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faces told that Kingswood colliers were weeping, or the quivering of an ostrich-plume bespoke its elegant wearer's deep emotion. And coming to his work direct from communion with his Master, and in all the strength of accepted prayer, there was an elevation in his mien which often paralyzed hostility, and a self-possession which only made him, amid uproar and fury, the more sublime. With an electric bolt he would bring the jester in his fool's cap from his perch on the tree, or galvanize the brick-bat from the skulking miscreant's grasp, or sweep down in crouching submission and shame-faced silence the whole of Bartholomew fair ; whilst a revealing flash of sententious doctrine or vivified Scripture would disclose to awestruck hundreds the forgotten verities of another world, or the unsuspected arcana of their inner man. “I came to break your head, but, through you, God has broken my heart,” was a sort of confession with which he was. familiar; and to see the deaf old gentlewoman, who used to mutter imprecations at him as he passed along the street, clambering up the pulpit-stairs to catch his angelic words, was a sort of spectacle which the triumphant Gospel often witnessed in his day. And when it is known that his voice could be heard by twenty thousand, and that, ranging all the empire, as well as America, he would often preach thrice on a working-day, and that he has received in one week as many as a thousand letters, from persons awakened by his sermons ; if no estimate can be formed of the results of his ministry, some idea may be suggested of its vast extent and singular effectiveness.
The following codicil was added to Whitefield's will :—“N.B. I also leave a mourning ring to my honoured and dear friends, the Rev. John and Charles Wesley, in token of my indissoluble union with them, in heart and Christian affection, not withstanding our difference in judgment about some particular points of doctrine."
The “points of doctrine” were chiefly the extent of the atonement and the perseverance of the saints; the “indissoluble union” was occasioned by their all-absorbing love to the same Saviour, and untiring efforts to make his riches known. They quarrelled a little, but they loved a great deal more. Few characters could be more completely the converse, and, in the church's exigencies, more happily the supplement, of one another, than were those of George Whitefield and John WESLEY ;* and had their views been identical, and their labours all along coincident, their large services to the Gospel might have repeated Paul and Barnabas. Whitefield was soul, and Wesley was system. Whitefield was a summer-cloud which burst at morning or noon in fragrant exhilaration over an ample tract, and took the rest of the day to gather again ; Wesley was the polished conduit in the midst of the garden, through which the living water glided in pearly brightness and perennial music, the same vivid stream from day to day. After a preaching paroxysm, Whitefield lay panting on his couch, spent, breathless, and death-like : after his morning sermon in the Foundry, Wesley would mount his pony, and trot and chat and gather simples, till he reached some country hamlet, where he would bait his charger, and talk through a little sermon with the villagers, and re-mount his pony and trot away again. In his aërial poise, Whitefield's eagle eye drank lustre from the source of light, and loved to look down on men in assembled myriads : Wesley's falcon glance did not sweep so far, but it searched more keenly and marked more minutely where it pierced. A master of assemblies, Whitefield was no match for the isolated man: seldom coping with the multitude, but strong in astute sagacity and personal ascendancy, Wesley
* Born, 1703. Died, 1791.
could conquer any number one by one. All force and impetus, Whitefield was the powder-blast in the quarry, and by one explosive sermon would shake a district, and detach materials for other men's long work : deft, neat, and painstaking, Wesley loved to split and trim each fragment into uniform plinths and polished stones. Or, taken otherwise, Whitefield was the bargeman or the waggoner who brought the timber of the house, and Wesley was the architect who set it up. Whitefield had no patience for ecclesiastical polity, no aptitude for pastoral details : with a beaver-like propensity for building, Wesley was always constructing societies, and, with a King-like craft of ruling, was most at home when presiding over a class or a Conference. It was their infelicity that they did not always work together; it was the happiness of the age and the furtherance of the Gospel that they lived alongside of one another. Ten years older than his pupil, Wesley was a year or two later of attaining the joy and freedom of Gospel forgiveness. It was whilst listening to Luther’s Preface to the Romans, where he describes the change which God works in the heart through faith in Christ, that he felt his own heart strangely warmed; and finding that he trusted in Christ alone for salvation, “ an assurance was given him that Christ had taken away his sins, and saved him from the law of sin and death.” And though in his subsequent piety a subtle analyst may detect a trace of that mysticism which was his first religion; even as to his second religion, Moravianism, he was indebted for some details of his eventual church-order ;- -no candid reader will deny that “righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost,” had now become the religion of the Methodist; and for the half century of his ubiquitous career, his piety retained this truly evangelic type. A cool observer, who met him towards the close, records, “So fine an old man I never saw. The happiness of his mind beamed forth in his countenance. Every look showed how fully he enjoyed “the gay remembrance of a life well spent ;' and wherever he went, he diffused a portion of his own felicity. Easy and affable in his demeanour, he accommodated himself to every sort of company, and showed how happily the most finished courtesy may be blended with the most perfect piety. In his conversation, we might be at a loss whether to adınire most, his fine classical taste, his extensive knowledge of men and things, or his overflowing goodness of heart. While the grave and serious were charmed with his wisdom, his sportive sallies of innocent mirth delighted even the
and thoughtless; and both saw, in his uninterrupted cheerfulness, the excellency of true religion."* To a degree scarcely paralleled, his piety had supplanted those strong instincts,—the love of worldly distinction, the love of money, and the love of ease. The answer which he gave to his brother, when refusing to vindicate himself from a newspaper calumny, “ Brother, when I devoted to God my ease, my time, my life, did I except my reputation?” was no casual sally, but the system of his conduct. From the moment that the Fellow of Lincoln went out into the highways and hedges, and commenced itinerant Preacher, he bade farewell to earthly fame. And perhaps no Englishman, since the days of Bernard Gilpin, has given so much away. When his income was thirty pounds a year, he lived on twenty-eight, and saved two for charity. Next year he had sixty pounds; and, still living on twenty-eight, he had thirty-two to spend. A fourth year raised his income to a hundred and twenty pounds; and, steadfast to his plan, the poor got ninety-two. In the year 1775, the Accountant--General sent him a copy of the Excise order for a return of
* Alexander Knox.
plate: “Rev. Sir,—As the Commissioners cannot doubt but you have plate, for which you have hitherto neglected to make an entry,” &c.; to which he wrote this memorable answer :-“Sir, I have two silver tea-spoons at London, and two at Bristol. This is all the plate which I have at present; and I shall not buy any more while so many around me want bread. I am, Sir, your most humble servant, John Wesley.” And though it is calculated that he must have given more than twenty thousand pounds away, all his property, when he died, consisted of his clothes, his books, and a carriage. Perhaps, like a ball burnished by motion, his perpetual activity helped to keep him thus brightly clear from worldly pelf; and when we remember its great pervading motive, there is something sublime in this good man's industry. Rising every morning at four, travelling every year upwards of four thousand miles, and preaching nearly a thousand sermons, exhorting societies, editing books, writing all sorts of letters, and giving audience to all sorts of people, the ostensible President of Methodism and Pastor of all the Methodists, and amidst his ceaseless toils betraying no more bustle than a planet in its course, he was a noble specimen of that fervent diligence which, launched on its orbit by a holy and joyful impulse, has ever afterwards the peace of God to light it on its way. Nor should we forget his praiseworthy efforts to diffuse a Christianized philosophy, and propagate useful knowledge among religious people. In the progress of research most of his compilations may have lost their value; but the motive was enlightened, and the effort to exemplify his own idea was characteristic of the well-informed and energetic man. In Christian authorship he is not entitled to rank high. Clear as occasional expositions are, there is seldom comprehension in his views, or grandeur in his thoughts, or inspiration in his practical appeals; and though his direct and simple style is sometimes terse, it is often meager, and
racy. His voluminous Journals are little better than a turnpike log,-miles, towns, and sermon-texts,—whilst their authoritative tone and self-centring details give the record an air of arrogance and egotism which, we doubt not, would disappear could we view the venerable writer face to face. Assuredly his power was in his presence. Such fascination resided in his saintly mien, there was such intuition in the twinkle of his mild but brilliant eye, and such a dissolving influence in his lively, benevolent, and instructive talk, that enemies often left him admirers and devotees. And should any regard the Wesleyan system as the mere embodiment of Mr. Wesley's mind, it is a singular triumph of worth and firmness. Never has a theological idiosyncracy perpetuated itself in a church so large and stable. But though every pin and cord of the Methodist tabernacle bears trace of the fingers, concinnate and active, which reared it, the Founder's most remarkable memorial is his living monument. Wesley has not passed away ; for, if embalmed in the Connexion, he is re-embodied in the members. Never did a leader so stamp his impress on his followers. The Covenanters were not such fac-similes of Knox, nor were the imperial guards such enthusiastic copies of their little Corporal, as are the modern Methodists the perfect transmigration of their venerated father. Exact, orderly, and active; dissident, but not Dissenters; connexional, but catholic ; carrying warmth within, and yet loving southerly exposures ; obliging without effort, and liberal on system ; serene, contented, and hopeful ;-if we except the master-spirits, whose type is usually their own ;-the most of pious Methodists are cast from Wesley's neat and cheerful mould. That goodness must have been attractive as well as very imitable, which has survived in a million of living effigies.
DR. CHALMERS THE PREACHER THIRTY YEARS SINCE.
NEVER, perhaps, did the world possess any orator whose minutest peculiarities of gesture and voice have more power in increasing the effect of what he says; whose delivery, in other words, is the first, and the second, and the third excellence of his oratory, more truly than is that of Dr. Chalmers. And yet, were the spirit of the man less gifted than it is, there is no question, these, his lesser peculiarities, would never have been numbered among his points of excellence. His voice is neither strong nor melodious. His gestures are neither easy nor graceful; but, on. the contrary, extremely rude and awkward. His pronunciation is not only broadly national, but broadly provincial, distorting almost every word he utters into some barbarous novelty, which, had his hearer leisure to think of such things, might be productive of an effect at once ludicrous and offensive in a singular degree.
But of a truth, these are things which no listener can attend to while this great Preacher stands before him, armed with all the weapons of the most commanding eloquence, and swaying all around him with its imperial rule. At first, indeed, there is nothing to make one suspect what riches are in store. He commences in a low, drawling key, which has not even the merit of being solemn, and advances from sentence to sentence, and from paragraph to paragraph, while you seek in vain to catch a single echo that gives promise of that which is to come. There is, on the contrary, an appearance of constraint about him, that affects and distresses you : you are afraid that his breast is weak, and that even the slight exertion he makes may be too much for it. But then, with what tenfold richness does this dim preliminary curtain make the glories of his eloquence to shine forth, when the heated spirit at length shakes from its chill-confining fetters, and bursts out, elate and rejoicing, in the full splendour of its disimprisoned wings !--Peter's Letters to his Kinsfolk.
NEW CITY OF MAHOMET ALI.*
CEREMONIES CONNECTED WITH LAYING THE FOUNDATION
OF THE BARRAGE.+
(FROM OUR CORRESPONDENT IN CAIRO.) It was the wish of the Viceroy of Egypt, that this great work, so replete with importance to the future destiny of this country, should be consecrated by every national as well as religious usage. Penetrated with this idea, His Highness fixed on Thursday, the 8th of April last, for laying the foundation-stone. The fantasia commenced with illuminations, fire-works, and every demonstration of popular rejoicing. Friday, however, became the great day, and before twelve o'clock at noon the first stone was laid. By the command of Mahomet Ali, His Excellency Backia Bey, the Governor of Cairo, with his colleague Edem Bey, the leading Minister of the
* See Wesleyan Magazine, vol. Ixix.,—or vol. ii., Fourth Series,-p. 1201.
+ The Barrage, or Funr El Bhur, as the apex of the Delta is now called, is to be crossed by two bridges ; so that both the eastern and western branches of the Nile will be rendered more fruitful, and may be more effectually protected in case of war.-Edit.
Public Works, went down to the spot some days before, to facilitate the necessary arrangements. For days previous to the ceremony, the south wind from the desert, called the kamaseen, had continued to blow with fiery breath, and caused much fear lest the royal display should be badly attended. These fears happily were vain; and that Providence which has so remarkably advanced the fortunes of Mahomet Ali, again appeared for him in the dawn of a cool, bright, and beautiful day. The wind, which on the 6th was from the south-west, hot and suffocating, and impregnated with sand, on the 7th rose suddenly due north ; and the thermometer, which had been 24° of Reau., now fell as suddenly to 18° of Reau.
On Thursday the Pasha was joined by the foreign Consuls-General, who breakfasted with him at Shubra ; and, by eleven A. M., the royal steamer was in full motion down the Nile with His Highness and his guests on board. Boats, cangies, derabeahs, every kind of vessel that could sail or swim, was laid under contribution to follow the royal barque, each containing its quantum of sight-loving spectators. As the steamer, bearing the standard of Egypt, swept along the polished surface of the Nile, the Arab women struck up their joyful yakreet, or “to, to, to,” in honour of the Pasha. At half-past twelve he reached the apex of the Delta. Multitudes had already assembled there, anxious to greet the royal steamer. They gave no mean idea of what the population may become, when upon this locality shall rise, in all its grandeur, the new city of Mahomet Ali. The Ulima, and the high officers of state from Cairo, with other persons of distinction, were already in waiting, having been brought down in Government-steamers, placed by order of the Pasha at the free disposal of the respectable inhabitants, and which had been plying constantly between the Barrage and the capital. About one P. M., a steamer arrived from Alexandria, having on board the Spanish Consul-General, the representative of the Austrian Consul, and some personal friends of His Highness, who had been honoured by a particular invitation.
After sunset some twenty thousand lamps began to be reflected from the glassy bosom of the Nile, and to illuminate the spacious squares, and long lines of streets, marked out as the site of the future city, which a few months ago presented only a cluster of wretched huts. But now, as if by magic art, palaces and mansions rear their stately forms, and show, that the spirit of reforın, as well as of civilization, is taking root and putting forth branches in the land of Egypt. Amongst the buildings already erected, we must particularize the beautiful mansion of Mongel Bey, the chief engineer, and the palace of the Pasha, where the beams and blocks of wood are ingeniously and elaborately joined together, and all surrounded with pillars, the magnificent gift of His Majesty the King of Sweden.
At six o'clock, a grand dinner was served in the princely tent of His Highness, where the chief officers, Consuls, and strangers of distinction were entertained. At nine, a temporary theatre was opened, where a German, of mountebank talent, with his corps, performed feats of agility. At ten the fire-works began : the grand display was opposite the royal tent, on the western margin of the Nile. The brilliancy of the scene was startling, as one burst of splendour after another arose in the clear atmosphere, and was reflected on the broad mirror of that ancient river. The vast number of boats sprinkled over the Barrage, added not a little to the interest of the picture ; for each contributed its share of illumination, from the simple taper and oil-light to the wreaths of variegated lamps. All this strongly recalled to our remembrance the description of those magnificent