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cated is a liberty founded on law, and by law guarded. In the same proportion in which true liberty is a blessing, false liberty is a curse.

In tracing “the administration of divine law,” in what he terms “its ordinary and silent course,” (p. 97,) Dr. Hamilton marks, as produced by it in the sphere of man's moral nature and agency, “three peculiarities.” These are, habit, character, and consequence. Had we room, we should be glad to quote his judicious, his very instructive and admonitory, declarations upon them all. All are so important, that we really feel a difficulty in making our choice. On the whole, however, we are inclined to fix upon the last. By the divine appointment, from actions habits grow; out of these character is formed ; and character is awfully connected with consequence. On this the Lecturer observes :

The third peculiarity which our argu- stemmed. Prudence must be falsified. ment, concerning the operation of the Probability must be destroyed. Analogy divine government, suggests, is, conse- must be annulled. Experience must be quence. Since habit has moulded cha- frustrated. But we have the proof of racter, that definite bearing of the whole it in ourselves. We know that all is mind, and thus in a measure a conse- under our control by being at our choice. quence itself, every consequence of which We can place it before us. we now speak is something, not neces- look into the seed of time and things. sarily external, but future, however proxi. We possess a power of infallible foremating, something successive to the sight. We can, with perfect sureness,

It may be that our conduct is fol- determine what will impart dissatisfaclowed by pleasurable feeling, honourable tion and inspire complacency, what will esteem, the health of body, and the excite uneasiness and secure peace. And strength of mind. It may bring re- we believe that these are evidences that morse, disease, the wounded fame, the God judgeth in the earth. It is his heavy-laden heart. We are expectant doing. He has not originated, which of all these issues. We are aware of were impossible, eternal laws of right, but the order in which they will occur. It he has enacted them in his government is no difficult prediction of what intem- us, and has created us in reference and perance must induce. It is as easy to subordination to them. He has caused foretell the result of evil in the mind. us to feel the influence of conformity to Experience attests what is the entail of them, or of departure from them, at vice upon the circumstances of the pre- every point. He has honoured them, sent life. " The seed of evil-doers shall and established his own perfect excelnever be renowned.” That which we lence by reflecting them in his law. must seek distinctly to trace is the affi- " For the work of a man will he rennity between such conduct and effects. der unto him, and cause every man to In many instances this is too obvious to find according to his ways.” That the need a remark. The fall from a moun- contrary cannot be, that the contrary tain-precipice is not a plainer cause of cannot be conceived, is only an example destruction. But even in more remote which might find numberless parallels, and entangled consequences, study and and derogates in nowise from the holy reflection will convince us that a inoral and legislative rectitude of the Infinite antecedent accounts for all. The recom- Will. The principles of right and goodpence is meet. Like follows like. The are unconditionally and eternally philosophy of medicines and poisons necessary ; but the consequences of which cannot be better understood. The ordi- we speak are only relatively necessary to nances of seed-time and harvest cannot a system which might not, and need not, be more perfectly developed. It is thus have been, to a particular condition of that the divine government can promise divine government and creatural respon. good and forewarn evil. It is thus that sibility. As that rule is based, as that

can anticipate, as in any secular responsibility is imposed, consequence is affairs, what must flow froin virtue and not only due effect, the result of the navice. These are events which must pro- ture of things, what we most feel in any ceed, which only can ensue. To arrest circumstances,-it rises into moral rethem, all things must be obeyed. Out- quital. Its undeviating uniformity only ward and inward nature must be inverted. better confirms the fact, and glorifies the There must be a dissolution of every law which finds in it so constant and so social tie and bond. Tendency must be exact a retribution. (Page 105.)



Will the reader allow us to remind him, that here (as, indeed, throughout) we do not quote for the mere purpose of giving specimens of style, or curious exhibitions of thought; our object is practical ? Losing sight of Dr. Hamilton and his authorship, here are facts and principles which concern every-day life, and ought never to be overlooked ; can never be overlooked with safety, nor without some painful experience of their truth. They say to all, and es ally to the young, “Seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness.”

Before we pass on to the next lecture, we quote, chiefly for the sake of the argument suggested in the concluding one, the two following paragraphs. Our feeling upon it is precisely that which Dr. Hamilton expresses; and, the longer we live, the more intently we peruse the sacred volume, the more carefully, both as to penetration and breadth, we survey mankind, the stronger it becomes. We never contemplate the facts of the case under this aspect, without the conviction, not merely that the Bible is true, both as to statements and authorship,true, as containing truth divine, and divinely given,—but that it cannot be otherwise. Its falsehood is inconceivable. The physical constitution of the world is not more directly demonstrative against atheism, than is its moral constitution against Deism.

We have thus endeavoured to build This “glorious Gospel of the blessed wide and strong the foundations of moral

God” we possess.

We verify it by science, or rather of natural theology. abundance of authenticating proofs. For if there be a revealed religion, it can Miracle and prophecy surround it with only be addressed to man, as already (in an external divinity. Yet were it our the constitution of his nature) a religious business now to arrange its evidences, we being. It must come from Him who is would willingly forsake the prouder signs, previously known to be the Creator and the more trophied monuments, dwelling Ruler of man. It must take its place upon that intrinsic credibility which it among relations antecedently established presents in its contrivance and adaptaand ascertained. But if this revelation tion to engage the faculties, and reach convey a restorative means, it can only the wants, of man. He who was its be addressed to this religious being as Author “knew what was in man;" all fallen. It must, therefore, in both cases, the motives by which he can be affected, be subsequent to such a state of man as all the relations in which he stands. supposes his responsibility, and to such

(Page 112.) a state of man as supposes his defection.

And can that book possibly be other than divine, which does really and truly, and in their proper direction and object, state “all the motives by which man can be affected ;” and describe clearly, in their just order, subordination, harmony, and practical requirements, "all the relations in which he stands ?

In the third lecture, Dr. Hamilton establishes the “Harmony of Revelation with Natural Religion." The argument is eloquently expanded, brightly illustrated; but its substance may be stated in few words. Revelation speaks to man as we have found that actually he is. He is a creature composed of body and spirit; and as such it addresses him. He is a moral agent; and such the Scriptures suppose hiin to be. He is immortal; and to his immortality continual and most impressive reference is made. There are likewise announcements arising out of these subjects, relating to the original constitution of man, which properly deserve the name of discoveries ; such are the resurrection of the dead, and the judgment both of the soul, immediately on its departure from the body, and of the whole man in that great and final account-day, whose sentences extend forward into this measureless eternity. But all these subjects, distinctly contained in the volume of inspiration, evidently suppose man to be just as we find

it may

him, both in original constitution and the condition induced by sin. No discrepancy exists. Nature itself is explained, and by means of revelation become better understood.

An extract or two will illustrate the ability with which these topics are treated. He thus refers in passing to the parable of the rich man and Lazarus :

In one most emphatic disclosure, our sciousness. They remember, know, feel, Lord has set before us the invisible world themselves. It is an unalterable state. in its Rewards and Punishments. Per- There is a great gulf. Where is the haps the curtain, which overhangs it, was cross-way which can span it ? Where is never so widely drawn aside. It is not the hidden path from these opposing entitled a parable. The description strands ? It admits of no relief, however stands out with a realness which pro- intense the suffering. Not the tip of the claims its certainty and truth. And well finger of the blessed may be dipped in

“ He hath the keys of death water to cool the scorched tongue. It and of the unseen state.” In some sense may be that there are new conditions we may call it a parable: we should not introduced into these spiritual realms oppose the most absolute application of since the resurrection and ascension of the term.

Its great principles become the Son of God. It may be that the not, by this concession, ambiguous. dread allusions, which we have marked, Such a vehicle always contains soine more nearly correspond to what existed history; what might be ; what has been; previously to these august events. But what is. A fixed moral does it inva- if we be asked, Does the machinery, the riably present. Even its accessories are incidental description, agree to fact ? often pregnantly instructive. In this We believe that, substantially, it does. forewarning, we follow two human Though these abodes be not now conbeings,—their circumstantial states are tiguous, and even then “ Abraham was merely to be considered as exponents of afar off,” the thought of the lost heaven character, types of their respective moral is present to the minds of those who classes,-in life, in death, into eternity. themselves are lost. Though this diaThat eternity opens at once. Its dis- logue were never held, there must be a tinctions are, without any formality of knowledge of the saved by the lost, and of preparation, unveiled. The indifferent, the lost by the saved. Such appeals and common, character of hades, as held by answers, though only supposed, are not some, as apparently warranted by it's less the assertions of general truths. It often indefinite use, is suddenly refuted. is due to the whole of the genius and The poor man is in Abraham's bosom, framing of this disclosure, that its perand is comforted : the rich man is tor- fect impression be allowed to settle upon mented in the flame. It is impossible our souls. We may well submit the to evade the immediateness of these dis- judgment of those souls to Him, who, tinctions. We feel the stroke of the with unapproachable authority, could say, spirit's wing towards its perfection; we “We speak that we do know, and testify hear the plunge of the spirit into its that we have seen.” (Page 146.) fiery abyss. All is taught to us of con

In the following impressive remarks, Dr. Hamilton points out the great principle on which future judgment is based, and its true relation to the redeeming administration which divine wisdom and love have devised. Without naming Antinomianism, doctrinal or practical, he shows how fearfully it is opposed to the truth :The judgment-seat is not the mercy- to have been received, have moulded the

We must regard this awful trans- righteous character, and stamped the holy action as an inquest into character. It life? These sovereign favours are reis in our character of responsible agents flected in their proofs ; but the proofs are that we must give account of ourselves the exclusive subjects of the scrutiny. unto God. In that simple condition The merit of Christ is still the ground shall we stand there. The question is of hope. The power of the Holy Ghost only implicitly whether we have obtained is still the cause of difference. But the mercy, and found grace in the sight of adjudication proceeds on the evidence of God: the question truly and directly is, character and conduct, not the righteouswhether such mercy and grace, supposed ness of Christ, but the mind of Christ, not the gift, but the sanctification, of the purity of the divine grace, to whom it Spirit. Faith is dead without its work, was most reverently dear, even saturating love is dissimulation without its labour, all their thoughts and emotions, have hope is not hope without its waiting ever thus spoken of duty and its remupatience, repentance needs to be repented nerableness. We will be no parties to of without the fruits meet for it. These the dilution of their vigorous style. It statements are due to a healthy, mascu- agrees with “ the words of the Lord,” line Christianity. It is a system of which are pure words." We will not Rewards and Punishments. The Chris- enfeeble it by explanation, nor dishonour tian is a candidate for the approval of it by concession. Duty would cease to his Judge. He labours that, whether be duty if not urged upon such terms. present or absent, he may be accepted of All would admit that this would be true him. He is a probationer for that sen. were it attempted against law; that it tence, “Well done, good and faithful would surrender its authority, betray its servant !” It is not a holy humility to name, and contradict its notion, but for hide and weaken views like these. It is its sanctions. Yet, what is law, save the false and profane to set any honours of handwriting of duty ? Was it a sordid mercy against them. The constitution thing in the lowly suppliants for mercy, under which they, who were enemies in to emulate the crown of eternal life? their minds by wicked works,” may now It was thus that the ancient saints “ had “walk before God unto all well-pleasing, respect unto the recompence of reward," may know that he “has a favour towards and struggled “for a better resurrection;" them,” may seek a recompence, is natu- it was thus that the first propagandists rally a constitution of mercy. To affect of the Gospel, amidst the gathering a greater jealousy for the claims of clouds of mortality, and the rising terrors mercy, than its own constitution demands, of martyrdom, could address their con. is most hypocritically to insult it. Well- verts,—“ Look to yourselves, that we lose being is the state and disposition which not those things which we have wrought, it confers; but well-doing is the course but that we receive a full reward;” could it enjoins, and the evidence it requires. each lift his eyes to heaven, and assuredly There is allotted to us a charge and a exclaim, “I have fought a good fight, trust. We must give account of that I have finished my course, I have kept stewardship. We are a peculiar people, the faith ; henceforth there is laid up for zealous of good works. We must carry me a crown of righteousness, which the out that description. Wisdom must be Lord, the righteous Judge, shall give me justified of her children.


We must at that day; and not to me only, but study to show ourselves approved unto unto all them also that love his appearGod. The men who have most clearly ing." (Page 183.) and triumphantly vindicated the unmixed

We are not sure whether we should not refer to the fourth lecture, “The Nature and Rewardableness of Christian Virtue,”- being the most valuable of the series. There is much less brilliancy in it than in some of the others; but there is more consecutive and cogent argument. The Lecturer seems to have been less anxious to adorn than to prove. There is, therefore, no prismatic light shed upon the subject. It is the day-light of pure truth, directed towards it for its illustration and establishment. We again see in the Lecturer the stern and uncompromising opponent of the fearfully-destructive and too common heresy of Antinomianism,—the disposition to make void the law through faith. Dr. Hamilton's object is not only to repel the assailant, but to win back the positions he has unjustly occupied. With the Apostle, it is not enough that he proves that the law is not made void by faith : he demonstrates that thus the law is established. He shows, beyond the possibility of refutation, that the Gospel of the grace of God is, in perfect harmony with its graciousness and mercy, a system of moral rule, throughout, administered on moral principles; and in its process and results, as well as in its great foundation, a clear exhibition, à commanding declaration, of the righteousness of God. He is Sovereign as well as Redeemer. He is our God, not only as our portion, and the object of our choice, but as our Ruler, and as the object of our

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obedient service. The mercy-seat is his throne ; if of grace, yet also of authority; and the whole dispensation of mercy proceeds on the principles and with the forms of a moral administration. He pardons all those, but only those, who truly repent of their sins; and, in immediate combination with repentance, there is an abandonment of sin, in and from the heart. The final rewards of mercy are freely given ; but they are sovereignly dispensed by the Lord, the Righteous Judge, and only bestowed on those whom he can address as good and faithful servants. David describeth the blessedness of the man to whom God imputeth righteousness without works, as flowing from the forgiveness and non-imputation of sin; St. John describeth the blessedness of those that keep his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. In the course of the last century, some zealous friends of the doctrines of grace, as they were termed, misapprehending the application of these great principles, strenuously opposed them: we are thankful to find Dr. Hamilton contending for them, as earnestly as if he had been a disciple of Fletcher of Madeley. He learned them where Mr. Fletcher learned them, in the word of God.

After some preparatory observations, designed to clear his way to his great argument, he says :

Now it may be necessary to adduce repugnant to their taste : they never proof that the Christian revelation does employ it but with qualification. They aver the doctrine and promise of rewards. might almost account inspiration incauThe theme of penal retribution must tious in its style. They are always afterwards be considered. To the ques- ready to correct it. They affect a contion of these rewards our present atten- cern for the divine character which it tion is claimed. Not a few who bear the does not confess. They are always Christian name survey the subject with impatient to set it right. It is a senti. jealousy and dislike. They suspect its morbid and profane ! It is interference and incompatibleness with “ speaking wickedly for God !” salvation by grace. Its vocabulary is

(Page 194.) That he may not be mistaken, he strongly asserts the doctrines of salvation through the alone and perfect merit of the Lord Jesus Christ. But, having done this, he goes to the establishment of his thesis, the rewardableness of Christian virtue.

Instead of any one continuous extract, we intend to give the opening of each of the paragraphs containing the several branches of his reasoning :

We are bou as openly to declare holds not with the first speculative view this doctrine as any other. In maintain- of love, &c. (Ibid.) ing all truth, we shock many classes of 2. Whatever was rewardable at any persons, and many orders of feelings : time, and in any circumstances, on acwhy are they, who oppose the theology count of its now intrinsic qualities, or its of Christian rewards, only to be accom- agreement with the nature of things, modated and soothed ? Are they the must be always rewardable. Light and most worthy defenders of divine grace ? darkness, sweet and bitter, are not less Are they the most devoted assertors of interchangeable than good and evil, right morality? Are they the men of large and wrong, &c. (Page 200.) views, of connected ideas, of holiest 3. An analogy will be found to the principles? We must revere the diction conditions of reward in the highest of Scripture, nor trust ourselves to refine examples, as well as in the humblest upon it. (Page 199.)

forms of moral motive. We wish it to 1. If it be objected that a mercenary be understood that motive of this kind feeling is implied in this idea and expec- can alone constitute the freedom and tation, we disclaim, once for all, that significance of any moral act, &c. religion ever proposes itself to an abstract

(Page 201.) disinterestedness in man. Such a tenet 4. If human conduct, so influenced


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