more I have to do;"
he to the clergyman, "shall probably not and then taking out his watch, gave it to
agree on that subject. The passage is very Vaillant, desiring him to accept it as a mark
short; you will not have time to convince of his gratitude for his kind behaviour,
me, nor I to refute you ;, it cannot be ended adding, “It is scare worth your acceptance;
before we arrive.” The clergyman still insist- but I have nothing else; it is a stop-watch,
ed, and urged, that, at least, the world would and a pretty accurate one." He gave five
expect some satisfaction. Lord Ferrers re- guineas to the Chaplain, and took out as
plied, with some impatience,“ Sir, what have much for the executioner. Then giving
I to do with the world ? I am going to pay Vaillant a pocket-book, he begged him to
a forfeit life, which my country has thought deliver it to Mrs. Clifford, his mistress, with
proper to take from me—what do I care now what it contained, and with his most tender
what the world thinks of me? But, sir, regards, saying, “ The key of it is to the
since you do desire some confession, I will watch, but I am persuaded you are too much
confess one thing to yon; I do believe there a gentleman to open it.” He destined the
is a God. As to modes of worship, we had remainder of the money in his purse to the
better not talk on them. I always thought same person, and with the same tender re-
Lord Bolingbroke in the wrong to publish gards.
his notions on religion : I will not fall into When they came to Tyburn, his coach was
the same error." The Chaplain, seeing detained some minutes by the conflux of
sensibly that it was in vain to make any people ; but as soon as the door was opened,
more attempts, contented himself with repre- he stepped out readily and mounted the
senting to him, that it would be expected scaffold; it was hung with black, by the
from one of his calling, and that even decency undertaker, and at the expense of his family.
required, that some prayer should be used on Under the gallows was a new invented stage,
the scaffold, and asked his leave, at least to to be struck from under him. He showed
repeat the Lord's prayer there. Lord Ferrers no kind of fear or discomposure, only just
replied, “ I always thought it a good prayer; looking at the gallows with a slight motion
you may use it if you please.”

of dissatisfaction.' He said little, kneeled While these discourses were passing, the for a moment to the prayer, said, “ Lord have procession was stopped by the crowd. The mercy upon me, and forgive me my errors," earl said he was dry, and wished for some and immediately mounted the upper stage. wine and water. The Sheriff said, he was He had come pinioned with a black sash, sorry to be obliged to refuse him. By late and was unwilling to have his hands tied, or regulations they were enjoined not to let his face covered, but was persuaded to both. prisoners drink from the place of imprison- When the rope was put round his neck, he ment to that of execution, as great indecen- turned pale, but recovered his countenance cies had been formerly committed by the instantly, and was but seven minutes from lower species of criminals getting drunk; leaving the coach, to the signal given for “And though,” said he,“ my lord, I might striking the stage. As the machine was think myself excusable in overlooking this new, they were not ready at it: his toes order out of regard to a person of your lord touched it

, and he suffered a little, having ship’s rank, yet there is another reason which, had time, by their bungling, to raise his cap; I am sure, will weigh with you :-your lord- but the executioner pulled it down again, and ship is sensible of the greatness of the crowd; they pulled his legs, so that he was soon out we must draw up to some tavern ; the con- of pain, and quite dead in four minutes. He fuence would be so great, that it would delay desired not to be stripped and exposed, and the expedition which your lordship seems so Vaillant promised him, though his clothes

INUNDATION OF THE VAL DE BAGNES.

SHAPE ON THE EARTH ILLUSTRATED.

must be taken off, that his shirt should not. to do, but immovably fixed in their sky, (or; This decency ended with him : the sheriffs at least, changing its apparent place only by fell to eating and drinking on the scaffold, the small amount of the libration,) while the and helped up one of their friends to drink stars must seem to pass slowly beside and with them, as he was still hanging, which behind it. It will appear clouded with vahe did for above an hour, and then

was con- riable spots, and belted with equatorial and veyed back with the same pomp to Surgeons' tropical zones corresponding to our tradeHall, to be dissected. The executioners winds; and it may be doubted whether, in fought for the rope, and the one who lost it their perpetual change, the outlines of our cried. The mob tore off the black cloth as continents and seas can ever be clearly disrelics; but the universal crowd behaved with cerned.-Ibid. great decency and admiration, as they well might, for sure no exit was ever made with more sensible resolution and with less ostentation.

[MR. BROCKEDON, in his Excursions in the [In the next letter, Walpole says:] Alps, lately published, relates the following

That wonderful creature, Lord Ferrers, of interesting particulars of this catastrophe :); whom I told you so much in my last, and Around St. Branchier we saw the fearful with whom I am not going to plague you effects of the great inundation of the Valley much more, made one of his keepers read of Bagnes in 1818. The height which the Hamlet to him the night before his death torrent attained is seen in the desolation it after he was in bed-paid all his bills in the has left; vast blocks of stone, which were morning as if leaving an inn, and half an driven and deposited there by the force of the hour before the Sheriffs fetched him, correct. waters, now strew the valley; and sand and ed some verses he had written in the Tower pebbles present an arid surface, where rich in imitation of the Duke of Buckingham's pasturages were seen before the catastrophe. Epitaph, dubius sed non improbus vixi. What The quantity and violence of the water suda noble author have I here to add to my denly disengaged, and the velocity of its catalogue !

descent, presented a force which the mind may calculate, but cannot conceive.

In the accounts which have been given of We have likened the inequalities on the this event, the object of the writers has been earth's surface, arising from mountains, merely to describe the catastrophe, and the valleys, buildings, &c. to the roughness on

extent of its injuries; but in reading the the rind of an orange, compared with its account of M. Escher de Lenth, published in general mass. The comparison is quite free the Bib. Univ. de Genéve, Sci. et Arts, tom. from exaggeration. The highest mountain viii. p. 291, I was most forcibly struck with known does not exceed five miles in perpen- the unparalleled heroism of the brave men dicular elevation : this is only one 1,600th who endeavoured to avert the evil, by opening part of the earth’s diameter; consequently, a channel for the waters, which had, by their on a globe of sixteen inches in diameter, such accumulation, become a source of terror to a mountain would be represented by a protu- the inhabitants of these valleys. berance of not more than one hundredth part

In the spring of 1818, the people of the of an inch, which is about the thickness of Valley of Bagnes became alarmed on obserordinary drawing-paper. Now as there is no ving the low state of the waters of the Drance, entire continent, or even ány very extensive

at a season when the melting of the snows. tract of land, known, whose general elevation usually enlarged the torrent; and this alarm above the sea is any thing like half this quan.

was increased by the records of similar aptity, it follows, that if we would construct a pearances before the dreadful inundation of correct model of our earth, with its seas, con- 1595, which was then occasioned by the tinents, and mountains, on a globe sixteen accumulation of the waters behind the debris inches in diameter, the whole of the land, of a glacier that formed a dam, which rewith the exception of a few prominent points mained until the pressure of the water burst and ridges, must be comprised on it within the dike, and it rushed through the valley the thickness of thin writing paper; and the leaving desolation in its course. highest hill would be represented by the

In April 1818, some persons went up the smallest visible grains of sand.—Sir J. Her- valley to ascertain the cause of the deficiency schel, on Astronomy.

of water, and they discovered that vast masses of the glaciers of Getroz, and avalanches of

snow, had fallen into a narrow part of the APPEARANCE OF THE EARTH FROM THE MOON. valley, between Mont Pleureur and Mont If there be inhabitants in the moon, the Mauvoisin, and formed a dike of ice and earth must present to them the extraordinary snow 600 feet wide and 400 feet high, on a appearance of a moon of nearly 2° in diameter, base of 3,000 feet, behind which the waters exhibiting the same phases as we see the moon of the Dránce had accumulated, and formed

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a lake above 7,000 feet long. M. Venetz, through the breach, and left the lake the engineer of the Valais, was consulted, empty. and he immediately decided upon cutting a The greatest accumulation of water had gallery through this barrier of ice, 60 feet been 800,000,000 of cubic feet; the tunnel, above the level of the water at the time of before the disruption, had carried off nearly commencing, and where the dike was 600 330,000,000 — Escher says, 270,000,000; but feet thick. He calculated upon making a he neglected to add 60,000,000 which flowed tunnel through this mass before the water into the lake in three days. In half an hour, should have risen 60 feet higher in the lake. 530,000,000 cubic feet of water passed through On the Joth of May, the work was begun by the breach, or 300,000 feet per second; which gangs of 50 men, who relieved each other, is five times greater in quantity than the and worked, without intermission, day and waters of the Rhine at Bâsle, where it is night, with inconceivable courage and per- 1,300 English feet wide. In one hour and a severance, neither deterred by the daily half the water reached Martigny, a distance occurring danger from the falling of fresh i eight leagues. Through the first 70,000 masses of the glacier, nor by the rapid in. feet it passed with the velocity of thirty-three crease of the water in the lake, which rose feet per second-four or five times faster than 62 feet in 34 days-on an average, nearly the most rapid river known; yet it was charged two feet each day, but it once rose five feet with ice, rocks, earth, trees, houses, cattle, in one day, and threatened each woment to and men ; 34 persons were lost, 400 cottages burst the dike by its increasing pressure; or, swept away, and the damage done in the two rising in a more rapid proportion than the hours of its desolating power exceeded a men could proceed with their work, render million of Swiss livres. All the people of their efforts abortive, by rising above them. the valley had been cautioned against the Sometimes dreadful noises were heard, as the danger of a sudden irruption; yet it was pressure of the water detached masses of ice fatal to so many. All the bridges in its from the bottom, which floating, presented so course were swept away, and among them much of their bulk above the water, as led to the bridge of Mauvoisin, which was elevated the belief that some of them were seventy 90 feet above the ordinary height of the feet thick. The men persevered in their Drance. If the dike had remained untouchfearful duty without any serious accident; ed, and it could have endured the pressure and though suffering severely from cold and until the lake had reached the level of its wet, and surrounded by dangers which top, a volume of 1,700,000,000 cubic feet of cannot be justly described, by the 4th of water would have been accumulated there, June they had accomplished an opening 600 and a devastation much more fatal and exfeet long; but having begun their work on tensive must have been the consequence. both sides of the dike at the same time, the From this greater danger the people of the place where they ought to have met was 20 valley of the Drance were preserved by the feet lower on the side of the lake than on the heroism and devotion of the brave men who other: it was fortunate that latterly the in- effected the formation of the gallery in the crease of perpendicular height of the water dike, under the direction of M. Venetz. I was less, owing to the extension of its sur- know no instance on record of courage equal face. They proceeded to level the highest to this: their risk of life was not for fame or side of the tunnel, and completed it just be- for riches--they had not the usual excitefore the water reached them. On the evening ments to personal risk, in a world's applause of the 13th the water began to flow. At first, or gazetted promotion,—their devoted courage the opening was not large enough to carry was to save the lives and property of their off the supplies of water which the lake re- fellow-men, not to destroy them. They ceived, and it rose two feet above the tunnel; steadily and heroically persevered in their but this soon enlarged from the action of the labours, amidst dangers such as a field of water, as it melted the floor of the gallery, battle never presented, and from which some and the torrent rushed through. In thirty of the bravest brutes that ever lived would two hours the lake sunk ten feet, and during have shrunk in dismay. These truly brave the following twenty-four hours twenty feet Valaisans deserve all honour! more: in a few days it would have been emptied ; for the floor melting, and being

The Gatherer. driven off as the water escaped, kept itself below.the level of the water within; but the cataract which issued from the gallery melted, Care of the Eyes.—Those who are con. and broke up also a large portion of the base scious that their sight has been weakened by of the dike, which had served as its buttress; its severe and protracted exercise, or arising its resistance decreased faster than the pres- from any other cause, should carefully avoid sure of the lake lessened, and at four o'clock all attention to minute objects, or such busiin the afternoon of the 16th of June the dike ness or study as requires close application of burst, and in half an hour the water escaped the visual faculty, immediately on rising :

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