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rank below the Kshetriya. This caste usually receive an education sufficient for commercial purposes; and some of them push their attainments into elegant literature. None of them is ever found unable to write and keep accounts, except in case of very deep poverty. Their commercial system is far advanced. Shops of all descriptions abound; weekly markets are as common as among ourselves; the religious festivals serve for fairs; and banks exist everywhere. Their rate of interest is usurious, graduating from one to five per cent. per month. Their circulating medium is gold, silver, and copper money, coined in moulds that will bear comparison with those of some of our continental neighbours. Their pieces descend to the fourth of a farthing. In some Indian countries cowries (a species of small shell) circulate. They have a system of making bargains by signs ; so that buyer and seller can put their hands under a cloth, and, without being observed, can debate and conclude the sale by touches of the fingers. This suspicious mode of dealing is not confined to Hindustan, but is known also in Persia. Their commerce is most defective in means of transport. Except upon a few of the great rivers, nearly all carriage is effected on the backs of bullocks : where the English have made roads, small bullockcarts are in use ; but in the greater part of the country they have only native roads, which in the finest weather are scarcely passable for wheels, and in the rains are utterly impracticable. The ox toils alone in the work of conveyance ; the elephant and camel are for Kings ; the horse is used only as a steed; the ass is resigned to the Lumbardi and the washerman ; the mule (although, as shown in a preceding extract, the Vishnu Purana gives an account of their creation as a separate species) is little known; and the day of locomotives is to come. The commencement of that day will mark a new era in the commercial history of India, and will be fertile of results in universal commerce. It will disclose unthought-of resources, and stir drowsy communities to wakeful enterprise. It will tend more than any other material cause to break up the monotony of Hindu life, and to carry all things onward with unheard-of progress. Nor could we easily overrate its tendency to complete the stability and consolidation of the British Government, and to aid the diffusion of that light before which superstition hides.
Marine commerce offends the genius of Hinduism. It is impossible to be long at sea without violating ceremonial laws essential to purity. Hence considerable difficulty has been found in prevailing on some native regiments to embark; and no Bramhan of sound caste-feeling would undertake a long voyage. With them, as with the ancient Persians, this prejudice has much checked naval enterprise : yet a large amount of native shipping exists; but its character is far below the ingenuity of the Hindus. That immobility into which the system of hereditary callings freezes the whole stream of art, has held naval architecture in precisely the same place where it stood long centuries ago. But a new spring is now warming their land, and signs of progress appear. Ships built on our models are increasing in number; and at Bombay, as is well known, they have produced, both for our Indian trade and for the navy, vessels of the highest order, far exceeding those built at home in strength and durability.
The fourth caste, the Shudra, springing from the foot of the creator, and pervaded by the quality of darkness, is born to toil and to contempt. To this class belong all labourers in agriculture, and in arts, either the useful or the fine. Among them education is at a low ebb. Many of them cannot read ; and comparatively few can write and keep accounts. But individuals are found who, through prosperous circumstances, or bold talent, have gained an education not inferior to the Bramhans. In some languages also, the most noted authors have been of the servile class. The fact that agriculture and art are placed, in rank, below war and commerce, would seem already to indicate that the caste-division was fixed in a state of society, already so far advanced, that Priests had the learning, armies the power, and merchants the wealth, by which they were all raised above the industrial classes.
Among the Shudras the most numerous and important class is the Ryot, or agriculturist. From the earth our framie sprang, and to the earth it must ever bend in search of renewal ; whence it came itself, comes all its strength. It receives nourishment only from its mother's breast. To cultivate this nourishment in flocks and in fruits is man's original care. As cultivators, the Hindus are respectable. They are adepts at irrigation, well understand the seasons, know something of a rotation of crops, and rear a great variety of grains, pulse, and fruit. Their toil is softened by their generous climate. The farmer walks out lightly in the morning, with his team before him, and his plough on his shoulder; or, if it be needful, a plough on each. The furrow required being only a scratch two or three inches deep, the plough has neither coulter nor mould-board ; piece of wood, tipped with iron, serves for a sole and share ; a long stick fastened into this is the beam, and a short one the handle. The team consists of two oxen, or very frequently of an ox and a buffalo. The latter is invariably yoked opposite the ploughman's right hand, which is armed with a goad; for they say that the buffalo is so lazy, and his hide so dull, that even the goad would make no impression were it not applied with the stronger hand. A common proverb, to express bankruptcy of resources is, “I have neither an ox for the left hand, nor a buffalo for the right.” The harrow is a few prickly branches ; for so mild is the climate, that the seed prospers though left almost at the surface. The value and management of manure are very imperfectly understood. As in commerce, so in agriculture, horned cattle alone are employed. One of their duties is to thresh. A pole being fixed in the ground, a circle round it is swept clean, and strewed with grain in the straw. An ox is placed close by the pole, and a rope attached to it passed round his neck; to him another is yoked, to him another, and so on to eight, ten, or even fifteen. They are then driven round and round, treading upon the grain, and forcing it out of the husks. As the ox in the centre has scarcely to move at all, compared with those on the outside, he is always the oldest and best trained, that he may preserve order. In their rounds they freely help themselves ; but this is often prevented by “muzzling the ox that treadeth out the corn." The carts of the country are very simple. The wheels support a frame consisting only of two long pieces of wood with cross-bars. From this frame projects a pole, crossed, at its point, by a bar, so as to form a T. They have no collars, no saddles, no traces, no harness whatever, except a short rope passed round the pole and round the bullock’s neck, and a halter fastened in his snout. One is placed on each side of the pole; the cross-bar, or yoke, is laid upon his neck; and, instead of drawing, they push with the top of their shoulders.
(To be continued.)
DANGEROUS SNOW-STORMS IN THE ANDES. The snow was all around us, and the features of the scene so large that one could not but reflect on the situation of the many travellers who in these parts of the Andes have been overtaken hy the storm, and have perished. The capatâz told me that these temporales are so violent that no animal can live in them; that there is no warning, but that all of a sudden the snow is seen coming over the tops of the mountains in a hurricane of wind; that hundreds of people have been lost in these storms; that several had been starved in the house before us; and that only two years ago, the winter, by suddenly setting in, as it generally does, had shut up
the Cordillera, and had driven ten poor travellers to this hut. When the violence of the first storms had subsided, the courier came to the spot, and found six of the ten lying dead in the hut, and by their sides the other four almost dead with hunger and cold. They had eaten their mules and their dog, and the bones of these animals were now before us. These houses are all erected upon one plan, and are extremely well adapted to their purpose. They are of brick and mortar, and are built solid ten or twelve feet high, with a brick staircase outside. The room which is on the top of this foundation, in order to raise it above the snow, is about twelve feet square ; the walls are extremely thick, with two or three small open loop-holes, about six inches square ; the roof is arched, and the floor is of brick. A place so small, of so massive a construction, necessarily possesses the character of a dungeon; and, as one stands at the door, the scene around adds a melancholy gloom to its appearance ; and one cannot help thinking how sad it must have been to have seen the snow day after day getting deeper and deeper, and the hope of escaping hourly diminishing, until it was evident that the path was impracticable, and that the passage was closed ! But without these reflections the interior is melancholy enough. The table, which had been fixed into the mortar, was torn away ; and to obtain a momentary warmth, the wretched people who had been confined here had, in despair, burnt the very door which was to protect them from the elements. They had then, at the risk of their lives, taken out the great wooden lintel which was over the door, and had left the wall above it hanging merely from the adhesion of the mortar. This operation had evidently been done with no instrument but their knives, and it must have been a work of many days. The state of the walls was also a melancholy testimony of the despair and horror they had witnessed. In all the places I have ever seen, which have been visited by travellers, I have always been able to read the names and histories of some of those who have gone before me ; for when a man has nothing to lament but that his horses have not arrived, or, in fact, that he has nothing to do, the wall appears to be a friend to whom many intrust their names, their birth-places, the place they propose to visit, and sometimes even the fond secrets of their hearts. But I particularly observed, that in these huts on the Andes not a name was to be seen, nor a word upon the walls. Those who had died in them were too intent upon their own sufferings. The horror of their situation was unspeakable ; and thus these walls remain the silent monuments of past misery.--Sir Francis Head's Journey across the Pampas.
MR. WESLEY'S CHARACTER, PREACHING, AND
AUTHORSHIP. (To the Editors of the Wesleyan-Methodist Magazine.) “ Therefore I said, Hearken to me; I also will show mine opinion.”—Job xxxii. 10.
GENTLEMEN,- In the Number of your periodical work for October last, you have inserted an extract from the “North British Review,” containing sketches of the character, preaching, and authorship of two of the most remarkable men of the past age, John Wesley, and George Whitefield ; and in your Number for the present month I find some strictures upon that article, assigning reasons for certain peculiarities in Mr. Wesley, which the Reviewer describes as defects. Now it appears to me, that there is a previous question to be settled. Has the Reviewer (who is spoken of, not as an adversary, but a friend) really given a correct view of Mr. Wesley ? This question, I think, should be answered in the negative; and the critic is to be blamed, whatever he may have intended, for writing upon subjects which he has not taken due pains to understand. A competent judge has said, that
“ Authors before they write should read;" and Reviewers, I presume, are especially bound, carefully to study the characters and works which they undertake to criticize ; otherwise they only bewilder the public mind, which they profess to guide aright. Without pretending to know much concerning the manner in which our critical journals are prepared, I have heard it said, that Reviewers do not, in every instance, read the books upon which they pronounce an opinion; and I confess that, judging from the article to which reference has just been made, I fear there is some truth in the allegation. If I understand the real meaning of the North British Reviewer, he has given a very erroneous representation of Mr. Wesley, both as a Preacher and a writer, and as he is declared to be a friend to that great man, he will, of course, take in good part an attempt to set him right, by calling his attention to facts which he has overlooked, or only partially examined.
Among other passages in the “North British Review,” to which I take exception, is the following :-“ Whitefield was soul, and Wesley was system. Whitefield was a summer-cloud which burst at morning or noon in agrant exhilaration over an ample tract, and took the rest of the day to gather again : Wesley was the polished conduit in the midst of the garden, through which the living water glided in pearly brightness and perennial music, the same vivid stream from day to day. After a preaching paroxysm, Whitefield lay panting on his couch, spent, breathless, and death-like : after his morning sermon at the Foundry, Wesley would mount his pony, and trot and chat and gather simples, till he reached some country hamlet, where he would bait his charger, and talk through a little sermon with the villagers, and re-mount his pony and trot away again. In his aërial poise, Whitefield's eagle eye drank lustre from the source of light, and loved to look down on men in assembled myriads : Wesley's falcon glance did not sweep so far, but it searched more keenly and marked more minutely where it pierced. A master of assemblies, Whitefield was no match for the isolated man : seldom coping with the multitude, but strong in astute sagacity and personal ascendancy, Wesley could conquer any number one by one. All force and impetus, Whitefield was the powder-blast in
the quarry, and by one explosive sermon would shake a district and detach materials for other men’s long work : deft, neat, and painstaking, Wesley loved to split and trim each fragment into uniform plinths and polished stones. Or, taken otherwise, Whitefield was the bargeman or the waggoner who brought the timber of the house, and Wesley was the architect who set it up. Whitefield had no patience for ecclesiastical polity, no aptitude for pastoral details: with a beaver-like propensity for building, Wesley was always constructing societies, and, with a King-like craft of ruling, was most at home when presiding over a class or a Conference.”
I have always understood that metaphors are intended to illustrate the subjects to which they are applied, and not merely to adorn it, and give liveliness to composition. But the metaphors which are here crowded together serve rather to perplex my mind, than to place in a clear and just light the peculiar characteristics of these two distinguished Ministers of Christ. The preaching of the Gospel, as it was instituted by our blessed Lord, and practised by him and his Apostles, was a very plain matter, being a simple, earnest, and faithful testimony to the Gospel, as the undoubted word of God. That George Whitefield and John Wesley were able, zealous, and successful Preachers, though differing from each other in their attainments, gifts, and manner, everybody knows. Whitefield was impassioned, vehement, fluent in speech, and suited his action to the subjects upon which he discoursed; possessing, at the same time, a musical voice of uncommon power. Mr. Wesley was argumentative, logical in the arrangement of his matter, comparatively calm; yet he always delivered his message with great seriousness, and often with deep feeling. The Reviewer describes Mr. Whitefield as a summer-cloud, an eagle, a blaster of rocks, a bargeman, and a waggoner. Mr. Wesley is a polished conduit in a garden, a falcon, a stonemason, a house-carpenter, and a beaver. As an eagle, Mr. Whitefield took a loftier flight than Mr. Wesley was able to do, being only a falcon. “In his aërial poise,” Mr. Whitefield with his "eye drank lustre; ” and having finished his draught, he “loved to look down on men in assembled myriads ; ” I presume, just as Mr. Green, from “his aërial poise” in his balloon looks down upon the gazing crowds of London on a holiday. The eye of Mr. Wesley, however, being only the eye of a falcon, “ did not sweep so far;” but whether upwards or downwards we are not informed. Yet, if Mr. Wesley was short-sighted, so that he could not see very distant objects, his
eye searched more keenly and marked more minutely where it pierced,” than did the eye of Whitefield, notwithstanding the draughts of “lustre” which it had taken in. As a summer-cloud, Mr. Whitefield “burst” either “at morning or noon,'
1," as the case might be, over an ample tract” of country; but Mr. Wesley (the more is the pity !) was only “a conduit in a garden,” conveying fertility, of course, upon a very limited scale. He enriched a garden ; Mr. Whitefield the country at large. Yet the water which Mr. Wesley conveyed was bright, it flowed in a “perennial” stream, it produced “music” in its course, and it ran in “a polished conduit.”
Thus far Mr. Whitefield appears to immense advantage by the side of his humble contemporary. But the Reviewer is “
to John Wesley, but gives him his share of commendation. It is only in “aërial" matters that Whitefield takes the precedence. Upon the solid ground he appears to great disadvantage by the side of Mr. Wesley. The Reviewer describes him as blasting rocks in a stone-quarry ; which requires no extraordinary genius or skill; for almost any man may lay a train of gunpowder,