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a bricklayer for her second husband.” noticed in the first report of the Royal Mr. Fowler was a master bricklayer, and Commission on Historical Manuscripts : did well with his clever stepson. We can “Mr. Thinn has proved his marriage with in imagination see that sturdy boy cross- Lady Ogle, but she will not live with him, ing the Strand to go to his school within for fear of being 'rotten before she is the old church of St. Martin (then still) in ripe.' Lord Suffolk, since he lost his wife the Fields. It is as easy to picture him and daughter, lives with his sister, Northhastening of a morning early to Westmin- umberland. They have here strange amster, where Camden was second master, bassadors—one from the King of Fez, the and had a keen sense of the stuff that was other from Muscovett. All the town has in the scholar from Hartshorn Lane. Of seen the last; he goes to the play, and all the figures that fit about the locality, stinks so that the ladies are not able to none attracts our sympathies so warmly take their muffs from their noses all the as that of the boy who developed into the play-time. The lampoons that are made second dramatic poet of England.
of most of the town ladies are so nasty, Of the countesses and duchesses of this that no woman would read them, else she family, the most singular was the widow would have got them for her.” of Algernon, the tenth Earl. In her wi- “ Tom of Ten Thousand,” as Thynne dowhood she removed from her house in was called, was murdered (shot dead in the Strand (where she had given a home his carriage) in Pall Mall (1682) by not only to her husband, but to a brother) Königsmark and accomplices, two to one which occupied the site on which three of whom suffered death on the scafWhite's Club now stands. It was called fold. Immediately afterwards the maiden Suffolk House, and the proud lady thereof wife of two husbands really married maintained a semi-regal state beneath the Charles, the proud Duke of Somerset. roof and when she went abroad. On In the same year Banks dedicated to her such an occasion as paying a visit, her (Illustrious Princess, he calls her) his footmen walked bareheaded on either side Anna Bullen,' a tragedy. He says: of her coach, which was followed by a “ You have submitted to take a noble second, in which her women were seated, partner, as angels have delighted to conlike so many ladies in waiting! Her verse with men;" and “there is so much state solemnity went so far that she never of divinity and wisdom in your choice, allowed her son Joscelin's wife (daughter that none but the Almighty ever did the of an Earl) to be seated in her presence- like”. (giving Eve to Adam) “with the at least till she had obtained permission world and Eden for a dower.” Then, to do so.
after more blasphemy, and very free alluJoscelin's wife was, according to Pepys, sions to her condition as a bride, and ful“ a beautiful lady indeed.” They had but someness beyond conception, he scouts one child, the famous heiress, Elizabeth the idea of supposing that she ever should Percy, who at four years of age was left die. “ You look,” he says, “as if you had to the guardianship of her proud and nothing mortal in you. Your guardian wicked old grandmother. Joscelin was angel scarcely is more a deity than you;”. dead, and his widow married Ralph, af- and so on, in increase of bombast, crowned terwards Duke of Montague. The old by the mock humility of “my muse still Dowager Countess was a matchmaker, has no other ornament than truth." and she contracted her granddaughter, at The Duke and Duchess of Somerset the age of twelve, to Cavendish, Earl of lived in the house in the Strand, which Ogle. Before this couple were of age to continued to be called Northumberland live together Ogle died. In a year or two House, as there had long been a Somerset after, the old matchmaker engaged her House a little more to the east. Anthony victim to Mr. Thomas Thynne, of Long- Henley once annoyed the above duke and leat; but the young lady had no mind to showed his own ill-manners by addressing him. In the Hatton collection of manu- a letter “to the Duke of Somerset, over scripts there are three letters addressed by against the trunk-shop at Charing Cross." a lady of the Brunswick family to Lord The duchess was hardly more respectful and Lady Hatton. They are undated, when speaking of her suburban mansion, but they contain a curious reference to Sion House, Brentford. “It's a hobblepart of the present subject, and are thus dehoy place," she said; “neither town
nor country.” Of this union came a son, proper. The queen does not understand Algernon Seymour, who in 1748 succeed- English, and can anything be more neces ed his father as Duke of Somerset, and sary than that she should learn the vulgar in 1749 was created Earl of Northumber- tongue ?" One of the countess's familiar land, for a particular reason. He had no terms for conviviality was “junkitaceous,"
His daughter Elizabeth had encou- but ladies of equal rank had also little raged the homage of a handsome young slang words of their own, called things by fellow of that day, named Smithson. She the very plainest names, and spelt physician was told that Hugh Smithson had spoken with an “f." in terms of admiration of her beauty, and There is ample testimony on record that she laughingly asked why he did not say the great countess never hesitated at a jest as much to herself. Smithson was the son on the score of its coarseness. The earl of “ an apothecary,” according to the was distinguished rather for his pomposity envious, but, in truth, the father had been than vulgarity, though a vulgar sentiment a physician, had earned a baronetcy, and marked some of both his sayings and dowas of the good old nobility, the land- ings. For example, when Lord March owners, with an estate, still possessed by the visited him at Alnwick Castle, the Earl of family, at Stanwick, in Yorkshire. Hugh Northumberland received him at the gates Smithson married this Elizabeth Percy, with this queer sort of welcome: “I and the earldom of Northumberland, con- believe, my lord, this is the first time that ferred on her father, was to go to her hus- ever a Douglas and a Percy met here in band, and afterwards to the eldest male friendship.” The censor who said, “ Think heir of this marriage, failing which the dig- of this from a Smithson to a true Douglas," nity was to remain with Elizabeth and her had ample ground for the exclamation. heirs male by any other marriage.
George · the Third raised the earl and It is at this point that the present line of countess to the rank of duke and duchess Smithson-Percys begins. Of the couple in 1766. All the earls of older creation, who may be called its founders so many were ruffled and angry at the advancesevere things have been said, that we may ment; but the honor had its drawback.. infer that their exalted fortunes and best The King would not allow the title to qualities gave umbrage to persons of small descend to an heir by any other wife but minds or strong prejudices. Walpole's re- the one then alive, who was the true mark, that in the earl's lord-lieutenancy in representative of the Percy line. Ireland “their vice-majesties scattered The old Northumberland House festipearls and diamonds about the streets," is vals were right royal things in their way. good testimony to their royal liberality. There was, on the other hand, many a Their taste may not have been unexcep- snug, or unceremonious, or eccentric party tionable, but there was no touch of mean- given there. Perhaps the most splendid ness in it.
In 1758 they gave a supper at was that given in honor of the King of Northumberland House to Lady Yar- Denmark in 1768. His majesty was fairly mouth, George the Second's old mistress. bewildered with the splendor. There was The chief ornamental piece on the supper in the court what was called a “pantheon," table represented a grand chasse at Her- illuminated by 4000 lamps. The King, as renhausen, at which there was a carriage he sat down to supper, at the table to drawn by six horses, in which was seated which he had expressly invited twenty an august person wearing a blue ribbon, guests out of the hundreds assembled, said with a lady at his side. This was not to the duke, “ How did you contrive to unaptly called “the apotheosis of concubi- light it all in time?” “I had two hunnage.” Of the celebrated countess no- dred lamplighters,” replied the duke. tices vary. Her delicacy, elegance, and “That was a stretch," wrote candid Mrs. refinement are vouched for by some; her Delany; “ a dozen could have done the coarseness and vulgarity are asserted by business ;" which was true. others. When Queen Charlotte came to The duchess, who in early life was, in England, Lady Northumberland was made delicacy of form, like one of the Graces, one of the ladies of the queen's bedcham- became, in her more mature years, fatter ber. Lady Townshend justified it to than if the whole three had been rolled people who felt or feigned surprise, by into one in her person. With obesity remarking, “Surely nothing could be more came “an exposition to sleep,” as Bottom NEW SERIES.- VOL. XVIII., No. I
has it. At "drawing-rooms” she no he made when pacing his prison yard. sooner sank on a sofa than she was deep The Duke last referred to was in his youth in slumber; but while she was awake she at Algiers under Exmouth, and in his later would make jokes that were laughed at years a Lord of the Admiralty. As Lord and censured the next day all over Lon- Prudhoe, he was a traveller in far-away don. Her Grace would sit at a window countries, and he had the faculty of seeing in Covent Garden, and be hail fellow well what he saw, for which many travellers, met with every one of a mob of tipsy and though they have eyes, are not qualified. not too cleanly-spoken electors. On these At the pleasant Smithsonian house at occasions it was said she “signalized her- Stanwick, when he was a bachelor, his self with intrepidity.” She could bend, household was rather remarkable for the too, with cleverness to the humors of more plainness of the female servants. Satirical hostile mobs; and when the Wilkes rioters people used to say the youngest of them besieged the ducal mansion, she and the was a grandmother. Others, more chariduke appeared at a window, did salutation table or scandalous, asserted that Lord to their masters, and performed homage to Prudhoe was looked upon as a father by the demagogue by drinking his health in many in the country round, who would ale.
have been puzzled where else to look for Horace Walpole affected to ridicule the It was his elder brother Hugh ability of the Duchess as a verse writer. (whom Lord Prudhoe succeeded) who reAt Lady Miller's at Batheaston some presented England as Ambassador Extrarhyming words were given out to the com- ordinary at the coronation of Charles the pany, and any one who could, was re- Tenth at Rheims. Paris was lost in adquired to add lines to them so as to make miration at the splendor of this embassy, sense with the rhymes furnished for the and never since has the hôtel in the Rue end of each line. This sort of dancing in de Bac possessed such a gathering of fetters was called bouts rimés. “On my royal and noble personages as at the fêtes faith,” cried Walpole, in 1775," there are given there by the Duke of Northumberbouts rimés on a buttered muffin by her land. His sister, Lady Glenlyon, then reGrace the Duchess of Northumberland.” sided in a portion of the fine house in the It may be questioned whether anybody Rue de Bourbon, owned and in part occucould have surmounted the difficulty more pied by the rough but cheery old warrior, cleverly than her Grace. For example : the Comte de Lobau. When that lady
brandish, The pen which I now take and
was Lady Emily Percy, she was married Has long lain useless in my
to the eccentric Lord James Murray, Know, every maid, from her own patten afterwards Lord Glenlyon. The brideTo her who shines in glossy satin,
groom was rather of an oblivious turn of That could they now prepare an oglio
mind, and it said that when the wedding From best receipt of book
folio, Ever so fine, for all their
morn arrived, his servant had some diffiI should prefer a buttered
culty in persuading him that it was the A muffin, Jove himself might
day on which he had to get up and be If eaten with Miller, at
married, To return to the house itself. There is There remains only to be remarked, no doubt that no mansion of such preten- that as the Percy line has been often resions and containing such treasures has presented only by an heiress, there have been so thoroughly kept from the vulgar not been wanting individuals who boasted eye. There is one exception, however, to of male heirship. this remark. The Duke (Algernon) who Two years after the death of Joscelin was alive at the period of the first Exhibi- Percy in 1670, who died the last male tion threw open the house in the Strand heir of the line, leaving an only child, a to the public without reserve. The public, daughter, who married the Duke of without being ungrateful, thought it rather Somerset, there appeared, supported by a gloomy residence. Shut in and darkened the Earl of Anglesea, a most impudent
a as it now is by surrounding buildings- claimant (as next male heir) in the person canopied as it now is by clouds of London of James Percy, an Irish trunkmaker. smoke-it is less cheerful and airy than This individual professed to be a descendthe Tower, where the Wizard Earl studied ant of Sir Ingram Percy, who was in the in his prison room, or counted the turns Pilgrimage of Grace, and was brother of
inuffin ; feast on,
the sixth earl. The claim was proved to “their majesties of Middlesex,” were be unfounded; but it may have rested on the mock titles which Horace Walpole : an illegitimate foundation. As the preten- Aung at the ducal couple of his day who der continued to call himself Earl of resided at Northumberland House, LonNorthumberland, Elizabeth, daughter of don, or at Sion House, Brentford. Walpole Joscelin, “took the law" of him. Ulti-accepted and satirised the hospitality of the mately he was condemned to be taken into London house, and he almost hated the the four law courts in Westminster Hall, ducal host and hostess at Sion, because with a paper pinned to his breast, bearing they seemed to overshadow his mimic these words: “ The foolish and impudent feudal state at Strawberry! After all, pretender to the earldom of Northumber- neither early nor late circumstances conland."
nected with Northumberland House is In the succeeding century, the well- confined to memories of the inmates. known Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, Ben Jonson comes out upon us from believed himself to be the true male repre- Hartshorn Lane with more majesty than sentative of the ancient line of Percy. any of the earls; and greatness has sprung He built no claims on such belief; but from neighboring shops, and has flourishthe belief was not only confirmed by gene- ed as gloriously as any of which Percy can alogists, it was admitted by the second boast. Half a century ago, there was a heiress Elizabeth, who married Hugh long low house, a single storey high, the Smithson. Dr. Percy so far asserted his ground floor of which was a saddler's shop. blood as to let it boil over in wrath against It was on the west side of the old GoldPennant when the latter described Alnwick en Cross, and nearly opposite NorthumCastle in these disparaging words: “At berland House.
. The worthy saddler Alnwick no remains of chivalry are per- founded a noble line. Of four sons, threeceptible; no respectable train of attend- were distinguished as Sir David, Sir Fred
, ants; the furniture and gardens inconsis- erick and Sir George. Two of the worktent; and nothing, except the numbers of men became Lord Mayors of London; unindustrious poor at the castle gate, and an attorney's clerk, who used to go excited any one idea of its former circum- in at night and chat with the men, stances."
married the granddaughter of a king and “ Duke and Duchess of Charing Cross," became Lord Chancellor.- Temple Bar.
CAPTAIN MATTHEW F. MAURY.*
The death of Captain Maury, the great voyage to Australia or California, for examAmerican Hydrographer and Meteorolo- ple, to and fro, having been shortened by gist, which took place at Lexington in Vir- a month, and other voyages in proportion. ginia on the ist of March, deserves some- Thus an annual saving to the commerce of thing more than an ordinary obituary; for of the world, it is estimaetd, of no less than all the benefactors to the commercial world, several millions sterling, has been effected. in respect of the transit of merchandise Matthew Fontaine Maury was born from one port to another, the name of in the year 1806 in Spottsylvania County, Maury stands first and foremost.
Virginia, from whence he removed with His important researches into Oceanic his parents, at an early age, to the adjoinMeteorology, and the happy idea of ing State of Tennessee. turning this branch of science to prac- Manifesting a predilection for maritime tical account, resulted in a valuable series pursuits, he entered the United States navy of wind and current charts, by which the as a midshipman, at the age of nineteen; shortest and best routes over the great and in the sloop-of-war Vincennes circumocean thoroughfares were indicated—the navigated the globe.
During this cruise, which lasted four * Instead of adding another to the numerous years, he wrote a 6 Treatise on Navigation, sketches of Captain Maury's life which have ap- which, with some subsequent revisions, peared in American publications, we have thought it well to reproduce the following cordial tribüte passed through many editions, and is used to the great scientist from an influential English
as a text-book in the United States navy. scource.-EDITOR OF ECLECTIC.
It was while on this expedition that his
attention was drawn to the winds and cur- mind unbiassed by theories and speculations ; rents of the ocean, and the possibility of never to have any wish that an investigation would reducing them to a practical science. and never to attempt by premature speculation to
result in favor of this view in preference to that; After eleven years of active service he was anticipate the results of investigation, but always promoted to a lieutenancy, and appointed to trust to the observations themselves.” astronomer to the exploring expedition in Well would it be for the world and for the Southern Seas. This again gave him truth, if all scientific men could be perfurther opportunity of pursuing his studies suaded to adopt the same admirable rule. in meteorological science, and subsequently Of the great value to maritime countries led to his appointment as head of the Hy- of meteorological investigations pursued drographical Board at Washington. Here in such a spirit, Maury's friend and coadhe commenced the great undertaking with jutor, the late Admiral Fitzroy, bore ample which the name of Maury will be for ever testimony. “No criticism,” wrote that identified. He obtained copies of as many distinguished meteorologist to a mutual ships' logs as could be procured, and friend, in 1865, marked the direction of the winds and cur
“No criticism can destroy the intrinsic value rents on charts prepared for the purpose. of such systems of average as those by which his Information of this nature began to pour results were drawn from accumulations of facts. in until 1842, when he laid before the Hy- Opinions of their value have not varied since the drographical Board a plan for supplying first consignment reached the Board of Trade in
1854-5. Actual waggon loads of Maury's model log-books to the mercantile marine
charts and quarto volumes of Directions' have and naval service. These log-books were been given away in England; very many also in designed with a view of registering observa- Other countries—all distributed free of charge to tions in a systematic series. His idea was
the recipients.” adopted, and in the space of eight years In the closing paragraph of this letter, he thus collected a sufficient number of logs the Admiral alludes to one of his friend's to make 200 manuscript volumes of 2500 most distinguished traits-personal disin. days each, or nearly seven years of the terestedness. It was characteristic of him daily observations of each ship's captain. through life, that he never sought to beneThe digest of these observations gave em- fit himself by his arduous labors, or to make ployment to a large staff of assistants, and pecuniary profit out of his researches; his resulted in the Winds and Currents sole object being to benefit mankind at Charts,' together with two quarto volumes large. Even within a few weeks of his of Sailing Directions, which bear the death, we find him endeavoring to rouse name of the indefatigable compiler. up his countrymen by most stirring speeches
To give an idea of the extent and value and writings to the importance of the of this Herculean task it may be sufficient establishment of meteorological boards to mention, that the construction of the throughout the world, in order to effect Wind Chart alone (Plate I. in his · Physi- for the farmer and agriculturist on the cal Geography ') was the result of 1,159,353 land what had been so well done for voyseparate observations on the force and agers and for commerce on the ocean. direction of the wind, and upwards of 100,- It was during the intervals of relaxation ooo observations on the height of the baro- at Washington, while analysing and tabumeter at sea.
lating these myriads of observations, that The genuinely scientific spirit in which Maury wrote his popular work, 'The Phyhe entered upon the vast work may be sical Geography of the Sea, and its Meteogathered from the rule which he tells the rology,'—one of the most charming books maritime world he laid down for himself at in the English language. The extent of the commencement. In the . Introduction scientific information which this work conto Explanations and Sailing Directions to veys, or its easy, unaffected style, cannot accompany the Wind and Current Charts,' be at all gathered from the enumeration
of the subjects of which it treats. The “I wish to announce a rule of conduct by which
work must be read to be appreciated. It I have been guided from the commencement of would be speaking of it in a very general this work, and by which I mean to be guided to way to say that it treats of the sea (which the end : for not only has experience proved it it does),-its Nature,' .Currents,' 'Acwise, but it is in principle so good that to it I at. tribute much of the success which has attended tinometry' and «Climates '; — The Bed these labors. This rule has been to keep the and Basin of the Atlantic,' the “Influence