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be imputed to the great eleven-year spot of fact, whereas the period now assigned period. We owe to Mr. Baxendell, of to the great sun-spot wave is eleven years Manchester, the most complete series of and rather less than one month, Jupiter's investigations into this subject. He finds period of revolution is eleven years and that at Oxford, during the years when about ten months, a
months, a discrepancy of sun-spots were most numerous, the amount nine months, which would amount up to of rainfall under west and south-west five and a half years (or modify perfect winds was greater than the amount under agreement into perfect disagreement) in south and south-east winds; while the re- seven or eight cycles. verse was the case in years when spots But accepting the association between were few and small. Applying correspond- weather and the sun-spot changes as deing processes to the meteorological records monstrated (which is granting a great deal for St. Petersburg, he finds that a contrary to the believers in solar weather-predicstate of things prevailed there. Next tion), have we any reason to believe that we have the evidence of the Rev. R. by a long-continued study of the sun the Main, director of the Radcliffe Observa- great problem of foretelling the weather tory at Oxford, who finds that westerly can be solved? This question, as I have winds are slightly more common when already pointed out, must not be hastily sun-spots are numerous than at other answered. It is one of national, nay, of times. And lastly, Mr. Meldrum, of Mau- cosmopolitan importance. If answered ritius, notes that years of spot-frequency in the affirmative, there is scarcely any are characterized on the whole by a greater expense which would be too great for the number of storms and hurricanes, than work suggested; but all the more careful years when the sun shows few spots. must we be not to answer it in the affir
The association between the sun-spot mative, if the true answer should be negaperiod and terrestrial magnetism is of a tive. far more marked character, though I must But it appears to me that so soon as the premise that the Astronomer Royal, after considerations dealt with above have been careful analysis of the Greenwich mag- fairly taken into account, there can be no netic records, denies the existence of any possible doubt or difficulty in replying to such association whatever. There is, how- the question. The matter has in effect, ever, a balance of evidence in its favor. though not in intention, been tested It seems very nearly demonstrated that experimentally, and the experiments, when the daily sway of the magnetic needle is carried out under the most favorable congreatest when sun-spots are numerous, ditions, have altogether failed. To show that magnetic storms are somewhat more that this is so, I take the position of affairs numerous at such times, and that auroras before Schwabe began that fine series of also are more commonly seen. Now it observations which ended in the discovery has been almost demonstrated by M. of the great spot-period of eleven years. Marié Davy, chief of the meteorological Let us suppose that at that time the quesdivision in the Paris Observatory, that the tion had been mooted whether it might weather is affected in a general way by not be possible, by a careful study of the magnetic disturbances.
So that we are sun, to obtain some means of predicting the confirmed in the opinion that indirectly, weather. The argument would then have if not directly, the weather is affected to run as follows: “ The sun is the great some slight degree by the great sun-spot source of light and heat; that orb is liable period.
to changes which must in all probability Still I must point out that not one of affect the supply of light and heat; those these cases of agreement has anything changes may be periodical and so predictalike the evidence in its favor which had ble; and as our weather must to some been found for an association between the extent depend on the supply of light and varying distance of Jupiter and the sun- heat, we may thus find a means of predictspot changes. For eight consecutive ing weather changes." The inquiry might maxima and minima this association has then have been undertaken, and undoubtedbeen strongly marked, and might be view- ly the great spot-period would have been ed as demonstrated,-only it chances un- detected, and with this discovery would fortunately that for two other cases the have come that partial power of predicting relation is precisely reversed; and in point the sun's condition which we now possess,
—that is, the power of saying that in such year period, are at a maximum ; and more and such a year, taken as a whole, spots rain falls with south-westerly winds than will be numerous or the reverse. More- with south-easterly winds at Oxford and over, meteorological observations con- elsewhere, but less at St. Petersburg and ducted simultaneously would have shown elsewhere, when sun-spots are most nuthat, as the original argument supposed, merous, while the reverse holds when the the quantity of heat supplied by the sun spots are rare." I incline to think that varies to a slight degree with the varying on being further informed that these condition of the sun. Corresponding results related to averages only, and gave magnetic changes would be detected; no means of predicting the weather for and also those partial indications of a any given day, week, or month, even as connection between phenomena of wind respects the unimportant points here indiand rain and the sun's condition which cated, the British tax-payer would infer have been indicated above. All this that he had thrown away his money. I would be exceedingly interesting to men imagine that the army of observers who of science. But,-supposing all this had had gathered these notable results would been obtained at the nation's expense, and be disbanded rather unceremoniously, and the promise had been held out that the that for some considerable time science means of predicting weather would be the (as connected, at any rate, with promised reward, the non-scientific tax-paying com- “utilitarian” results) would stink in the munity might not improbably inquire nostrils of the nation. what was the worth of these discoveries to But this is very far, indeed, from being all. the nation or to the world at large. Be Nay, we may almost say that this is noit understood that I am not here using the thing. Astronomers know the great spot cui bono argument. As a student of period; they have even ascertained the science, I utterly repudiate the notion existence of longer and shorter periods less that before scientific researches are under- marked in character; and they have ascertaken, it must be shown that they will pay. tained the laws according to which other But it is one thing to adopt this mean and solar features besides the spots vary in contemptible view of scientific research, their nature. It is certain that whatever and quite another to countenance projects remains to be discovered must be of a which are based ab initio upon the ground vastly less marked character. If then the that they will more than repay their cost. discovery of the most striking law of solar Now, I think, if the nation made the change has led to no results having the inquiry above indicated, and under the slightest value in connection with the probcircumstances mentioned, it would be very lem of weather-prediction, if periodic solar difficult to give a satisfactory reply. The changes of a less marked character have tax-payers would say, “ We have supplied been detected which have no recognisable so many thousands of pounds to found bearing on weather changes, what can be national observatories for the cultivation hoped from the recognition of solar of the physics of science, and we have changes still more recondite in their paid so many thousands of pounds yearly nature ? It is incredible that the complex to the various students of science whó phenomena involved in meteorological have kindly given their services in the relations regarded as a whole, those phemanagement of these observatories ; let nomena which are but just discernibly us hear what are the utilitarian results of affected by the great sun-spot period, all this outlay? We do not want to hear of should respond to changes altogether scientific discoveries, but of the promised insignificant even when compared with means of predicting the weather.” The the development and decay of a single answer would be, “We have found that small sun-spot. It appears to me, there. storms in the tropics are rather more nu- fore, that it is the duty of the true lover of merous in some years than others, the science to indicate the futility of the provariations having a period of eleven years; mises which have been mistakenly held we assert pretty confidently that out; for it cannot be to the credit of auroras follow a similar law of frequency; science, or ultimately to its advantage, if south-west winds blow more commonly government assistance be obtained on false at Oxford, but less commonly elsewhere, pretences for any branch of scientific rewhen the sun-spots, following the eleven- search.— St. Paul's Magazine.
A RUN TO VIENNA AVD PESTH.
It was on the 30th of April, the day enable them to get to the gates at eleven. before the World's Exhibition opened, that At eleven the programme said that every I reached Vienna. When I left Scotland entrance was to be closed ; the interval sixty-six hours before, the sun was bright till noon, when the Emperor and his Impeand warm, and everything promised spring. rial and Royal guests were to open the Vienna is eight degrees of latitude, or 550 Exhibition, being sacred to the admission miles south of my northern home, not to of officials and the great people who were speak of the twenty degrees of east longi- not to be jostled among the meaner crowd. tude—and it was a bitter disappointment to The programme broke down, as it was find that I had left all the brightness and no doubt meant it should ; for when warmth behind me. It was raw in Lon- eleven came, a mile or two of carriages in don ; it was gusty and uncomfortable continuous lines still stretched on the about Dover and Ostend ; it was raining wrong side of the gates. The envious as the train crawled, an hour and a half weather deprived the Viennese of more late, into the capital of the Eastern Empire. than half the pleasures of this great People'sTheir own familiar May, laden with influ- Exhibition on the road to the real show, enza, was in readiness, a truly delightful The open carriages were very few, and surprise for the English visitors. It neither the toilettes in them were very much subsurprised nor shocked the Viennese. Vi- dued. Broughams are disappointing to enna is very cold when it is cold, and very the most contented crowd, and even the hot when it is hot. It rains a great deal hundreds of thousands who lined the there, it snows a little, it blows bitterly at road two, three, and four deep, on both times. To-day the sun makes the place sides of it, as we got into the Prater and as hot as an Italian market-place in a neared the gates, would have found time blazing summer. To-morrow the winds hang heavy on their hands on that raw, that sweep down the long trough of the drizzly morning but for the uniforms of Danube, or through the gaps of the encir- all nations which went flashing past inces. cling hills, chill one to the bone. People santly. There was the most wonderful va. say that a fall of 30° Fahrenheit in the riety and richness of costume. The Huncourse of a day is not uncommon, and garian noble on a State occasion is a sight chest complaints are dangerous and abun- to which the imagination of untravelled dant. Everybody who goes to see the Western Europe is scarcely equal, and the World's Exhibition should prepare for crowd supped full of ambassadors, and heat and cold, and dust and rain, and archdukes, and Hospodars, and Hungari. mud, and, above all, sudden and violent ans, and Pashas, and full-dress generals changes of temperature.
and admirals of all the armies and navies The first of May, the morning big with of Europe. At the end of all this there the fate of Baron von Schwartz Senborn was the Emperor and Empress, and half and the Austrian Empire, was as depress- Princes Royal and Princes Imperial, and ing as it well could be. From low thick it was content to wait. clouds a sleety drizzle dripped on the in- Everybody now knows the plan of the numerable strangers who were supposed to Exhibition. There is a cupola bigger than have been gathered from all ends of the the dome of St. Paul's, under which is the earth to witness the opening at the low great central space called the Rotunda. charge of fifty shillings a-piece. From the In the middle of this the framework of the Stephan's Platz, which is an apology for a magnificent fountain, which is to diffuse square in the centre of the city, and as fragrance and refreshing coolness through like a square as St. Paul's Churchyard, an the sultry summer, was covered, on the interminable line of omnibuses and carri- opening day, with evergreens. A great ages streamed outwards over the three central space, like the saw-dust of a circus, miles which lay between it and the Exhi- separated it from the crowds of spectators, bition gates. Early people started at whose seats were in rows slanting to the ineight; those who were not to be hurried, ner line of pillars. Between them and the at nine ; those who were always too late outer wall was a huge belt of foor space, for everything thought ten time enough to meant for the crowds who could not find sitting-room. Unfortunately there were no nearly as pure as marble. But Milly on crowds, for miles of carriages contain, after the great opening day, in the centre of all, but a limited number of human beings, everything, under the admiring eyes of an and the first fifty-shilling day appealed Emperor and Empress and nearly a dozen but feebly to the masses. It promised Crown Princes and Crown Princesses, had nothing but the presence of Emperors and reached a place quite too pre-eminent even Princes, and the undeniable fact that it for his saponaceous merits. was the first. Of course there was a little When the speeches were over, the great music, and the great rotunda--the work, people began their “Rundreise." They by the bye, of our able countryman, Mr. were received everywhere by the CommisJohn Scott Russell-showed for the first sioners of the different countries, and for time how admirably it is adapted for musical an hour or more the crowd in the rotunda purposes when filled with people. But, after sat still or gossiped, or sought for new all, music, and emperors, and the fine places from which they could have a better dresses of fashionable people, are not chance of seeing their Majesties on their irresistible attractions, and I should guess return. When they came back the Exhithat the spectators who occupied the ro- bition was open, and we inight go everytunda were somewhere between ten and where. A little went a long way. There twenty thousand.
were many curious things, but the most Of course there was a little excitement curious of all, as I found out in the next when the great people entered. Before us day or two, was the skill with which the were a dozen of the most exalted ladies chaos of packing-cases and the innumeraand gentlemen of Europe advancing to ble sheds full of mere confusion that were take their seats on the raised daïs in front everywhere, had been hid away. Nearly of what looked like an organ. The music every nation was unready. Switzerland led, and the great company joined in the and Belgium were farthest forward. Next “ Gott erhalt den Kaiser Franz," and came England, then Germany, then Austwenty minutes of mutual speeches, broken tria, then France. America had literally by intervals of music, followed. Not a nothing but a curious charcoal wallword could be heard, and there was painting, some 40 feet long by 10 feet nothing to occupy us but admiration of the high, representing the eventful history vast proportions of the huge rotunda, of the unsuspecting Pig of Cincinnati, who from the top of which workmen and the is seduced into an establishment from special correspondents, watching us from which in a few brief hours he emerges as the gallery at the base of the dome, look- sausage and flitch of bacon. Perhaps an ed like distant crows. Half-a-dozen ob- eighth part of the things meant to be jects in the rotunda were forecasts of shown were visible on the opening day. the great collection of the more striking Everything is no doubt ready now, and and showy“ exhibits” of all nations which before I left I was willing to allow that is now gathered there. There was a huge nothing yet seen in Exhibitions was to hexagonal tent bedstead by Bossi. There be compared with the Great World's were two gigantic and noble female figures Show in the capital which offers itself as from Switzerland, to represent the federal the natural meeting of East and West. friendship of the united cantons. There A simple illustration may give some were a couple of monstrous lions, which idea of the size of the building. Take a from the opposite side of the hall, where I penny to represent the rotunda, and run stood, looked little larger than young out four quarter-inch spokes from it, Newfoundlands; and there was an enor- through the ends of which, enclosing the mous stearine bust of Milly, the great in- penny, draw a square. The spokes and troducer of stearine soaps and candles into the sides of the square are galleries, given Germany. Milly was alone and pre-emi- up half to Austria and half to Germany, nent, as Goethe, or Dante, or Shakespeare and the side of the square is some 600 might have stood to claim the reverence feet. The western spoke, the western side of the assembled nations. The exhibition, of the square and half of the two transas I found out afterwards, is full of stearine verse ones, belong to Germany, and those statues and wax-candle trophies and soap opposite to Austria. Continue the westvirtù ; and, except for the shining sort of ern and eastern spoke across the square glaze upon them, they look as white and for 1,000 feet each way—as far as three
pennies would go-and we have the long gary. These are but samples taken at galleries which form the backbone of the random of the curiosities outside in the Exhibition building for western and east- grounds. ern countries. Across each of these back- Besides the engineers and the farmers, bones run fourteen ribs, seven on each there is one other competition of all naside — the line across being some 600 tions which a visitor may witness without seet : '
make these ribs also exhibiting gal- travelling round the Exhibition world. leries, and you have the chief building. The pictures and statuary are grouped in The intercostal places are fitted with sup- a separate building, near the Japanese and plementary sheds when these are needed. Turkish portions of the Industry Palace. If they were all so fitted, the centre build- Each country exhibits by itself, but it is ing of the Exhibition would be half a mile possible to run rapidly tirough them all, long by half a quarter mile broad—with as there is nothing but art to distract the Germany and Austria in the centre, the attention. It is wonderfully well worth United States at one end, and Japan and while. I have no desire to offer you my China at the other. The advantages and flying impressions of the artistic qualities disadvantages are alike obvious. All the of the great national schools. I had only products of each country pass under re- three days to see them in, for the Empeview, but each is by itself, and you forget ror only opened the Art Exhibition on the the details of the one before you get to 15th, and even then France had but one the other. Anybody who wants, for in- of five rooms ready, and Germany had stance, to compare the cottons of Switzer
Great Britain, Belgium, Holland, land and France and Austria and America Switzerland, Austria, were fairly ready, and must walk huge distances from country to Italy as yet showed only half of what she country.
intended to display. But there are three or four devices to It is this universal Internationalism, so mitigate this hardship. To begin with, to speak, that gives its individual characmuch of the machinery can only be seen ter to the Vienna Exhibition. In London and judged when it is running, and the and Paris all the world was nominally machinery of all nations has been sent off represented, but Eastern Europe was too accordingly into one great supplemental far removed from either to make its preshed behind the main building, and paral- sence felt. Vienna is the geographical lel to it, where “power” can be turned on. capital of the whole of the Old World that The engineer and machinist may find a is civilized. Of the 56,000 square metres good deal belonging to him in the Indus- in the main building, 18,000 are given to try Palace, but he will give days or weeks Austria and Hungary, and 19,000, or to the Machinery hall. Between it and nearly the same, to Germany, France, the main Exhibition there is a show of Great Britain, and Ireland, the great comwhat one may perhaps call dead machinery mercial countries of the Old World and -steam ploughs, and threshing machines, those chiefly represented at London and and all the infinite contrivances which in Paris. Russia is a little disappointing, have made agriculture a scientific profes- for it occupies only 3,300 square metres, sion. The agricultural sheds are two in which is scarcely more than Hungary or number—an eastern for Austria, Russia, Turkey. Taking the floor space, Austria and Hungary; and a western for France, has two and a half times as much as Great Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, and Britain ; Germany and France have each America. The space between them and the same as we have; Russia, Hungary, that between them and the Exhibition, is and Turkey, each half as much ; Italy and filled up with smaller collections. There Belgium, one-third as much each; China, are heaps of peasants' and farmers' houses Siam, and Japan, one-fifth as much, which of all countries. There are gatherings of is nearly the space assigned to the United all the products of their estates by noble- States, to South America, to Switzerland men with thousands of square miles of and to Egypt and Mid-Africa. Holland, territory. There is the show of the Aus- Greece, and the Scandinavian Peninsula trian University of Agriculture, which pre- have each about an eighth of what we sents us with the ploughs of all nations for have; Roumania, Spain, and Portugal, the last 100 years, and illustrates all the each about a tenth ; Persia and Mid-Asia agricultural products of Austria and Hun- and Tunis and Morocco, each a twentieth.