has it. At “drawing-rooms” she no he made when pacing his prison yard. sooner sank on a sofa than she was deep The Duke last referred to was in his youth in slumber; but while she was awake she at Algiers under Exmouth, and in his later would make jokes that were laughed at years a Lord of the Admiralty. As Lord and censured the next day all over Lon- Prudhoe, he was a travellerin far-away don. Her Grace would sit at a window countries, and he had the faculty of seeing in Covent Garden, and be hail fellow well what he saw, for which many travellers, met with every one of a mob of tipsy and though they have eyes, are not qualified. not too cleanly-spoken electors. On these At the pleasant Smithsonian house at occasions it was said she “ signalized her- Stanwick, when he was a bachelor, his self with intrepidity.” She could bend, household was rather remarkable for the too, with cleverness to the humors of more plainness of the female servants. Satirical hostile mobs; and when the Wilkes rioters people used to say the youngest of them besieged the ducal mansion, she and the was a grandmother. Others, more chariduke appeared at a window, did salutation table or scandalous, asserted that Lord to their masters, and performed homage to Prudhoe was looked upon as a father by the demagogue by drinking his health in many in the country round, who would ale.

have been puzzled where else to look for Horace Walpole affected to ridicule the It was his elder brother Hugh ability of the Duchess as a verse writer. (whom Lord Prudhoe succeeded) who reAt Lady Miller's at Batheaston some presented England as Ambassador Extrarhyming words were given out to the com- ordinary at the coronation of Charles the pany, and any one who could, was re- Tenth at Rheims. Paris was lost' in adquired to add lines to them so as to make miration at the splendor of this embassy, sense with the rhymes furnished for the and never since has the hôtel in the Rue end of each line. This sort of dancing in de Bac possessed such a gathering of fetters was called bouts rimés. “On my royal and noble personages as at the fêtes faith,” cried Walpole, in 1775," there are given there by the Duke of Northumberbouts rimés on a buttered muffin by her land. His sister, Lady Glenlyon, then reGrace the Duchess of Northumberland.” sided in a portion of the fine house in the It may be questioned whether anybody Rue de Bourbon, owned and in part occucould have surmounted the difficulty more pied by the rough but cheery old warrior, cleverly than her Grace. For example: the Comte de Lobau. When that lady

was Lady Emily Percy, she was married The pen which I now take and brandish, Has long lain useless in my standish.

to the eccentric Lord James Murray, Know, every maid, from her own patten afterwards Lord Glenlyon. The brideTo her who shines in glossy satin,

groom was rather of an oblivious turn of That could they now prepare an oglio From best receipt of book in

mind, and it said that when the wedding

folio, Ever so fine, for all their


morn arrived, his servant had some diffiI should prefer a buttered

in uffin ; culty in persuading him that it was the A muffin, Jove himself might

day on which he had to get up and be If eaten with Miller, at


married. To return to the house itself. There is There remains only to be remarked, no doubt that no mansion of such preten- that as the Percy line has been often resions and containing such treasures has presented only by an heiress, there have been so thoroughly kept from the vulgar not been wanting individuals who boasted eye. There is one exception, however, to of male heirship. this remark. The Duke (Algernon) who Two years after the death of Joscelin was alive at the period of the first Exhibi- Percy in 1670, who died the last male tion threw open the house in the Strand heir of the line, leaving an only child, a to the public without reserve. The public, daughter, who married the Duke of without being ungrateful, thought it rather Somerset, there appeared, supported by a gloomy residence. Shut in and darkened the Earl of Anglesea, a most impudent as it now is by surrounding buildings— claimant (as next male heir) in the person canopied as it now is by clouds of London of James Percy, an Irish trunkmaker. smoke—it is less cheerful and airy than This individual professed to be a descendthe Tower, where the Wizard Earl studied ant of Sir Ingram Percy, who was in the in his prison room, or counted the turns Pilgrimage of Grace, and was brother of

feast on,


the sixth earl. The claim was proved to “their majesties of Middlesex,” were be unfounded; but it may have rested on the mock titles which Horace Walpole : an illegitimate foundation. As the preten- flung at the ducal couple of his day who der continued to call himself Earl of resided at Northumberland House, LonNorthumberland, Elizabeth, daughter of don, or at Sion House, Brentford. Walpole Joscelin, “took the law” of him. Ulti- accepted and satirised the hospitality of the mately he was condemned to be taken into London house, and he almost hated the the four law courts in Westminster Hall, ducal host and hostess at Sion, because with a paper pinned to his breast, bearing they seemed to overshadow his mimic these words : “ The foolish and impudent feudal state at Strawberry! After all, pretender to the earldom of Northumber- neither early nor late circumstances conland."

nected with Northumberland House is In the succeeding century, the well- confined to memories of the inmates. known Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, Ben Jonson comes out upon us from believed himself to be the true male repre- Hartshorn Lane with more majesty than sentative of the ancient line of Percy. any of the earls; and greatness has sprung He built no claims on such belief; but from neighboring shops, and has flourishthe belief was not only confirmed by gene ed as gloriously as any of which Percy can alogists, it was admitted by the second boast. Half a century ago, there was a heiress Elizabeth, who married Hugh long low house, a single storey high, the Smithson. Dr. Percy so far asserted his ground floor of which was a saddler's shop. blood as to let it boil over in wrath against It was on the west side of the old GoldPennant when the latter described Alnwick en Cross, and nearly opposite NorthumCastle in these disparaging words: “At berland House. The worthy saddler Alnwick no remains of chivalry are per- founded a noble line. Of four sons, three ceptible; no respectable train of attend- were distinguished as Sir David, Sir Fredants; the furniture and gardens inconsis- erick and Sir George. Two of the worktent; and nothing, except the numbers of men became Lord Mayors of London; unindustrious poor at the castle gate, and an attorney's clerk, who used to go excited any one idea of its former circum- in at night and chat with the men, stances.”

married the granddaughter of a king and “ Duke and Duchess of Charing Cross," became Lord Chancellor. Temple Bar.


The death of Captain Maury, the great voyage to Australia or California, for examAmerican Hydrographer and Meteorolo- ple, to and fro, having been shortened by gist, which took place at Lexington in Vir- a month, and other voyages in proportion. ginia on the ist of March, deserves some- Thus an annual saving to the commerce of thing more than an ordinary obituary; for of the world, it is estimaetd, of no less than all the benefactors to the commercial world, several millions sterling, has been effected. in respect of the transit of merchandise Matthew Fontaine Maury was born from one port to another, the name of in the year 1806 in Spottsylvania County, Maury stands first and foremost.

Virginia, from whence he removed with His important researches into Oceanic his parents, at an early age, to the adjoinMeteorology, and the happy idea of ing State of Tennessee. turning this branch of science to prac- Manifesting a predilection for maritime tical account, resulted in a valuable series pursuits, he entered the United States navy of wind and current charts, by which the as a midshipman, at the age of nineteen; shortest and best routes over the great and in the sloop-of-war Vincennes circumocean thoroughfares were indicated—the navigated the globe.

During this cruise, which lasted four * Instead of adding another to the numerous years, he wrote a Treatise on Navigation, sketches of Captain Maury's life which have ap- which, with some subsequent revisions, peared in American publications, we have thought it well to reproduce the following cordial tribute passed through many editions, and is used to the great scientist from an influential English

as a text-book in the United States navy. e.-EDITOR OF ECLECTIC.

It was while on this expedition that his


attention was drawn to the winds and cur- mind unbiassed by theories and speculations ; rents of the ocean, and the possibility of never to have any wish that an investigation would reducing them to a practical science. and never to attempt by premature speculation to

result in favor of this view in preference to that; After eleven years of active service he was anticipate the results of investigation, but always promoted to a lieutenancy, and appointed to trust to the observations themselves.” astronomer to the exploring expedition in Well would it be for the world and for the Southern Seas. This again gave him truth, if all scientific men could be perfurther opportunity of pursuing his studies suaded to adopt the same admirable rule. in meteorological science, and subsequently Of the great value to maritime countries led to his appointment as head of the Hy- of meteorological investigations pursued drographical Board at Washington. Here in such a spirit, Maury's friend and coadhe commenced the great undertaking with jutor, the late Admiral Fitzroy, bore ample which the name of Maury will be for ever testimony. “No criticism,” wrote that identified. He obtained copies of as many distinguished meteorologist to a mutual ships' logs as could be procured, and friend, in 1865, marked the direction of the winds and cur

“No criticism can destroy the intrinsic value rents on charts prepared for the purpose. of such systems of average as those by which his Information of this nature began to pour results were drawn from accumulations of facts. in until 1842, when he laid before the Hy- Opinions of their value have not varied since the drographical Board a plan for supplying first consignment reached the Board of Trade in

1854-5. Actual waggon loads of Maury's model log-books to the mercantile marine

charts and quarto volumes of Directions' have and naval service. These log-books were been given away in England; very many also in designed with a view of registering observa- Other countries—all distributed free of charge to tions in a systematic series. His idea was

the recipients.” adopted, and in the space of eight years In the closing paragraph of this letter, he thus collected a sufficient number of logs the Admiral alludes to one of his friend's to make 200 manuscript volumes of 2500 most distinguished traits-personal disin. days each, or nearly seven years of the terestedness. It was characteristic of him daily observations of each ship's captain. through life, that he never sought to beneThe digest of these observations gave em- fit himself by his arduous labors, or to make ployment to a large staff of assistants, and pecuniary profit out of his researches; his resulted in the Winds and Currents sole object being to benefit mankind at Charts,' together with two quarto volumes large. Even within a few weeks of his of Sailing Directions, which bear the death, we find him endeavoring to rouse name of the indefatigable compiler. up his countrymen by most stirring speeches

To give an idea of the extent and value and writings to the importance of the of this Herculean task it may be sufficient establishment of meteorological boards to mention, that the construction of the throughout the world, in order to effect Wind Chart alone (Plate I. in his · Physi- for the farmer and agriculturist on the cal Geography ') was the result of 1,159,353 land what had been so well done for voyseparate observations on the force and agers and for commerce on the ocean. direction of the wind, and upwards of 100,- It was during the intervals of relaxation ooo observations on the height of the baro- at Washington, while analysing and tabumeter at sea.

lating these myriads of observations, that The genuinely scientific spirit in which Maury wrote his popular work, 'The Phyhe entered upon the vast work may be sical Geography of the Sea, and its Meteogathered from the rule which he tells the rology,'—one of the most charming books maritime world he laid down for himself at in the English language. The extent of the commencement. In the . Introduction scientific information which this work conto Explanations and Sailing Directions to veys, or its easy, unaffected style, cannot accompany the Wind and Current Charts,' be at all gathered from the enumeration

of the subjects of which it treats. The “I wish to announce a rule of conduct by which

work must be read to be appreciated. It I have been guided from the commencement of would be speaking of it in a very general this work, and by which I mean to be guided to way to say that it treats of the sea (which the end : for not only has experience proved it it does),-its Nature,' .Currents,' 'Acwise, but it is in principle so good that to it I at. tribute much of the success which has attended tinometry' and «Climates '; — The Bed these labors. This rule has been to keep the and Basin of the Atlantic,' the “Influence

he says:

of the Gulf Stream upon Climates and all nations agreeing to unite and co-operate in Commerce.' It treats also of the · Atmo- carrying out according to the same plan one sphere,' «Winds, and their "Geological the sea. Though they may be enemies in all else,

system of philosophical research with regard to Agency,'«Storms' and Monsoons,” • Calm here they are friends." (One recommendation Belts' and 'Sea Breezes,'—the latter being was that in peace and war alike the Maury log a valuable contribution to the work by should be held sacred.]. Every ship that his friend Captain Jansen, a distinguished blank abstract logs on board may henceforth be scientific officer of the Dutch navy, regarded as a floating observatory, a temple of • Rains and Rivers,' the · Arctic Regions, science.” and the Open Polar Sea,' the · Antarctic Regions, and their Climatology.'

At the close of the Congress Maury Of this delightful and instructive work returned to his old post at Washington, it is said that upwards of twenty editions laden with honors and rich in fame. Most have been sold in this country alone, to of the learned societies in Europe elected say nothing of America and Europe, where him an honorary member of their body. it also finds a large and ready sale; it Humboldt declared that “he had founded having been translated into the Dutch, a new department of science.” The French, Russian, German, Swedish and Emperor of Russia made him Knight of Italian languages; and in some instances, the Order of St. Ann; the King of by order of the national governments for Denmark, Knight of the Dannebrog; the their respective navies.

King of Portugal, Knight of the Tower The interest thus excited in ocean meteo- and Sword; the King of Belgium, Knight rology enabled the distinguished author to of the Order of St. Leopold; the Emperor give a more cosmopolitan character to that of France, Commander of the Legion of hitherto undeveloped science. Accord- Honor; while Prussia, Austria, Sweden, ingly in the year 1853 he was enabled to Holland, and Sardinia struck gold medals assemble at Brussels, under the auspices in his special honor, and the New York of King Leopold, a congress of the chief merchants presented him with a service of nations interested in commerce-France, plate and five thousand dollars. Russia, Sweden, Norway, Holland, Den- In these demonstrations of acknowledgmark, Belgium, Portugal, the United ment England alone stood aloof. We States, and, lastly and tardily, England; were just then in the midst of the charmeach sending its representative. The ob- ing delusion that a nautical science unject of this congress being the still further known to the British Admiralty could be development of meteorological science, it of very little benefit to the world—in fact, resulted in recommending the establish- was not worth knowing. Time, however, ment of hydrographical boards throughout the Russian war, and subsequent events Europe, and a uniform system of obser- have corrected that delusion. vation — the principle, it was believed, In the year 1861 the great disruption of being as applicable to land as to water. the United States on the doctrine of Hence the establishment of our own States' sovereignty took place. Maury Meteorological Department of the Board remained at his post. He never was a of Trade, over which Admiral Fitzroy pre- politician, and hence he saw with deep sided with such distinguished ability. Al regret the extremity to which things were though the recommendation was only tending. Nor was it until Virginia-his acted upon by a few of the European native State—had by formal resolution powers (thus crippling the whole scheme), seceded from the Union, that he conceived still the important measure of one uniform it to be his duty, though it never was his log and one uniform system of observation inclination, to identify himself with the was adopted; Prussia, Spain, Sardinia, movement at all. Believing in the Oldenburgh and Hanover, the Holy See, sovereign power of each state either to the Free Ports of Hamburg and Bremen, abide in or withdraw from the Union at the republic of Chili, and the empires of pleasure-a doctrine which up to that time Austria and Brazil, subsequently offering the leading statesmen of America had their co-operation.

almost invariably held, and feeling in

honor bound, like Lee, Jackson, and other “Rarely,” says Maury, in his account of this congress;"" has there been such a sublime celebrities, to follow the fortunes of his spectacle presented to the scientific world before; State, Maury reluctantly resigned his


splendid position at Washington, and been promoted by the Confederate governwithdrew from all connection with the ment to the rank of captain, came to party who were seeking to establish the England, where he remained during the doctrine of federal union by force of arms. Here he wrote some able articles in At this juncture the Grand Duke Con- defence of the State Rights doctrine, but stantine of Russia offered him a home at gave himself chiefly to scientific pursuits

. St. Petersburg, accompanying the offer In the application of magneto-electricity by the expression of so much feeling and to torpedoes he made some important disgenerosity that we cannot refrain from coveries, the secret of which, with his acgiving the invitation in extenso:

customed generosity, he offered gratuitous“St. Petersburg, 27th July, 1861.

ly to the authorities at Whitehall as a most “My Dear CAPTAIN MAURY, – The news of effective means of coast and harbor deyour having left a service which is so much in- fence; but with true British spirit the debted to your great and successful labors has offer was declined; possibly, on the supmade a very painful impression on me and my position that what a British officer does companions in arms. Your indefatigable researches have unveiled the great laws which rule the

not know is not worth knowing. Conwinds and currents of the ocean, and have placed tinental governments, however, were not your name amongst those which will be ever quite so sure of their ground. No fewer mentioned with feelings of gratitude and respect, than four, and of them, two first-class not only by professional men, but by all those who pride themselves in the great and noble at

Powers, sent over two officers each (a tainments of the human race. That your name is naval officer and an engineer) to be inwell known in Russia I need scarcely add, and, structed by Maury in this new mode of though “barbarians,' as we are still sometimes defence. called, we have been taught to honor in your person disinterested and eminent services to At the collapse of the war by the surscience and mankind.

render of Lee in the spring of 1864, CapSincerely deploring the inactivity into which tain Maury, in common with other men the purely political whirlpool in your country has

of mark who had espoused the Confedeplunged you, I deem myself called upon to invite you to take up your residence in this country,

rate cause, was not permitted to take up where you may in peace continue your favorite his residence in his native state ; yet, desiand useful occupations.

rous of living as near to his “own people” “Your position here will be a perfectly independent one. You will be bound by no condi

as possible, he took passage for Mexico, tions or engagements, and you will always be at

and arrived while the Emperor Maximilian, liberty to steer home across the ocean, in the whom he had formerly known at Miramar, event of your not preferring to cast anchor in our was in the midst of his short-lived reign. remote corner of the Baltic.

Entertaining a high opinion of Maury's “As regards your material welfare, I beg to assure you that everything will be done by me to integrity of character and wisdom in counmake your new home comfortable and agreeable, cil, and desiring to have “ some one about whilst at the same time the necessary means will him whom he could trust,” the emperor be offered you to enable you to continue your offered him his choice of a post in the scientific pursuits in the way you have been accustomed to.

Mexican government-an honor which “I shall now be awaiting your reply, hoping to was respectfully but wisely declined. He have the pleasure of soon seeing here so distin- consented, however, to accept for a time guished an officer, whose personal acquaintance the subordinate position of commissioner it has always been my desire to make, and whom Russia will be proud to welcome on her soil.

of emigration; but soon becoming conBelieve me, my dear Captain Maury,

vinced, from the unreliable character of "" Your sincere well-wisher,

the Mexican people, and the oppressive " CONSTANTINE, rule of the French occupation, that the esGrand Admiral of Russia."

tablishment of a stable government in that A similar offer was also conveyed to turbulent country was next to an impossibiCaptain Maury from His Imperial High- lity, he resigned his position, and returning ness Prince Napoleon, through the French to England took up his abode in the paambassador at Washington; but from a rish of his friend, the Rev. Dr. Tremlett, sense of duty to his native State, which at Belsize Park, Hampstead. Here, joined Maury thought had a right to his services, by his family from Virginia, and frequently if she needed them, both offers were feel- by his Dutch friend Jansen, he passed the ingly declined.

calmest and happiest days of his exile, emShortly after the withdrawal of Virginia ploying himself chiefly in writing a series from the Union, Captain Maury, who had of school books on astronomy, political

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