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more Chaste than Kinde,' by B. Griffin, 1596. In Griffin's little volume, which has been reprinted, the Sonnet stands as follows:
“ Venus, with young Adonis sitting by her,
Under a myrtle shade began to woo him;
And as he fell tu her, so fell she to him.
And thus she clasp'd Adonis in her arms:
As if the boy should use like loving charins.
And ran away, the beauteous queen neglecting;
And all his sex of cowardice detecting.
To kiss and clip me till I ran away!" The variations between this Sonnet and that printed in "The Passionate Pilgrim' are very remarkable; but there can be no doubt, we should think, that the authorship belongs to Griffin. This volume was not published anonymously; and it is dedicated " to Mr. Wm. Essex, of Lambourne, Berks, and to the Gentlemen of the Inns of Court." It is not likely that he would have adopted a Sonnet by Shakspere floating about in society, and made it his own by these changes.
The fifth poem in Jaggard's collection is Biron's Sonnet in Love's Labour 's Lost.' The seventh, “Fair is my love,' stands as Shakspere's, without any rival to impugn Jaggard's authority. The eighth is not so fortunate. It would be pleasant to believe that the Sonnet commencing
“ If music and sweet poetry agree,"
was written by Shakspere. It would be satisfactory that the greatest dramatic poet of the world should pay his homage to that great contemporary from whose exhaustless wells of imagination every real lover of poetry has since drawn waters of "deep delight." But that Sonnet is claimed by another ; and we believe that the claim must be admitted. There was another publisher of the name of Jaggard—John Jaggard; and he, in 1598, printed a volume bearing this title:— Encomion of Lady Pecunia; or the Praise of Money: the Complaint of Poetrie for the Death of Liberalitie: i.e. The Combat betweene Conscience and Covetousness in the Minde of Man : with Poems in divers Humors.' The volume bears the name, as author, of Richard Barnfield, graduate of Oxford, who had previously published a volume entitled Cynthia.' The volume of 1598 contains a Sonnet “addressed to his friend Master R. L., in praise of Music and Poetry.” This is the Sonnet that a year after William Jaggard prints with the name of Shakspere. But Barnfield's volume contains another poem, which the publisher of “The Passionate Pilgrim' also assigns to Shakspere, amongst the 'Sonnets to Sundry Notes of Music '—the last in the collection
“ As it fell upon a day." It is remarkable that, after the publication of Barnfield's volume in 1598, and “The Passionate Pilgrim'in 1599, a large portion of this poem was, in 1600, printed in • England's Helicon,' with the signature of “Ignoto." It there follows the poem which is the 18th in The Passionate Pilgrim'
My flocks feed not." That poem bears the title of “The Unknown Shepherd's Complaint,' and is also signed, in ‘England's Helicon,' “Ignoto.” “As it fell upon a day” is entitled • Another of the same Shepherd's.' Both the poems in ` England's Helicon' imme. diately follow one bearing the signature of “ W. Shakespeare," the beautiful Sonnet in Love's Labour 's Lost'
“On a day, alack the day,"which is given as one of the Sonnets to Music in The Passionate Pilgrim.'
For the following poems in “The Passionate Pilgrim' no claim of authorship has appeared further to impugn the credibility of W. Jaggard :
“ Sweet rose, fair flower.”
Crabbed age and youth."
“ Whenas thine eye." But there is a poem, imperfectly printed in The Passionate Pilgrim' (and which we have reprinted, that the reader may have before him what that work originally contained), of a higher reputation than any poem in the collection.
“ Live with me and be my love" is printed in England's Helicon' with the signature of “ Chr. Marlow," and the copy there given is as follows:
THE PASSIONATE SHEPHERD TO HIS Love.
Come live with me, and be my love,
In that collection it is immediately succeeded by another poem, almost equally celebrated, bearing the signature of “ Ignoto :"
The Nymph's REPLY TO THE SHEPHERD
If all the world and love were young,
In our Illustrations of “The Merry Wives of Windsor,' Act III., we have already noticed the probable authorship of these poems. Warburton, upon the authority of The Passionate Pilgrim,' assigns “ Come live with me" to Shakspere. But we fear that Mr. William Jaggard's authority is not quite so much to be relied upon as that of England's Helicon ;' and, moreover, there was an honest witness living some fifty years after, whose traditionary evidence must go far to settle the point. We cannot resist the pleasure of transcribing dear Izaak Walton's testimony: _" Look! under that broad beech-tree I sat down when I was last this way a-fishing. And the birds in the adjoining grove seemed to have a friendly contention with an echo, whose dead voice seemed to live in a hollow tree near to the brow of that primrose hill. There I sat viewing the silver streams glide silently towards their centre, the tempestuous sea; but sometimes opposed by rugged roots and pebble-stones, which broke their waves, and turned them into foam. And sometimes I beguiled time by viewing the harmless lambs—some leaping securely in the cool shade, whilst others sported themselves in the cheerful sun; and saw others craving comfort from the swollen udders of their bleating dams. As thus I sat, these and other sights had so fully possessed my soul with content, that I thought, as the poet has happily expressed it,
'I was for that time lifted above earth,
And possess d joys not promisd in my birth.' As I left this place, and entered into the next field, a second pleasure entertained me: 't was a handsome milkmaid, that had not yet attained so much age and wis
dom as to load her mind with any fears of many things that will never be, as too many men too often do; but she cast away all care, and sung like a nightingale : her voice was good, and the ditty fitted for it; it was that smooth song which was made by Kit Marlow, now at least fifty years ago. And the milkmaid's mother sung an answer to it, which was made by Sir Walter Raleigh in his younger days.
“ They were old-fashioned poetry, but choicely good ; I think much better than the strong lines that are now in fashion in this critical age. Look yonder! on my word, yonder they both be a-milking again. I will give her the chub, and persuade them to sing those two songs to us."
We have now gone through all the poems of "The Passionate Pilgrim;' and, taking away the five poems which are undoubtedly Shakspere's, but which are to be found in the 'Sonnets' and 'Love's Labour 's Lost,' and considering at least as apocryphal those which have been assigned to other authors, there is not a great deal left that posterity may thank Mr. William Jaggard for having rescued from oblivion,
There are two other poems that usually follow · The Passionate Pilgrim,' though they form no part of that collection. The first is the celebrated song of
• Take, O take those lips away." Our readers are aware that the first stanza is found in . Measure for Measure,' as sung by a boy to Mariana, who says “ Break off thy song." The two stanzas are in the tragedy, ascribed to Fletcher, of Rollo, Duke of Normandy.'
There is no possibility, we apprehend, of deciding the authorship of the second stanza (see Illustrations of. Measure for Measure,' Act IV.) The other poem, beginning
“ Let the bird of loudest lay," is found with Shakspere's name in a book printed in 1601, the greater part of which consists of a poem translated from the Italian by Robert Chester, entitled 'Love's Martyr; or Rosalin's Complaint : allegorically shadowing the Truth of Love, in the constant Fate of the Phænix and Turtle.' There is a second title to this volume prefixed to some supplementary verses : “Hereafter follow diverse Poetical Essaies on the former Subject, viz. the Turtle and Phænix. Done by the best and chiefest of our modern Writers, with their Names subscribed to their particular Works. Never before extant.' The name “ Wm. Shakeispeare " is subscribed to this poem, in the same way that the names of Ben Jonson, Marston, and Chapman are subscribed to other poems.
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTICE TO THE POEMS.
“ If the first heir of my invention prove deformed, I shall be sorry it had so noble a godfather.” These are the words which, in relation to the Venus and Adonis,' Shakspere addressed, in 1593, to the Earl of Southampton. Are we to accept them literally? Was the · Venus and Adonis' the first production of Shakspere's imagination ? Or did he put out of his view those dramatic performances which he had then unquestionably produced, in deference to the critical opinions which regarded plays as works not belonging to “ invention”? We think that he used the words in a literal sense. We regard the “Venus and Adonis' as the production of a very young man, improved, perhaps, considerably in the interval between its first composition and its publication, but distinguished by peculiarities which belong to the wild luxuriance of youthful power,—such power, however, as few besides Shakspere have ever possessed.
A deep thinker and eloquent writer, Julius Charles Hare, thus describes “ the spirit of self-sacrifice, as applied to poetry :
“ The might of the imagination is manifested by its launching forth from the petty creek, where the accidents of birth moored it, into the wide ocean of being,—by its going abroad into the world around, passing into whatever it meets with, animating it, and be. coming one with it. This complete union and identification of the poet with his poem,—this suppression of his own individual insulated consciousness, with its narrowness of thought and pettiness of feeling,—is what we admire in the great masters of that which for this reason we justly call classical poetry, as representing that which is symbolical and universal, not that which is merely occasional and peculiar. This gives them that majestic calmness which still breathes upon us from the statues of their gods. This invests their works with that lucid transparent atmosphere wherein every form stands out in perfect definiteness and distinctness, only