in those of the Scottish Historical Society, while he has made a wide study of seventeenth century literature in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and the British Museum as well. The results of this research are also incorporated in this work, although he was not always rewarded by finding references to Leighton where he expected to have found them. Leighton was the most respected of the Restoration Scottish Bishops, and even Covenanting polemics are somewhat abated in dealing with his scheme, however much they were naturally opposed to it. He was a man apart.

To the original sources of direct information already indicated there are added others in this work for the first time :-(a) A letter addressed by Leighton to the Provost and Town Council of Edinburgh, shortly before his reordination as Bishop in Westminster Abbey (p. 291). (6) All the references to him and of him in the Edinburgh Town Council Records during the period of his Principalship in Edinburgh College (pp. 293–302). For both I am much indebted to the kindness and courtesy of Thomas Hunter, Esq., W.S., Town Clerk of Edinburgh, to whom I express my warm thanks. (c) Through the kindness and interest of Sir James Marwick, LL.D., Town Clerk of Glasgow, I am able to publish in this work extracts from the Glasgow Council Records, showing the conciliatory manner in which Leighton, when Archbishop of Glasgow, discharged his duty of appointing the magistrates (pp. 494-496). (d) Leighton's mortifications to the Hospital of St. Nicholas, with the Council's answer thereanent. (e) His Institution of Bursaries, with his remarkable will (pp. 592-594). The references to Archbishop Leighton that still exist in the few surviving pages of the Records of Glasgow Presbytery during Leighton's tenure of office (pp. 496–497). For these five original sources of information I desire to express my grateful thanks to Sir James Marwick, LL.D., while they contain letters of the Archbishop that have hitherto remained hidden.

I desire also to express my hearty indebtedness to the Presbytery of Dunblane, as well to their Clerk (the Rev. Mr. Wilson, of the Trossachs), for kind permission granted me to examine the Records. The results are published in the Appendix, and show that Bishop Leighton only sat in the Presbytery as a Member of the Court, and took part in its deliberations practically as a presbyter, his attendance being stated in the sederunt and his name given almost always as distinct from that of the moderator, who was a presbyter (pp. 575-581). Research in these Records was also rewarded by the account of an ordination service at Port of Menteith in 1667, which will be found at pp. 580–1. This shows that the Bishop had no monopoly of the ordination service, but took his part along with the presbyters, who ordained by the laying on of hands, the same questions being put as were used in Presbyterian times. This I consider an important contribution to the controversy regarding episcopal ordination, and it shows Leighton as making a concession that was in accordance with his own gentle, self-effacing nature.

For the copying of these extracts from the originals, I am indebted to Mr. Robert Renwick, Deputy Town Clerk, Glasgow, and to Mr. John Jarvis, City Chambers, Edinburgh. That assurance will guarantee their accuracy, since they are copied by the pens of two experts, who are quite at home in the contracted writing of the seventeenth century.

Through the kindness of the Rev. Principal Fairbairn, D.D., LL.D., Mansfield College, Oxford, who gave me a letter of introduction to the Rev. Principal Vaughan Price, D.D., New College, Hampstead, I was able to set a matter at rest. Doddridge distinctly stated that he had reserved letters of Leighton's for a future work, and it was thought by me that they might survive among Doddridge's papers, which are preserved in the Library of New College, Hampstead. Principal Vaughan Price has examined the

carefully indexed volumes, and is quite clear on the point that no letters survive among the preserved correspondence. For this research I am very grateful to him.

Leighton's birthplace is still a matter of doubt. Discovering that his father was a frequent attender at the services of St. Ann's, Blackfriars, London (if he was not an actual member of the church), and that he had been in England probably about the time of his distinguished son's birth, I thought the baptismal registers of St. Ann's might afford some testimony. They have been now searched, but there is no reference to any one bearing the name of Leighton. For this kindness, I desire to express my indebtedness to the Rev. P. Clementi-Scott, rector of the church.

Besides the numerous references throughout the work, I cannot close the preface without referring to the constant help I have received from my wife, especially in research at the Bodleian and British Museum, as well as to the Rev. J. Ritchie, B.D., Minister of Dunblane, for permitting me to examine the Leightonian Library in his parish, and to take some notes of its contents; to the Rev. Mr. Jamieson, of Portobello, Clerk to the Presbytery of Edinburgh ; to the Rev. Mr. Dodds, of Garvald, Clerk to the Presbytery of Haddington; and to the Rev. Mr. Pryde, Clerk to the Presbytery of Glasgow.

General study has enabled me accurately in some cases, approximately so in others, to affix dates to letters that bear no date, and the whole is an endeavour to sum up, to give unity as well as additional elements to, all that can be at present known regarding Leighton's history. The discovered letters here published and those from the Lauderdale Papers, preserve the archaic language of Leighton which has disappeared from the editions of his works through the supposed “improvements” and “ modernizing” of editors.

The portrait affixed to this volume is upon the whole the

best of the existing ones, although they all strike one as inferior art. The Archbishop had always a repugnance to permit any portrait to be made of him. It has been suggested that the portrait in the University of Edinburgh collection, marked “Principal Leighton," and the other marked “ Principal Cant,” ought to be vice versa. There is much to strengthen this conjecture, but unfortunately there is no positive evidence for it, although one fondly thinks that the conjecture is true.

The study of Alexander Leighton's life, as well as that of his son, resolves the work into a study of the great endeavours by James VI, Charles I and Charles II to force Episcopacy upon Scotland, and of the revolt of the Presbyterians.

I have striven to write in a spirit historically fair and reverent, and to connect the Archbishop's statesmanship with the message of his published writings, and the problem of

his age.

D. B.


November 1, 1903.

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